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IN 1663. 


VOL. I. 

The memory of the jost is blessed.^— Solomon. 

The precioos spark of liberty had been kiiidl^,^B|l^^a8 presfrved,^by^^ 
(he Puritans alonb; and it was to this Sect tbat t!k| 3^1i(h.We tllcwh^^!: ];* 
freedom of their constltatioii,-«-HuiiB. I-IC*. '. V I •••;'. C*. 

. freedom of their constitation 

••••*• • *• • 

.^ • • • • ^ • m 

lonnon : 




T^^::: r;E\v vork 


Asroa, LTir.ox and 



k < 

- • •• • ;•. • • 

• • • • « • 

• •• *• •«• 

• • • • m ■* tt *• • • • • 








The formation of your principles, the in- 
struction of your minds, and the salvation of 
your souls, are, unquestionably, objects of 
high importance to yourselves, to your con- 
nexions, and to the protestant interest at 
large. When your fathers are translated from 
the church militant to the church triumph- 
ant, you will inherit their property, and will 
occupy their stations. On you it will devolve 
to manage the affairs of religion, to be zealous 
for its interests, and active for its prosperity. 

• « 


But, if you be ignorant of its principles and 
destitute of its blessings, this zeal and acti- 
vity cannot be expected. By enlightening 
your understandings with truth, and by 
impressing your hearts with the power of 
religion, we hope to secure your attachment 
to the cause of God, and to engage your 
talents and your future influence in its 

Of -all books which can be put into your 
hands^ those which relate the labours and 
sufferings of good men are the most inte- 
resting and instructive. In them you see 
orthodox principles, christian tempers, and 
holy duties, in lovely union and in vigorous 
operation. In them you ;5ee reUgion shining 
forth in real life, subduing the corruptions of 
human nature, and inspiring a zeal for every 
good work. In them you see the reproaches 
and persecutions which the servants of God 
have endured ; those gracious principles which 
have supported their minds ; and the course 
they have pursued in their pr(>gress to the 


kingdom of heaven. Such books are well 
calculated to engage your attention^ to affect 
your feelings, to deepen your best impres- 
sions, and to invigorate your noblest resolu- 
tions. They are well calculated to fortify 
you against the ajlurements of a vain world ; 
to assimilate your characters to those of the 
excellent of the earth; t() conform your Uves 
to the standard of holiness ; and to educate 
your souls for the mansions of glory. 

The Puritans were a race of men of whom 
the world was not worthy. They devoted 
their days and nights to hard study; they 
cherished devotional feelings; and they en« 
joyed intimate communion with God. The 
stores of their minds were expended^ and the 
energy of their souls was exerted, to separate 
the truths of the gospel frcmi the heresies of 
the times in which they lived ; to resist the 
^croachments of arbitrary power ; to purify 
the church from secularity and corruption; 
and to promote the power of religion among 
the people. They persevered in this course 


amidst a host of difficulties, and in defiance 
of the most powerful opposition. The rulers 
of those times persecuted them with wanton 
cruelty, in total contempt of every sacred 
law, of every just principle, and of every 
humane feeling. 

From these volumes you will learn, that 
the glorious cause of Nonconformity has' 
been adorned by the holy hves of a mul- 
titude of good men ; has been consecrated 
by the blood of martyrs ; and has been sanc- 
tioned by the approbation and protection of 

For their exalted attainments in piety, 
their assiduous researches in literature and 
divinity, and their unwearied exertions in the 
cause of God and their country, the Puritan 
divines are entitled -to the admiration and 
reverence of every succeeding age. Our 
political freedom, our religious liberty, and 
our christian privileges, are to be ascribed to 
them more than to any other body of men that 
England ever produced. When you learn 



by what struggles these blessings have, been 
acquired, and at what price they have been 
obtained, you will know how to estimate 
their value; and you will regard the men 
to whom we are indebted for them as dis^ 
tinguished benefactors to the English nation 
and the church of God. 

For the sacred cause of reUgion, the Pu- 
ritan divities laboured and prayed, wrote and 
preached, suffered and died ; and they have 
transmitted it to us to support it,, or to let it 
sink. With what feelings will you receive 
this precious inheritance? Will you li 
esteeih what they so highly valued? Will 
you stand aloof from the cause which they 
watched with jealous vigilance, and defended . 
with invincible courage? If the blood of 
these men run in your veins, if the principles 
of these men exist in your souls, most as- 
suredly you will not. 

That you may learn the wisdom, and 
imbibe the spirit of the Puritans; — that you 
may take them as patterns, imitate them as 


examples^ and follow them as guides^ so far 
as they followed Christ; — ^that you may 
adhere to the cause of reUgion with the same 
firmness, adorn it with the same holiness, and 
propagate it with the same zeal, is the fer« 
Vent prayer of 

Yours respectfully 
and affectionately* 

Odober 6, 181S. 


At no period has biographical history been so 
much esteemed and promoted as in these days of 
christian freedom. The memoirs of wise and good 
men, especially such as have suffered for the tes* 
timony of a good conscience^ afford interesting 
entertainment and valuable instruction. To rescue 
from oblivion impartial accounts of their holy 
actions, their painful sufferings, and their triumph- 
ant deaths, ynll confer a deserved honour upon 
their memory : and there is, perhaps, no class of 
men whose history better deserves to be transmitted 
to posterity than that of the persons stigmatized by 
the name oi Puritans. 

The cruelties exercised upon them were indeed 
very great. They suffered for the testimony 
OF A good conscience, and an avowed attacho- 
MENT to the cause OF Christ. The proofs which 
they gave of their zeal, their fortitude, and their 
int^rity, were certainly as great as could be given. 
They denied themselves tibiose honours^ prefer* 


ments, and worldly advantages by which they 
were allured to conformity. They suffered re^ 
proach, deprivation, and imprisonment; yea, the 
loss of all things, rather than comply with those 
inventions and impositions of men, which to them 
appeared extremely derogatory to the gospel, 
which would have robbed them of liberty of con- 
science, and which tended to lead back to the 
darkness and superstitions of popery. Many of 
them, being persons of great ability, loyalty, and 
intierest, had the fairest prospect of high pro- 
motion ; yet they sacrificed all for their noncon- 
formity. Some modestly refused preferment when 
offered them: while others, already preferred. 
Were prevented from obtaining higher promotion, 
because they could not, with a good conscience, 
' comply with the ecclesiastical impositions. Nor 
was it the least afflictive circumstance to the 
Puritan divines, that they were driven from theip 
flocks, whom they loved as their own souls; 
and, instead of being allowed to labour for their 
spiritual and eternal advantage, were obliged to 
spend the best of their days in silence, imprison- 
ment, or a state of exile in a foreign land. 
' The contents of these volumes tend to expose 
the evil of bigotry and persecution. When pro- 
fessed Protestants oppress and persecute their 
brethren of the same faith, and of the same 
communion, it is indeed marvellous. The faithful 
page of history details the fact with the most 
glaring evidence, or we could scarcely have 


believed it. A spirit of intolerance and oppression 
ever deserves to be held up to universal abhor- 
rence. In allusion to this tragic scene, Sir William 
Blackstone very justly observes, "• That our an- 
cestors were mistaken in their plans of compul- 
sion and intolerance. The sin of schism, as such, 
is by no means the object of coercion and 
punishment. All persecution for diversity of 
opinions, however ridiculous or absurd they 
may be, is contrary to every principle of sound 
policy and civil freedom. The names and sub- 
ordination of the clergy, the posture of devo- 
tion, the materials and colour of the minister's 
garment, the joining in. a known or unknown 
form of prayer, and other matters of the same 
kind, must be left to the opinion of every man's 
private judgment. For, undoubtedly, all per- 
secution and oppression of weak consciences, 
on the score of religious persuasions, are higljly 
unjustifiable upon every principle of natural 
reason, civil liberty, or sound religion."* 
Perhaps no class of men ever suffered more re- 
proach than the Puritans. Archbishop Parker stig- 
matizes them as " schismatics, belly-gods, deceivers, 
flatterers, fools, having been unlearnedly brought 
up. in profane occupations, being puffed up with 
arrogancy."t His successor Whitgift says, " that 
when they walked in the streets, they hung down 
their heads, and looked austerely; and in com- 

♦ Blackstoiie's Comment, vol. iv. p. 61 — 63. Edit. 1771. 

t Strype's Aanals, vol. i. p. 481.— Pcirce's Vindication, part i. p. 61. 


pany they sighed much, and seldom or never 
laughed. They sought the commendation of the 
people ; and thought it an heinous offence to wear 
a cap and surplice, slandering and backbiting 
their brethren. As for their religion, they se- 
parated themselves from the cougr^ation^ and 
Would not communicate with those who went to 
church, either in prayer, hearing the word, or 
sacraments ; despising all, who were not of their 
sect, as polluted and unworthy of their com- 
pany."* Dugdale denominates them " a viperous 
brood, miserably infesting these kingdoms. They 
pretended," says he, " to promote religion and 
a purer reformation ; but rapine, spoil, and the 
destruction of civil government, were the woeful 
effects of those pretences. They were of their 
father the devily and his works they would do.'^'f 
A modem slanderer affirms, " that they main- 
tained the horrid principle, that the end sanctifies 
the means ; and that it was lawful to kill those 
who opposed their endeavours to introduce their 
model and discipline.":); Surely so much calumny 
and falsehood are seldom found in so small a 

Bishop Burnet, a man less influenced by a 
spirit of bigotry and intolerance, gives a very dif- 
ferent account of them. " The Puritans," says 
he, " gained credit as the bishops lost it. They 
put on the appearance of great sanctity and 

• Strype's Annals, vol. ii. p. 6. 

t Dogdale's Troubles of Eng. Prefl 

t Ckurton's Life of Noweli, p. 215. 


gravifyy and took more pains in thmr parishes 
than those who adhered to the bishops, oft^i 
preaching against the vices of the court. Their 
labours and their sufferings raised their reputa- 
tion and rendered them very popular/'* Hume, 
who treats their principles with ridicule and 
contempt, has bestowed upon them the highest 
eulogium. " So absolute," says he, " was the 
** authority of the crown, that the precious spark 
*^ of liberty had been kindled, and was preserved, 
'^ by the Puritans alone ; and it was to this sect 
^' that the English owe the whole freedom of their 

" constitution.''t 

It is granted that they had not all equally clear 
views of our civil and religious r^hts. Many of 
their opinions were confused and erroneous; yet 
their leading principles were the same. Though 
they had, in general, no objection to a national 
establishment, many of them maintained, " That 
all true church power must be founded iii ^ a 
divine commission: that where a right to com- 
mand is not clear, evidence that obedience is a 
duty is wanting: that men ought not to make 
more necessary to an admittance into the church 
than God has made necessary to an admittance 
into heaven: that so long as unscriptural impo- 
sitions are contumed, a further reformation of the 
church vnll ^ be necessary : and that every one 
who must answer for himself hereafter^ must 

♦ Burnet's Hist, of his Time, vol. i. p. 17, J8. 
t Hume's Hist of Eng, vol. ▼. p. 134. 

r ~ ^ 

xn p|tErACE4 

Judge for himself now.'"* TheSfe wete the grand 
pAiliciples of their nonconformity. 

The author of these volumes has spared no 
labouTrDor expense in the collection of materials, 
auid )nu^ used the utmost care to retain whatever 
appeared' interesting, curious, and useful. Not 
writing to please any particular sect or party, he 
bas endeavoured to observe the strictest impar- 
tiality. In the lives of these worthies, he has not 
suppressed their imperfections, nor even the accu- 
sations of their adversaries; but has constantly 
stated their faults, as well as their excellencies,' 
without reserva Neither has he at any time con- 
nived at bigotry and persecution, whether found 
among prelates, presbyterians, or any others. 
Whoever were the persecutors or aggressors, their 
case is represented, as near as possible, as it is 
found in the faithful pages of history. His sole 
object has been to give a lucid and impartial 
statement o{ facts. Indeed, the documents are 
frequently transcribed in the very wqrds of the 
authors ; and, wishing to retain the genuine sense 
and originality of the whole as entire as possible, 
he has constantly avoided dressing them in any 
garb of his own. 

Through the whole, he has invariably given his 
authorities. These might easily have been mul- 
tiplied; but, when two or more authors have 
given accounts of the same facts, he has invariably 
chosen that which appeared the most authentic : 

♦ Calamy's Gontio. voL i Pref. 

P&BPACB; xvn 



or, when they: have at any tube.coQtnidicted each 
other, he has always given bo&, dk followed that 
which appeared most worthy of credit/ I» the 
Appendix, a correct list is given of .the principal 
booksioonsulted ; and, for the satisfaction of thb 
more critical reader, the particular edition of each 
is spedfied. In numerous instances, refereoce 
will be foimd to sit^le lives, funeral sermons^ 
and many other mteresting articles, of which the 
partipid^,;editioii la mostly given. ' In additibn to 
the%W^cms^lJ9rm^ works^ he has also beed 
favou'rdd] with 'ihe use. of many large manuseript 
collections, a list., of which will be found at the 
close of the Appendix. From ' these rare docu- 
ments he has been .enabled to present to the 
public a great yariety of most interesting- and 
curious information n^ver before printedi ;: 

After all, many litesr; will be, found vieaT d?^* 
fective, and will leave^the inquisitive reader mnn^ 
formed in numerous. inqportokit particulars. ' 'Such 


defect was unavoidable at this distance of time : 
when, after the >itmost research, Jio further in- 
formation could possibly, be procured. The 
author has spent considerable labour to obtain 4 
correct list of the works>^of .those whose lives h^ 
has given, and to ascertain the true ortkc^^phy 
of the names of persons and places. Though, in 
each of these particulars, he has succeeded far 
beyond his expectations, yet, in some instances, 
he is aware of the deficiency of his jjo^ormation. 
He can only say, that he has availed himself of 

VOL. I. . h ' 

tnn I^REFACE. 

every adYantage within his reach, to render the 
whole as complete and interesting as possible. 

The lives of these worthies are arranged in a 
chronological order, according to the time of their 
deaths.* By such arrangement^ the work contains 
a regular series of the History of Nonconformists 
during a period of more than a hundred years. 
It does not in the least interfere with any other 
publication; and forms a comprehensive append- 
age to Neal's " History of the Puritans," and a 
series of bic^raphical history closely connected 
with Palmer's " Nonconformists Memorial," con- 
taining a complete memorial of those noncon- 
formist divines who died previous to the passing 
of the Act. of Uniformity. To this, however, 
there are some exceptions. There were certain 
persons of great eminence, who lived ttfter the 
year 1662; yet, because they were not in the 
church at that period, they come not within the 
list of ejected ministers, but are justly deno^- 
nated Puritans. Memoirs of these divines will 
therefore be found in their proper places. 

It was requisite, in a work of this nature, to 
give some account of the origin and progress of 
Nonconformity, together with a sketch of the nu- 
merous barbarities exercised ' upon the Puritans. 
This will be found in the Introduction, which 
may not prove unacceptable to the inquisitive and 

* It should here be remembered, that, in all cases, when the 
particular period of their deaths could not be ascertained, the AmC 
ciroi^tanoe noticed in their lives is taken for that period. 


pious reader. If its length require any apology, 
the author would only observe, that he hopes no 
part of it will be found superfluous or iminterest- . 
iog ; diat he has endeavoured to give a compressed 
view of the cruel oppressions of the times ; and 
that it would have been difficult to bring the 
requisite informs^tion into a narrower compass. 

The work contains an authentic investigation 
of the progress and imperfect state of the English 
reformation, and exhibits the genuine principles 
of protestant and religious liberty, as they were 
violently opposed by the ruling ecclesiastics. The 
fundamental principles of the reformation, as the 
reader will easily perceive, were none other than 
the grand principles of the first Protestant Non- 
confonnists. Those reasons which induced the 
worthy Protestants to seek for the reformation 
of the church of Rome, constrained the zealous 
Puritans to labour for the reformation of the 
church of England. The Puritans, who wished 
to worship God with greater purity than was 
allowed and established in the national church,* 
were the most zealous advocates of the reform- 
ation ; and they used their utmost endeavours to 
carry on the glorious work towards perfection. 
They could not, with a ^ood conscience, submit 
to the superstitious inventions and impositions of 
men in the worship of God ; on which! account, 
they employed their zeal, their labours, and then* 
influence to promote a more pure reformation. 

* FttUer't Chuith Hist b. ix. p. 76. 


And because they sought, though in the most 
peaceable manner, to have the chifr ch of England 
pui^ed of all its antichristian impurities, they were 
stigmatized with the odious name of Pttritans, and 
many of them, on account of tiieir nonconformity, 
were suspended, imprisoned, and persecuted even 
unto death. These voliraies, therefore, present to 
the reader a particular detail of the arduous and 
painful struggle for religious freedom, during the 
arbitrary reigns of Queen Elizabeth, King James, 
and King Charles I., to the restoration of King 
C!harles II. 

The reader will here find a circumstantial 
account of the proceedings of the High Cork- 
mission and the Star Cluxmher^ the two terrible 
engines of cruelty and persecution. The former of 
these tribunals assumed the power of administet*- 
mg an oath ex officio, by which persons were con- 
strained to answer all questions proposed to thetn, 
though ever so prejudicial to themselves or others: 
if they refused the unnatural oath, they were cast 
into prison for contempt; and if they took it, Ihey 
were convicted ujpon their Own confession. Tlie 
tjrrannical oppressions and shocking barbarities 
of these courts are without a parallel iti any Piro- 
testant country, and neaiiy equal to the Romfsfa 
inquisition. The seVare efxaminations, the nu- 
merous suspensions, the long and miserable ml- 
prisonments, vrith other brutal usag^ of jHOUsaA^ 
faithful ministers,- for not wearin]^ z: white siirpkhe\ 
not baptizing .wsth a arm, xtoH hiieeUng at the 

PREFACfi. XXi ^ 

sacramaDt, not subscribing to articles without 
foundation in law, or some other equally trivial 
circumstance, were among the inhuman and ini- 
quitous proceedings of those courts. 

These intolerant and cruel transactions, instead 
of reconciling the Puritans to the church, drove 

them farther from it. Such arguments were found 


too weak to convince men's understandings and 
c(»isciences ; nor could they compel them to 
admire and esteem the church fighting with such 
weapons. These tragic proceedings created in 
the nation a great deal of ill blood, which, alas ! 
continues in part to this day. While the govern- 
iug prelates lost their esteem among the people, 
the number and reputation of the Puritans greatly 
increased, till, at length, they got the power 
into their own hands, and shook off the painful 

That the Puritans in general were men of great 
learning, untarnished piety, and the best friends 
to the constitution and liberties of their country, 
no one will deny, who is acquainted with their 
true character ' and the. history of the times in 
which they lived. Many of them, it is acknow- 
ledged, were too rigid in their behaviour : they had 
but Utde acquaintance with the rights of consci- 
ence; and, in some instances, they treated their 
siqieriors with improper language : but, surely, 
the deprivation, the imprisonment, or the putting 
ot^Hum to death for these trifles, will never be 
itft^q^ted to be vindicated in modem times. 


The author is aware, however, of the delicacy of 
many things here presented to the public, and of 
the difficulty of writing freely without giving 
offence. But, as honest truth needs no apology, so 
the pernicious influence of bigotry, superstition, 
and persecution, he thinks, can never be too fairly 
and openly exposed. He also believes that all 
professing Christians, except those who are blind 
devotees to superstition, or persecutors of the 
church of God, will rejoice to unite with him in 
holding up these evils as a warning to posterity. 

The work is not to be considered as a medium, 
or a test of religious controversy, but an historical 
narrative of facts. It is not designed to fan the 
flame of contention among brethren, but to pro- 
mote, upon genuine protestant principles, that 
christian moderation, that mutual forbearance, 
and that generous affection, among all denomina- 
tions, which is the great ornament and excellency 
of all who call themselves Protestants. A correct 
view of the failings and the e^tcellencies of others, 
should prompt us to avoid that which is evil, and 
to imitate that which is good. 

When we behold the great piety and constancy 
with which our forefathers endured the most bar- 
barous persecution, will not the sight produce jn 
our minds the most desirable christian feelings? 
Though we shall feel the spirit of indignity against 
the inhumanity and cruelty of their persecutors, 
will not the sight of their sufferings, their holiness, 
and their magnanimity, awaken in our breasts the 


spirit of sympathy and admiration ? Shall we not 
be prompted to contrast our own circumstances 
with theirs, and be excited to the wannest thank* 
fohiess that we live not in the puritanic age, but 
in days of greater christian freedom? Shall we not 
be constrained to exclaim, ^' The lines are fallen 
to us in pleasant places ; yea. Lord, thou hast 
given us a goodly heritage ?" . 

The author has not attempted to justify any 
irregularities in the opinions, the spirit, or the 
conduct of the Puritans. Although he acknow- 
ledges that he has, in numerous instances, en- 
deavoured to prove their innocence, against the 
evil reproaches and groundless accusations of 
their adversaries, so far as substantial evidence 
could be collected from historical facts; yet he 
has never attempted to vindicate xtheir infirmities, 
or to connive at their sins. They were men of 
like passions with ourselves; and, from the cruel 
treatment they met vrith, we cannot wonder that 
they sometimes betrayed an improper temper. 
Surefy oppression maketh a vxise man mad. Oh, 
that we may learn to imitate their most amiable 

^rnnents ! 
Though he does not expect to escape the cen- 
^^ of angry partisans, he will thankfully receive 
^y correctioiis or improvements from those who 
^ deposed to communicate them, promising to 
••ke the best use of them in his power. If his 
*^voiirs should, through tHe blessing of God, 
eauccessful in exciting Protestants, of various 


deiK>ininationSy to a zealous iinitation of the ex« 
cellent qualities of their worthy ancestors, he will 
in no wise lose his reward. 

The author wishes here to present ibl tribute 
of gratitude to lus numerous friends, who have 
&youred him with the use of books and other 
materials for the work ;• and, under a deep sen^e 
of his multiplied obligations, he pow requests them 
to accept his most grateful acknowledgments.* 
He desires particularly to express his special 
ob%ations to the Trustees of Dr. Williams's 
Library, Red-Cross-Street, I^ndoii, for the use 
of several volumes of most curious and valuable 

* Valuable commmiications of books or manascripts have been 


received from the followiDg ministers: — ^The late Dr. Edward 
Williams, Rotlierham^ — ^Dr. Joshua Toulmin, BirmiDgham — ^Dr. 
Abraham Rees, London t— Dr. John Pye Smith, Homerton — Mr, 
Timothy Thomas, Islington — ^Mr. Joseph Ivimey, London — ^Mr« 

' John Sutcliff, Olney — ^Mr. William Hs^rris, Cambridge — ^Mr. Jamea 
Gawthom, Derby — Mr. Joshua Shaw, Jlkeston — Mr. Themaa 

•Roome, Sutfon in AshMd— Mr. M^illiam Salt, lichfield— Mr. 
John Hammond, Handsworthr— Mr. Samuel Bradley, Manchester-^ 
Mr. John Cockin, Holmfirth— Mr. John Tallis, Cheadle. Also from^ 
the following gentlemen :— Francis Fox,M. D, Derby— John Audley, 
Esq. Cambridge— Mr. Walter Wilson, liondon— Mr. J. Simco, <Utto 
— Mn Joiieph Meen, Biggleswade— Mr. T. M. Dash, Kettering^— 
Mr. James Ashton, Leek— Mr* Isaac James^, Bristol— Mr. WUliam 
Daniel, Uchfield, 


ItiTHODUCTioir, cootaiDiDg a Sketch of the History of Nonconformity, 
. from the Reformation to the passing of the Act of Unifonnitj, in 


I. From the Commencdnent of the Reformation, tothe Death of 

Qoeen Mary, *•• .\..., 1 

II. From the Death of Qoeen Mary, to the Death of Queen 

Elizabeth, ,.. 17 

III. From. the Death of Qneen Elizabeth, to the Dtetk of Kimg 

Jamesl., *•••••• '. 00^ 

IV. From the Death of King JameS' I., to the Qeatll of King 

Charles I.,.. TO 

V. From the Death of King Charles I. j to the passing of the Act 

of Uniformity, , •« • 94 

John Bale 

John Pullain 

John Hafdyman •'••. 

Miles-Coverdale *.^ 

'William Turner . . «.. 

Robert Hawkins 

Andrew Kingsmill ••.•.... 
Oiristopher Gokaan tf « • . . . 

William Alton 

Thomas Beeon • • 

Gilbert Alcock «•••« 

David WhHehead 


William Bonham • • • • 

Robert Johnson • .• •• .^ 

Richard Tavemer • « . . 

R. Harvey •* 

Edward Deering . • « . . 
Thomas Aldrich ..i.. 

tf . 

• • « V . •-. • • 


Francis Merbory 22S 

William Whittingham i.w. M9 

Mr. Lawrance 9S7 

John Handion 

Robert Wright, 

Bernard CMpia 

John bopping *'•••;••••••# 

Thomas Underdowft ^ « • . • 964 

Mr. SanderMft -978 

JohnRUI 9T4 

NIbholas Brown ..i. 975 

RIchardCrick .<^ 978 

AntfaonyGill^ M^ 

JobnEdwin 985 

Edward Brayne r... 

Bamaby Benlson • • • • *• 

William Negns.k. 

John Strond •••• ^* 

John B^dwnlhg 9^ 

Stephen Turner 808 





John Ward 305 \ 

Edraand Rockrey 906 

H.Gray 308 

Robert Moore 909 

Edward Gellibrand 911 

Edward Glover 318 

John Walward 314 

John Gardiner ...'. 916 

John Field 318 

JohnHnclLle S24 

John Fox 326 

John Wilson 339 

;rohn Elliston 355 

Robert Crowley 357 i 

Nicholas Crane 303 

Lawrence Humphrey 363 

Thomas Sampson 375 

William Fulke 385 \ 

John Garbrand ' 392 

Dudley Fenner ib. 

Cnthbert Bainbrigg 396 

Edmaad Littleton 405 

Edward Lord 407 

Andrew King ib. 

Malancthon Jewell 408 

Edwai'd Snape 409 

Nicholas Standen 317 \ John Holmes 414 

Richard Greenham 415 

Giles Wigginton 418 

Thomas Barber 429 

Robert Gawdrey 430 

Lever Wood 444 

Humphrey Fenn ib. 

Daniel Wright 447 

William Proudlove 44S 

John More 449 


Anecdote of Henry VIILand his jester 2 

John Hooper nominated Bishop of Gloucester • 7 

Joan Bocher's distribution of the New Testament 10 

The number of sufferers in the days of Queen Mary 12 

Cranmer and Ridley wished the habits to be abolished ib. 

Ridley a ikmons disputant 13 

The deli?eraBceof the protestant congregation • 14 

John Rough a celebrated preacher ib. 

. *s remarkable dream • • • 15 

A curious petition io Queen Elizabeth 18 

The Act of Uniformity in the reign of Queen Elizabeth ib. 

Robert Cole preferred for his conformity 24 

Whitgift at first a friend to the nonconformists 26 

Title of a letter from Scotland « 2T 

Bishop Maddox's fiUse iasiuuation ^ 33 

The character of Archbishop Parkor 31 

■ ■ Archbishop Grindal 45 

The ministers suspended in Suffolk 46 

-T in Essex 49 

• « 



lord Gnywidied to hftTe the bbbopi expelled «• i4 

Aaecdote of Martin Mar-Prelate 65 

Bancroft's famou •emoD at FaolVcroM ib. 

Sir Walter fialeigb*ieftiiMite of tbeBrowniflts 58 

Tbe nobility patronf of the pnritanf ••• ib. 

Tbe namber of niaiften foipended or deprived • •.. 60 

Bancroft'! flattery of King Jamef • • 61 

Wbitgift'f magniflccnt train 68 

The namlier of niniften •Qspeoded .••••••••• 6% 

Tbe cruel oppresiioni of the poritaat ••• -, «•«. 6ft 

The chaiacter of Archbbbop Bancroft ....••* ib. 

King JaaMt kicJLed liegatt with hii royal foot ib. 

Thomas Legatt died In Newgate 5«.... ib. 

John Selden'i great learning , 68 

Archbiihop Abbot opposed the BooIl of Sportf 60 

The character of King James 70 

The censure and preCerment of Dr. Blanwaring 1%^ 

Corioos pictures in 8C £dfflood*s church «•• 70 

The character of Archbishops Abbot and Laud ib. 

A minister's son ezcommoolcated 80 

The number of ministers driven to New England 81 

Great foms paid for the release of nonconformists 99 

Archbishop JLaud called a little urchin • 88 

The oppressions of the convocation in 1640 •• . • • 85 

The sub-committee to assist the committee •• 86 

The character of the high commission ••••••.••••• 87 

Debates about the remonstrance 88 

The Book of Sports abolished 80 

List of the assembly of divines 00 

List of lords and commons to assist the assembly « 91 

Wdwood^i account of Archbishop Laud . . • • • •••.•• 92 

A corious anecdote of Land «••••.«• itt 

JUiadon ministers declared against the king's death 94 

Vennex't insurrection and executiM • •••«•• 99 

Kennet't opinion of the Act of Uniformity • • 100 

The character of Dr. Richard Cox 108 

Thedeath of the famous William TIndal 190 

The falLof Lord Cromwell 191 

The funeral ofQoeen Katharine Parr 189 

The barbarities of Queen Mary's reign 185 

Bishop Ridley in prison 189 

TheteptratUU released from prison 145 



Sir lUbcrt CorbctA friend to the parium . 
A cirlom antcdole ^r ih.- .iir|jlif c ..■■.... 

..^ of knrc-line W 

Aeeaunt ot Bithop Iltnlhain IM 

Brcnn'ilinali ap;*lDH po|ivT]' inppreinnl fcjr LaaJ .• 110 

BlihapMwIilnt'larconiit ofHirrrcproCMdlMp ill 

Ttuj'mmftmtatvtilr.inkaHm 181 

Acta unt of Card IknI VIoUty IM 

CurliiK. jiiHTdoiM i>r QaHB Rlllubeih HOT 

Tlir,l,nri..i..rof BDirf Awh«m «" 

Blihnp Aylner'i fuul lunna^ite ■ •• WS 

BItliap l'ilklii|[tati'>FicrllniilMI«r , •■■.. US 

TbepiKliM tnrned lH(aB«l>w • > SM 

Aecoum or B<>hap AjInmt Mt 

IVii-f MAfiy MS 

TlirrharftrU'i ■H' Bhbsp TmMM VM 

AfbrM0rw->rnnttn.-uflteMBlatiUn >M 

CbriltmMDot r<iiir<irmal>ly ohwrvod «TS 

ttir Mrnorrd And'xnnM rurinutpoiwulflr «14 

l.ord Hurlnlih li frlinid la IhrpWlUM .■• SM 

earlnrBrdroidofricmllado 9M 

r«l<i BMk of Mn(l)r> Fj>|i<-llri froM fbc ckarcbM SIS 

Rmih >••'■ ft'^'i'iM ta u>i aat 

DdIcIi Biwliapiiiit burnl • 885 

Anvunt-nf Un. ilBnlwnod 38T 

Anvrdrr ftDin the liinh cnmmliiioil M$ 

CurluunliMfTlpiluo^nacoAln 3M 

AecaiBtofSI lliomai Rndlvj 8M 

' ■■■- — OlihapJeml SM 

Altralo|J([rfally>iln>lred 8Tft 

AMedousrQiMBMlMbMfc .^ S11 

Hlthi'ii I'nrlihBfit t frlmd lu ihepBriian tb. 

Ur.llrjIln'irarlaHtiilflorMr. ftuapn 411 

Sir Wihcr HtMa^ » fHi-Bd In the pirlun 41* 

llamr-. cbararlrr of AirhMthnp Whltjtm 4«l 

A wurani lo iht hccpar of tbe OMekeaH 4M 

AliariwjM'iMlcpBHkloMBdromcfiM'llbenr <.. 440 

Tbclnprlimnnrntof Hary DMMaoflMt* 418 

AecwutsrSlrFflMcltWdflas'MB *** 




Sect. I. 

From the Commencement of the Reformaiion^ to the Death 

of Queen Mary. 

Previous to the accession of King Henry VIIL popish* 
darkness overspread the whole island of Britain. This 
was followed by a train of most unhappy consequences* 
Ignorance, superstition, immorality and persecution were 
predominant in every part of the kingdom. Those who 
presumed to think for themselves on religious subjects, 
and to dissent from the national church, underwent all the 
oppressions and severities of persecution. From the days 
of Wickliffe to this time, great numbers of excellent chris- 
tians and worthy subjects, fell sacrifices to popish cruelty. 
This proud monarch being at first a most obedient son of the 
pope, treated the bold confessors of truth as obstinate 
rebels; and because their piety and integrity condemned 
his licentiousness, he put multitudes to cruel tortures and 
to death. 

Soon after Luther arose in Saxony, England became 
affected by his bold and vigorous opposition to the errors 
of the church of Rome. The young king, vain of his 
scholastic learning, was unwise enough to meet the bold 
reformer on the field of controversy, and published a book 


a^inst him.* Luther treated his royal antagonist with 
sarcastic contempt, contending that truth and science knew 
no difference between the prince and the plebeian. The 
pope, however, craftily flattered the vanity of the royal 
author, by conferring upon him . the title of Defender of 
the Faith^i which Henry was weak enough to value as 
the brightest jewel in iiis crown. This pompous reward 
from his holmess was conferred upon hun m the year 


The haughty king soon discovered his ingratitude. He 

quarrelled with the pope, renounced his authority, and 
became his avowed enemy. Beinff weary of Queen 
Katharine his wife, with whom he had lived almost twenty 
years ; and having long sought, but in vain, to be divorced 
b;^ the pope, he was "so much offended, that^ he utterhr 
rejected the papal power, authority and tyranny in England • 
This was a dreadful blow against the Komish supremacy. 
But the king soon after procured the dignified and fiat* 
tering title of Supreme Head of the Church of England. 
This additional jewel to his crown was conferrea upon him, 
first by the clergy in convocation, then by act of parlia-. 
ment.§ Thus, in the year 1534, Henry VII 1. having re- 
nounced tlie supremacy of the pope, and having placed him- 
self in the chair of his holiness, at least as far as concerned 
the English church, did not fail to manifest his usurped 
^ power and authority. He did not intend to ease the people 
of their oppressions, but only change their foreign yoke for 
domestic fetters, dividing the pope s spoils betwixt himself 
and his bishops, who cared not for their father at Rome, 
so long as they enjoyed honours and their patrimony under 
anotKer head.g 

• Mr. Fox observes, that though '' this book carried the king's name ia 
the title, it was another who ministred the motioo, and frapied the style. 
But whosoever had the labour of the book, the king had the thanks and the 
reward." — jicts and Monuments of Martyrs, vol. ii. p. 67. 

+ It has been said, that the jester whom Henry, according to the cvstoai 
of the ti^es, retained at court, seeing the king overjoyed, asked the reason { 
and when told, that it was because his holiness had conferred upon him this 
new title, he replied, ** my good Harry, let thee and me defend each 
other, and let the faith alone to defend itself." If this was spoken ai a 
serious joke, the fool was undoubtedly the wisest man of the two. 

t Burnetts Hist, of Refor. vol. i. p. 19.— King Henry afterwards got this 
sacred title united to the crown, by act of parliament} and, ^nrlons and 
inconsistent as it may appear, it is retained to this day. — HejfUtCs UUt, ^ 
Prts. p. 2S&. 

S Burnet's Hist, of Refor. vol. i. p. 112. 136. 15T. 

d Memoirs of Col. Hiitchioson, vol. i. p. lOd. Edit. 1810« 


On June 9, 1536^ assembled Ihe first reformed conyoca* 
tion in England ; in which Lord Cromwell, prime secre* 
tary, sat in state above the bishops^ as the king's vicegerent 
in all spiritual matters.* On this occasion, Cromv^ell, by 
order of the king, declared, " That it was his majesty's 
pleasure, that the rites and ceremonies of the church should 
be reformed by the rules of Scripture, and that nothing 
should be maintained which did not rest on that authority ; 
for it was absurd, since the scriptures were acknowledged 
to contain the laws of religion, that recourse should be 
had to glosses or the decrees of popes, rather than to 
them."f Happy had it been, if the reformers of the 
church of England had invariably adhered to this sacred 
principle. Much, however, was done even at this early 
period. The pious reformers rejoiced to see the holy 
scriptures professedly made the only standard of faith and 
worship, to the exclusion of all human traditions. The 
immediate worship of images and saints was now renounced, 
and purgatory declared uncertain. But the corporeal pre- 
sence in the sacrament, the preservation and reverence of 
images, with the necessity of auricular confession, were still 
retained.^ The publication of Tindal and Coverdale's 
Translations of the Bible, greatly promoted the work of 
reformsCtion ; though it soon received a powerful check by 
the passing of the terrible and bloody act of the Six 
Articles. By this* act, all who spoke against transubstan- 
tiation were to be burnt as heretics, and sufier the loss of 
all their lands and goods ; and to defend the communion in 
both kinds, or the marriage of priests ; or, to speak against 
the necessity of private mass, and auricular confession^ 
was made felony, with the forfeiture of lands and goods.^ 
Towards the close of this king's reign, the popish party 
obtained the ascendancy ; the severity of persecution was 
revived ; and the Romish superstitions greatly prevailed. 
Till noW) these superstitions had never been denominated 
laudable ceremonies^ necessary rites^ and godly constiiu' 
tions. All who refused to observe them, were condemned 
as traitors against the king. To make the standing of the 
persecuting prelates more secure, and their severities the 
more effectual, this was ratified by act of parliament.! 
Many excellent persons were, therefore, condemned to the 
flames : among whom were the famous Mr. Thomas Bilney, 

♦ Fuller's Church Hist. b. ¥% p. 20T. 
f BurnefsHist. of Refor. vol. i. p. 214, 
S Strype's CraDmer, p. 72. 

X Ibid. p. 218. 
ti Ibid. p. 130. 


Uu Richard Bvfield, Mr. John Frith, and Dr. Robert 
Barnes, all liighfy celebrated ibr piety and zeal in the cause 
of the reformation.* 

King Henry was succeeded by his son, Edward VI., a 
prince of most pious memory. Being only nine years 
and four months old when he came to the crown, he 
was free firom bigotry and superstition, and ready to observe 
the instructions of Archbishop Cranmer and the Duke of 
Somerset, by whose aid and influence, he set himself to 

Eromote sound religion. Upon his accession, the penal 
iws against protestants were abolished, the chains of many 
worthy persons confined in prison were struck oflT, , tlie 
prison-doors were set open, and the sufferers released. 
Others who had fled from the storm, and remained in a 
state of exile, now with joy returned home. Among the 
former .were old Bishop Latimer and John Rogers ;f and 
among the latter, were Hooper, afterwards the famous 
martyr, and Miles Coverdale, afterwards a celebrated puri- 
tan. t Men of real worth were esteemed and preferred. 
Hooper became Bishop of Gloucester, and Coverdale was 
made Bishop of Exeter. The monuments of idolatry, 
with the superstitious rites and ceremonies, were com- 
manded to be abolished, and a purer form of worship 
introduced. Though, during thb reign, the reformatiou 
made considerable progress, the greatest part of the paro- 
chial clergy were in a state of most deplorable ignorance : 
but to remedy, as far as possible, this evil, the pious reform- 
ers composed and published the book of Homilies for 
their use.^ The order of public worship was a Liturgy 
or Book of Common Prayer, established by act of par- 
liament. Though this act did not pass without much 
opposition, especially from the bishops, some were so 
enamoured witn the book, that they scrupled not to say, 
" it was compiled 6y the aid of the If oh Uhost.^'i 

In the year 1550, the altars in most churches were taken 
away, and convenient tables set up in their places.i ^^ And 
as the form of a table," says Burnet, << was more likely 
to turn the people from the superstition of the popish mass, 
and bring them to the right use of the Lord's supper. 
Bishop Ridley, in his prinuiry visitation, exhorted the 

♦ Fox's Martyrs, vol. ii. p. 227, 241 , 256, 445. 

+ Burnet*8 Hist, of Refor. vol. ». p. 25. 

} Fulkr's Church Hist. b. vii. p. 371. 

S Buroefs Hist, of Refor. vol. ii. p. 25, 27. I Ibid. p. 94. 

I MS. Remarks, p. 51. 


curates and cburchwardens in his diocese, to have it ia 
the fashion of a table, decently covered, "• This was very 
congenial to the wishes of many of the pious reformers, 
who, at this early period, publicly avowed their noncon- 
formity to the ecclesiastical establishment. Among the 
articles of the above visitation, the bishop inquired, 
" Whether any of the anabaptists' sect, or others, use any 
unlawful or private conventicles^ wherein they use doctrine, 
or administration of sacraments, separating themselves from 
the rest of the church ? And whether any minister doth 
refuse to use the common prayers, or minister the sacra- 
ments,- in that order and form, as set forth in the Book 
of Common Prayer ?"+ The disputes about conformity 
were carried into the pulpits ; and whilst some warmly 
pVeached against all innovations, others as warmly preached 
against all the superstitions and corruptions of the old 
Komish church ; , so that the c6urt prohibited all preaching, 
except by persons licensed by thie King oar the Archbishop 
of Canterbury.+ 

In the convocation of 1552, forty .two Articles of Reli- 
gion were agreed upon by the bishops and clergy, to which 
subscription was required of all ecclesiastical persons, who 
should officiate or enjoy any benefice in the church. And 
all who should refuse, were to be excluded from all 
ecclesiastical preferment. This appears to be the first time 
that subscription to the articles' was enjoined.^ Here the 
reformation under King Edward made a stand. 

During this king's reign, there were numerous debates 
about the habits, rites and ceremonies ; and many divines 
of great learning and piety, became zealous advocates ibr 
nonconformity. They excepted against the clerical vest-* 
ments, kneeling at the communion, godfathers and their 
pron^ises and vows in baptism, the superstitious observance 
of Lent, the oath of canonical obedience, pluralities and 
nonresidence, with many other things of a similar descrip^ 
tion.jl At this early period, there was a powerful and very 
considerable party disaffected to the established liturgy. I 
Though the reformation had already made consiiderable 
progress, its chief promoters were concerned for its further 
advancement. They aimed at a more perfect work ; antd 

« Barneys Hist, of Refor. toI. ii. p. 158. 

-¥ Sparrow's CoUectton, p. 36. 

± Barnet's Hist, of Refor. vol. iii. p. 195^ 

4 Sparrow's Collectioo, p. 39. — Strype's Eccl. Mem. vol. ii. p. 420. 

I) MS. Remarki, p. 51. I Fuller's Church Hist. b. vii. p. 4!d6. 



manifested their disapprobation of the numerous popinh 
ceremonies and 8Ut)er8titions still retained in the cnurcb. 
King Edward desired that the rites and, ceremonies used 
under popery, should be purged out of the church, and 
that the English churches might be brouglit to the apos- 
tolic PURITY. Archbishop Cranmer was also very desirous 
to promote the same ;« and he is said to have drawn up 
a book of praj^ers incomparably more perfect than that 
which was then in use ; but he was connecU*d with so wicked 
a clergy and convocation, it could not take place, f And 
the king in his diary laments, that he couhl not restore the 
primitive discipline according to his hearted desire, because 
seveml of the bishops, some througli age, soine through 
ignorance, some on account of their ill name, and some 
out of love to popery, were oppoN4;d to the dcsign.'t 
Bishop Latimer comi)lained of the stop put to the retbrm* 
ation, and urged the necessity of reviving^ the jprimitive 
discipline.^ The professors of our two universities, Peter 
Martyr and Martin Ltucer, both opposed the use of the 
clerical vestments. To Martyr the vestments were offensive, 
and he would not wear them. " When I was at Oxford," 
says be, ^^ I would never use those white garments in the 
choir ; and I was satisfied in what I did.*' He styled 
tlicm mere relics ofpoperj/, Bucer giving his advice, said, 
<< That as those garments had been abused to superstition, 
and were likely to l>ecome the subject of contention, 
they ought to be taken away by law ; and ecclesiastical 
discipline, and a more thorough reformation, set up« He 
disapproved of godfathers answering in the child's name. 
He reconunended that pluralities and nonresidences might 
be abolished ; and that oishops might not lje concerned in 
secular affairs, but take care of their dioceses, and govern 
them by the advice of their prc>Nbyters." Tiie pious king 
was so much pleased with this advice, that ^^ he set bimselr 
to write upon a further reformation, and the necessity of 
church discipline/'i Bucer was displeased with various 
corruptions m the liturgy. ^^ It cannot be expressed, 
how oitterly he l)cwailed, that, when tjie gospel began 
to spnml in England, a greater regard was not bad 
to discipline and purity of rites, m constituting the 

♦ Neal*! PoriUnf, fol. I. p. TS.—Strypc'i Cranmer, p. 209. 
+ Trooblrt At TVankeford, p.4.S. 

I King Edward*! Krmaini, numb. 9. In Duroet. vol. II, 
S Burners Hist, of Kefor. vol. II. p. 16^. 

II Ibid. vol. IL p. 156-157. 


churches."* He could never be prevailed upon to wear 
the surplice. And when he was asked why he did not 
wear the square cap ? he replied, " Because my head 
is not square. "f The famous Dr. Thomas Sampson, after- 
wards one of the heads of the puritans, excepted against 
the habits at his orduiation, who, nevertheless, was stdmit- 
ted by Cranmer and Ridley.J Bkii the celebrated John 
Rogers and Bishop Hooper, according to Fuller, were 
" the very ringleaders of the nonconformists. They re- 
nounced ail ceremonies practised by the papists, conceiving 
(as he has expressed it) that such ought not only to be 
dipt with shears, but shaven with a razor; yea, all the 
stumps thereof pluckt out."§ 

The sad effects of retaining the popish habits in the 
church, began to appear at a very early period. In the 
year 1530, a debate arose, which to some may appear of 
small consequence; but, at this time, was considered of 
great importance to the reformation. The debate was 
occasioned by Dr. Hooper's nomination to the bishopric 
of Gloucester. Burnet denominates him a pious, zealous^ 
and learned man. Fuller says, he was well skilled in 
I^atin, Greek, and Hebrew. || He was some time chaplain 
to the Duke of Somerset, and a famous preacher in the 
city of London ;i but declined the offered preferment for 
two reasons, — 1. Because of the form of the oath, which 
be calls foul and impious. And, 3. Because of the popish 
garments. The oath required him to swear by the saints^ 
as well as by the name of God ; which Hooper thought 
impious, because the Searcher of Hearts alone ought to 
be appealed to in an oath. The young king beikig c(m- 
viuced of this, struck out the words with his own pen.** 
But the scruples about the habits were not so easily got 
over. The king and council were inclined to dispense 
with them, as his majesty openly signified in the above 
letter to Cranmer : but Cranmer and Ridley were of another 

* Heylio's Hist, of Refor. p. "65. + Strype's Parker, Appen. p. 41. 

X Strype's Cranmer, p. 192. § Church Hist. b. vii. p. 402. 

II Barnet's Refor. vol. ili. p. 199.— Fuller's Church Hist. b. vii. p. 402, 
403. — King Edward, in his letter of nomination to Cranmer, dated Aug. 6« 
1550, writes thus : ** We, by the advice of our council, have called and. 
chosen our right well-beloved and well- worthy Mr. John Hooper, professor 
of divinity, to be our Bishop of Gloucester ; as^ell for his learning, deep 
judgment, and long study, both in the scriptures, and profane learning; as 
also for his good discretion, ready utterance, and honest life for that kind 
of vocation.**— /frtU 

f Strype's Crapmer, p. 211. 
I • • Burnet's Hist, of Refor. vol. iii. p. 205. 



mind, and refused their allowance. Ridley wat there* 
fore nominated to a deputation with Hooper, with a view 
to bring him to a compliaace ; but tbiB proved in(?fK;ctual. 
Hooper still reniaint^d unconvinced, and prayed to be 
excused from the old symbolizing popish gartm^its. These 
garments, he obstTved, had no countcnan<M; in scripture or 
primitive antiquity : tb^y were the inventions oi' antichrist, 
and introduced into the church in the most corrupt ages : 
they had been abused to idolatry, particularly in the pom- 
pous celebration of the mass : and to continue the use of 
them, was, in his opinion, to symbolize with antichrist, to 
misl^ul the people, and inconsistent with the simplicity 
of the christian reljgion.* He could apueal to the Searcher 
of Hearts, that it was not obstinacv, out the convictions 
of his conscience alone, which made him refuse these gar* 

Ridley ^s endeavours proving unsuccessful. Hooper was 
committed to the management of Granmer, who, being 
unable to bring him to conformity, laid tlie afiair before 
the council, and he was commitU^d to the Fleet. Haying 
remained in prison for several montlis, the matter was com* 
promised, when be was released and consecrated. t He con- 
sented to put on the vestments at his consecration, lyhen 
he preacted before tlie king, and in his own cathedral ; 
but was suffered to dispense with them at other times.t 
How this business was adjusted, and with what deg^ree oi* 
•everity he was jpersecuted, is rehited by Mr. Fax, m the 
Latin edition or his ^' Acts and Monuments of the Afar* 
tyrs.'* The pessa^, says Mr. Peirce, he hath left out in 
ml hii English editions, out of too great tenderness to the 
party. << Thus,*' says Mr. Fox, << ended this theological 
ouarrel in the victory of the bishops, Hooper being 
KNTced to lecant ; or, to say the least, being constrained to 
appear once in public, attired ^ter the manner of the 
bisiiops. Which, unless he had done, there are those 
who think the bishops would have endeavoured to take 
away his life : for his Mirvant told me,'' adds the roar- 
tyrologist, <^ that the Duke of Suffolk sent such word to 
Jiooper, who was not himself ignorant of what they were 
doing."| Horrid barbarity I Who, before Hooper, w«$ 
ever thrown into prison, and in danger of his life, merely 

« NniKi ParlUm, ¥ol. i. p. S2. f FuUtr*! Cbarch HItt. b. vli. p. 404. 
1 Ktrypr*! rranmrr, p. 911--S1&— Baker*iMS.Coliec. Tol. xtHI. p. SM» 
S Buroet'i Ili»t. of Hrfor. vol. it. p. 166. 
I Fcirce'i Viodicatioo, ptrt L p. 90. 


because he refused a bishopric ? It -was certainly some kind 
of excuse, that the bishops would not consecrate him contrary 
to law ;' but there can be no excuse for his impriscmment^ 
and their conspiring to take away his life. When Hooper 
wished to be excused accepting the offered preferment apon 
the conditi(ms of the ecclesiastical establishment, was there 
any law to constrain him, contrary to the convictions of 
his own conscience ? Ridley, however, who was by far the 
most severe against Hooper, lived to change his opinions, 
as will appear hereafter. 

Most oi the reforming clergy were of Hooper^s senti- 
ments in this controversy. Several who had submitted to 
the habits in the late reign, now laid them aside: andon^ 
whom were Bishops JLatimer and Coverdale, Dr. Rowland 
Taylor, John Rogers, John Bradford, and John Philpot, 
all ^alous nonconformists. They declaimed against them 
as mere popish add superstitious attire, and not fit for the 
ministers of the gospel.* Indeed, they were not so much 
as pressed upon the clergy in general, but mostly left as 
matters of indifference, f 

During this reign, certain persons denominated anabap- 
tists, having fled from the wars in Grermany, and come to 
England, propagated their sentiments and made proselytes 
in this country. Complaints being brought against them 
to the council. Archbishop Cranmer, with several of the 
bishops and others, received a commission, April 12, 
1550, << to examine and search after all anabaptists, 
heretics, or contemners of the common prayer." As 
they were able to discover such persons, they were to 
endeavour to reclaim them,. and, after penance, to give 
them absolution; but all who continued obstinate, were 
to be excommunicated, imprisoned, and delivered over to 
the secular power. Several tradesmen in London being 
convened before the commissioners, abjured ; but Joan 
Bocher, or Joan of Kent, was made a public example. 
She steadfastly maintained, ^^ That Ohrist was not truly 
incarnate of the virgin, whose flesh being sinful, he could 
not partake of it ; but the word, by the consent of the 
inward man of the virgin, took flesh of her."t These 
were her own words ; not capable of doing much mischief, 
and, surely, undeserving any severe punishment. The 
poor woman could not reconcile the spotless purity of 

* MS. GhroDolo^, toI. i. p. 35. (30.) 
' -f Barnet's Hist, of Refor. toI. Hi. p. 310, 311. 
^ Barnet's Hist, of Refor. toI. ii. CoUec. p. 168. 


Chrisf s haman nature, T?iih bis receiving flesh from a sinful 
creature ; for which she was dechired an obstinate heretic^ 
and delivered over to the secular power to be burnt* The 
compassionate young king thought, that burning persons 
Cmt their religious opinions savoured too much of diat for 
irbich they censured the papists ; tlierefore, when he could 
not prevail upon himself to sign the warrant for her 
execution, Cranmer, with his superior learning, was em- 
ployed to persuade him. He argued from the practice 
of the Jewish church in stoning blasphemers; whicb 
silenced, rather than satisfied the king. ^'He still looked 
upon it as cruel severity. And when at last he yielded to 
ibe archbishop's importunity, he told him, with tears in his 
eyes, ^^ That if he did wrong, since it was in submissi<»i 
to his authority, he should answer for it to God.^' Thb is 
Baid to have struck the archbishop with much horror ; j6i 
he suffered the sentence to be executed.^ 

Besides those denominated anabaptists, there were also 
many others who administered the sacraments in other 
manner than was prescribed in the Book of Common 
Prayer. To prevent the number of these nonconformists 
from increasing, and to crush all who had already imbibed 
their sentiments, another commission was issued, empower- 
ing the archbishop anil others to correct and punish them.t 
And in the year 1552, Cranmer and others received a third 
commission from the council, to examine a certain sect 
newly sprung up in Kent.f This was a sect of noncon* 
formists, though their peculiar sentiments do not appear. 
Mr. J'ox, in tlie Latin edition of his " Martyrs,'* observes, 
*^ That one Humphrey Middleton,^ with some others, had 
been kept prisoners in the last year of King Edward by 
the archbishop, and had been dreadfully teazed by him 
and the rest in commission, and were now just upon the 
point of being condemned ; when in open court he said : 
ff'elly reverend Sir^ pass what sentence you think Jit upon 

* Burnet's Hist, of Refor. vol. ii. p. Ill, 112.— This female sufferer, 
according to Mr. Strype, *' was a great reader of the scriptures, and 
formerly a great disperser of Tindal's New Testament; which book she 
dispersed in the court, and so became acquainted with certain women of 
quality. She used, for the greater secrecy, to tie the books with strings 
under her apparel, and' so pass with them into the court.'* Thus she 
exposed her own life, in dangerous times, to bring other^to a knowledge 
of God's holy word. — Strype's Eccl Memorials^ vol. ii. p. 214. 

+ Strype's Parker, p. 27. J Strype's Cranmer, p. 291. 

^ This person, a native of Ashford, iu Kent, was afterwards burnt la 
the dayi of Queen Mary.— -iJ'ojr'i Martyrs, vol. iii. p. 313, 


us; but thai ycu may not say you were not forewarned^ I 
testify tha^ your own turn mil be next. And accordinglj 
it came to pass; for a little whil^ after, King Edward 
died,^ when the prisoners were set at liberty, and the 
archbishop and bishops cast into prison."* The above 
{severities, shewing the imperfect state of the £nglish reform- 
ation, will he handed down to posterity, as monuments 
of tasting reproach to our famous reformers. Persecution, 
whoever may be the persecutors, deserves ever to appear 
in all its detestable and shocking features. 

In the year 1553, upon the death of King Edward, his 
sister Mart coming to the crown, soon overturned the 
reformation, and restored the whole body of popery. 
The queen was a violent papist ; yet she at first declared, 
^^ That though her conscience was settled in matters of 
religion, she was resolved not to compel others, only by 
the preaching of the word."+ How far her majesty ad- 
hered to this sacred maxim, the numerous tragic scenes of 
her bloody reign, afibrd too strong a proof. She, within 
the same month, prohibited all preaching without her 
special license ; and further declared, ** ifliat she would 
not compel her subjects to be of her religion, till public 
order should be takenJ^^X This was a clear intimation of 
the approaching storm. Many pf the principal reformers 
were immediately cast into prison. Hooper was sent to 
the Fleet, and Cranmer.and Latimer to the Tower, and 
.above a thousand persons retired into foreign parts zS among 
whom were five bishops, five deans, four archdeacons, 
and a great number of doctors in divinity, and cele« 
brated preachers. In the number of worthy exiles were 
Coverdale, Turner, Sampson, Whitehead, ISecon, Lever, 
Whittingham, and Fox, all afterwards famous in the days 
of Queen Elizabeth.|| The two archbishops and most 
of the bishops were deprived of their sees. The most 
celebrated preachers in London were put under confine- 
ment, and no less than 12,000 of the clergy, for being 
married, were turned out of their livings ; some of whom 
were deprived without conviction ; some were never cited 
to appear ; and many, being confined in prison, and unable 
to appear, were cited and deprived for non-appearance. 
In the mean time, the service and reformation of King 
Edward were abolished^ and the old popish worship and 

* Peirce*8 ViDdication, part i. p. 35. 

f Burnet's Hist, of Refor. yoI. ii. p. 245. % Ibid. S Ibid. p. 247, 250, 

II Strype's Cranmer, p. 314. 1 Baroet*s Hist, of Rcfor. toI. ii. p. 27 (t« 


Timing ihU qmm^n ffijfii, wjyfttal Iittndred pcr§m» 
itiflercd octiih tinder the fo(d cbftfge of hcteny ;♦ Htnong 
irhcmt Vfcte tffcat fniinbrf» of pioii» find \cnfncd divine»| 
alt ssmloim for tlie ff^fofffifttimi. Mrtny of ihetm (Mtlne§ 
bdriflf avowed iionconftnrmJiifii In the reign of King (iSdward, 
maintained their principles even at the utake. Mn tTohn 
Jtogeriii, the prolomarfyr, p^rreniptorily refund i4i vfettt the 
babitji^ nnlew the popish priest* tverc enjoined io wear 
upon tifeir Meevc», as a marK of distinelion, a chatire with 
an h()!ft, Th(! name may fjc observed of Mr. John Pfillpot 
and Mr. Tyms. two other eminent mntiynA Bisbop 
Lafimer deridrci the garmrnfs 5 and when they ptillod off 
tlic^ surplice at his degradation, he said, Now 1 cm make 
fto more hotij water. In tlie article's against Bishop Farrar, 
it wns objected, that he had vowed n(*ver to wear the rap^ 
but that ife came into his cathedral in his long gown ana 
bat ; which he did not d(!ny, alleging that he did it to 
iivoid siiperstifion^ and giving offence to the yM^\e,X 
When the popish vrsfmenfs were put trpon Dr. Taylor, 
ftt his degradation, he walked about with his hands by bia 
sides, saving, *< How say yoti, my lord, am 1 not a godh/ 
foolP I low sav yoii, my masters, if I were in Cheapside. 
should I not. have boys enough to laugli at these apinh 
toy 9 and toying trurtwrryf And it is olServed, that when 
file nnrplice was piille<l ofL he said, Nnio I am rid of a 
fooVn roat.S The famous John Hradford excepted against 
the hiibits, and was frrdnirird without them; and even 
Cranmer and Ridley, who, in the late reign hml exercised 
great wjverity agttinst (loopfTr and others, lived to see their 
mistakes, and to ref>ent ot their conduct, (/ranmer beinff 
clothed in the habits, at his degra<iafion, said, ^< AH tbia 
needeth not. I had myself done with this years ago.**| 
Ridley, when he refused to put on the surjilice at hia 
degrndation, and they put it on by force, <* vehemently 
inveighed against it, calling it foolish and abomnahte^ amf 
too fond firr a vice in a plni/,^^iL And even during his 
coritinemcnt in prison, he wrote to lloo|)er, saying, ** That 

* Bnrnft rer kon« \he nnmb^r of ihme wbn i^nfferrA In thf> 0«inet Io h^ 
t84f And Mr. airypr* 9HH\ but )t }• mid thffr were no Icfi llfiitf fiOOf 
during (^uffn MaryV bloody per<i«€Ulfon. — /&/^. p. 364. — ^ir^pt*» Kuh 
Mtim. vol, lil. Afipfn. p. Wl. 

■f Hryfin^ MIM. of hffor. pnrt \. p. M. 

X Fox'fi .Vfnrfyrt, vol. iii. p. ISM, 17». S f^^<*< P* 1^^« 

H It M ob«rrvr(l ihAt hodi CrAnmrr And Hidlry Infrndfd lo bAve pforiirfd 
An Aft for Abolishing the habits but were prevented. — P§lrci!'9 FindicMihn, 
part i. p, 44. 

% Koi'f Mdrtyri, tol. \\\. p. 497. 


be. was entirely knit to him, though in some circumstances 
of religion they had formerly jarred a little ; wherein it 
was Hooper's wisdom, and his own simplicity^ which had 
made the diflference/'* 

All the severe persecution in this queen^s reign, did not 
extinguish the light of the £nglish reformation. Great 
numbers were dr|yen, indeed^ into exile, and multitudes 
sui&red in the flames, yet many, who loved the gospel 
more than their lives, were enabled to endure the storm. 
Congregations were formed in various parts of the kingdom. 
There was a considerable congregation of these excellent 
christians, at Stoke, in Sufibik ; with whom, on account of 
their number and unanimity, the bishops were for some 
time afraid to interfere* They constantly attended their 
private meetings, and never went to the parish church. An 
order was at length sent to the whole society, requiring^ 
them to receive the popish sacrament, or abide by the 
consequences. But the good people having assembled 
for the purpose of consultation, imanimously resolved not 
to comply, in. about six months, the Bishop of Norwich 
scut his officers, strictly charging them to go to church 
on the following Lord's day, or, in case of failure, to 
appear before the commissary to give an account of their 
conduct. But having notice of this, they kept out of the 
way to avoid the summons. When they neitlier went U> 
church, nor appeared before the commissary, the angry- 
prelate suspended and excommunicated the whole con- 
fregation. And when officers were appointed to appre- 
end them, they left the town, and so escaped all the days 
of Queen Mary.f 

The most considerable of these congregations, was that 
which met in and about London. Owing to the vigilance 
of their enemies, these people were obliged to assemble 
with the utmost secrecy ; and though there were about 200 
members, they remained for a considerable time undis- 
covered. Their meetings were held alternately in Aldgate, 
in Blackfriars, in Pudding-lane, in Thames-street, and in 
ships upon t|ie river. Sometimes they assembled in the 
villages about London, especially at Islington, that they 
might the more easily elude the bishops' officers. To 

• Prince's Chron. Hist. vol. i. p. 21T.— Bishop Ridley was a famoai 
disputant against the papists. He forced them to ackiiowledge, that 
Christ in his last supper, held himself in his hand, and afterwards eat 
Jiimself. — Granger* s Biog, Hist. vol. i. p. 159. 

f Clark's Marty rologie, p. 515, ' 


$erem ihetfueWei from the notice of their pcrsecntors, ibey 
often rtirt in the night, and experienced many wonderful 
providential deliverances.* Their public devoticHis were 
ronduciiHl by the following ministers : Edmund Scambler, 
AfterwnrdN Hucceisively Bishop of Peterborough and Ncnr- 
wlcti, Mr. Fowler, Mr. John Rough, Mr. Augustine Bimher. 
Tlioniim Hcntham, afterwards Bishop of LichlBeld and 
C/ovnitry, and Mr. John Pullain, afterwards an excellent 

During Mr. Iloiif^h*s ministry among these people, he 
was appmhemlcd, with Mr. Cuthbert Sympson and some 
otlinm, lit a houM^ in Islington, where the church was about 
to iiiMi(*ni))le for prayer and preaching the word ; and being 
taken before the council, after several examinations, he 
wan sent to Newgate, and his case committed to the 
management of Bonner. The character of this prelate, 
HvhuNe hands were so deeply stained with innocent blood, 
ikkhIs no colouring in this place : the faithful pages of his- 
tory will always hold it up to the execration of mankind. In 
hta handS| Mr. Rough met with the most relentiess cruelty. 
Not titmt^it with degrading him, and delivering him over 
to Uie secular |K>wor, the furious prelate flew upon him, 
and \Uueked tlie beonl from his face. And, at length, 
after uuu'h eruel usoi^e, he ended his life in the flames, in 
IK>ceml>er| lAAT.t ^i^* Sympson* who was deacon of the 
rhun'hi wasi a pious^ tnithful, and lealous man, labouring 
)nee«»ant)y to prewervo the flock firom the enofs of popery, 
Hih) to wH'UTv thetu thwi the dangers of persecution. At 
tlH^ tiuH(^ t^' hi>'t ap)W\'heusii>n^ the whole churcli was, indeed, 
in the ulUHiM Uai^gKHT^ It was Mr« Svmpson^s office to keep 
H Uh^« tx^Uainiit^ the nann^ t4' al\ the peisous belon^rii^ 
•ll the <^ii^^;t^n^li«^\^ >vhich UhJl he alwn\'s carried to iheir 
|wK>mte a9«tim4ieQi« But it was so ordmd, by the good 

%ti» «>A t^iMV>/l^v tliA^ iIm^^ »» »< mi<» mx^i^ Mf^ M^4i^ crifcU e»a^. Bst 
<Mknk |Vi| yiM At A Ku'i ^v^r i «i^ i^>ii l<M¥i«iM t^ « K.-^i )ii tlx' river. V r pi ^K 


povidence of Grod, that cm the day of his apprehenskxi, 
he left it with Mrs. Rough, the minister's wife.* Two or 
thi^ days after this, he was sent to the Tower. During 
his confinement, because he would not discover the book, 
nor the names of the persons, he was cruelly racked three 
several times ; and an arrow was tied between his two fore* 
fin^iBj and drawn out so violently as to cause the blood to 
gvSh forth ; but all was without effect. H^ was then ccmi* 
mitted to Bonner, who bore this testimony concerning him 
before n number of spectators : ^^ You see what a personable 
man this is ; and for his patience^ if he were not an heretic, 
I should much commend him. For he has been thrice 
racked in one day, and, in my house, he hath endured 
some sorrow; and yet I never saw his patience onoe 
moved." The relentless prelate, nevertheless, condemned 
him, ordering him first into the stocks in his coal-house^ 
and from thence to Smithfield ; where with Mr. Fox and 
Mr. Davenish, two others of the church taken at Islington^ 
he ended his life in the flames. + Seven more of this 
church were burnt in Smithfield, six at Brentford, and 
others died in prison.} 

The numerous divines who fled from the persecution of 
Queen Mary, retired to Frankfort, Strasburgh, Zurich, 
Basil, Geneva, and other places ; but they were most nu- 
merous at Frankfort. At this place it was, that a contest 
and division commenced, which gave rise to the Poritans, 
and to that Separation from the church of England 
which continues to this day. The exiles were in no place 
so happily settled as at Frankfort ; where the senate gave 
them the use of a church, on condition that they should 
not vary from the Frcncli reformed church, either in 
doctrine or ceremonies. According to these conditions, 
they drew up a new liturgy, more agreeable to those of the 
foreign churches, omitting the responses and the litany, 
with many trifling ceremonies in the English prayer book, 
and declined the use of the surplice. They took possession 

* A few nights before thli, Mr. Rough had a remarkable dream. He 
thought he saw Mr. Sympson taken by two of the guard, and with the 
book above-mentioned. This giving him much trouble, be awoke, and 
related the dream to his wife. Afterwards, falling asleep, he again dreamt 
the same thing. Upon his awaking the second time, he determined to go 
Immediately to Mr. Sympson, and put him upon his guard; but while ne 
was getting ready,- Mr. Sympson came to his bouse with the book, which 
be deposited with Mrs. Rough, as above related. — Fox^ vol. iii. p. 7S6. 

f Ibid. p. 726, 729.— Clark's Martvrologie, p. 49T. 

t Fox's Martyrs, vqI. iii. p. 732, 7*^4. 


of the church, July S9, 1554; and having chosen a 
temporary minister and deacons, tiiey sent to their brethren, 
who had fled to other places, inviting them to Frankfort, 
-where they might hear God's word truly preached, the 
sacraments •duly administered, and the requisite christian 
discipline properly exercised : privileges which could not be 
obtained in their own country.* The members of the conffre- 

Sation sent fot Mr ^ John Knox from Geneva, Mr. James Had- 
on from Strasburgh, and Mr. Thomas Lever from Zurich, 
requesting them to tsike the oversight of them in the Lord. 

The church at Frankfort being thus comfortably settled 
with pastors, deacons, and a liturgy, according to its own 
choice ; Dr. Richard Cox, a man of a high spirit, coming 
to that city, with some of his friends^ woke through the 
conditions of the new-formed church, and interrupitra the 

Sublic service by answering aloud after the minister. On 
le Lord's day following, one of the company, equally 
officious as himself, ascended the pulpit, and read the 
whole litany. Mr. Knox, upon this, taxed the authors 
of this disorder with a breach of the terms of their 
common agreement, and affirmed, that some things in the 
Book of Common Prayer were superstitious and impure. 
Dr. Cox reproved him for his censoriousness ; and being 
admitted, with the rest of his company, to vote in the 
congregation, obtainecl a majority, prohibiting Mr. Knox 
from preaching any more.f But Mr. Knox's friends applied 
to the magistrates, who commanded them to unite with 
the French church both in doctrine and ceremonies, ac« 
cording to their original agreement. Dr. Cox and his party 
finding Knox's interest among the magistrates too strong, 
bad recourse to an unworthy and unchristian method to get 
rid of him. This divine having published a book, while he 
was in England, entitled ^^ An Admonition to Christians," 
in which he had ^aid, ^^ That the emperor was no less an 
enemy to Christ than Nero," these overbearing fellow- 
exiles basely availed themselves of this and some other 
expressions in the book, and accused him of high treason 
against the emperor. Upon this, the senate being tender 
of the emperor's honour, and unwilling to embroil them- 
selves in these co^ntroversies, desired Mr. Knox, in a 
jespectful manner, to depart from the city. So he left the 
place, March 25, 1555. 

♦ Troubles at Frankeford, p. 1 — 3. 

f Cox and his friends were admitted, to vote in the congregatioo, througii 
the particular solicitations of Mr. Kaox^^Jbid. p. 93. 


Upon Mr. Knox's departure, Cox's party having strengthr 
enea themselves by the addition of other exiles, petitioned 
the magistrates for the free use of King £d%va^d*s service- 
book ; which they were pleased to grant. The old congrc- 
• gation was thus broken up by Dr. Cox and his friends, who 
now carried all before them. They chose new church* 
officers, taking no notice of the old ones, and set up the 
service-book without interruption. Among those who were 
driven from the peaceable and happy congregation, were 
Knox, Gilby, Goodman, Cole, Whittii^liam, and Fox^ 
all celebrated nonconformists in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth.* From the above account, it will sufficiently 
appear who were the aggressors. Bishop Burnet, with 
great injustice, says, ^' That Knox and his party certainly 
began the breach."+ 

Towards the close of this queen's unhappy reign, her 

fovemment having sustained many losses, her spirits failed, 
er health declined, and, being seized with the dropsy, she 
died November 17, 1558, in the forty-third year of her 
age, having reigned a little more than five years and four 
months. Queen Mary was a princess of severe principles, 
and being wholly under the controul of her clergy,* was 
ever forward to sanction all their cruelties. Her conscience 
was under ibe absolute direction of the pope and her con* 
fessor ; who, to encourage her in the extirpation of heresy, 
and in all the cruelties inflicted upon protestants, gave 
her assurance, that she was doing God service. She was 
naturally of a melancholy and peevish temper; and her 
death 'was lamented only by her popish clergy 4 Her 
reign was in every respect calamitous to the nation, and 
will be transmitted to posterity in characters of blood. 

Sect. II. 

From the Death of Queen Mary^ to the Death of Queen 


The accession of Queen Elizabeth to the crown, gave 
new life to the Reformation. The news had no sooner 
reached the continent, than most of the worthy exiles witb 
joy returned home; and those who had concealed themselves, 
during the late storm, came forth as men restored from the 

« * TroaUes at Frankefordy p. I--^c. 

i Hist, of Refor. toI. ii. p. 339. i Ibid. p. 369^971. 



dead.* By the queen's royal proclamation, the public 
worship of God remained some time without alteration. 
.AH preaching was prohibited ; and the people were charged 
to hear only the epistles and gospels for the day, the ten 
commandments, the litany, the Lord's prayer, and the 
creed, in English. No other prayers were to^ be read, nor 
other forms of worship to be observed, than those already 
appointed by law, till the meeting of parliament.f 

The parliament being assembled, tiie two famous acts, 
^titled « The Act of Supremacy,"* and « The Act of 
Uniformity of Confunon Prayer," were passed. The former 
gave rise to a new ecclesiastical court, called The Court of 
High Commission, which, by the exercise of its Unlimited 
power and authority, became the engine of inconceivable 
oppression to multitudes of the queen's best subjects. The 
latter attempted, indeed, to establish a perfect uniformity 
in public worship, but it could never be effected.^ During 
the whole of this reign, many of the l)est divines and 
others, were dissatisfied with the Book of Common Prayer, 
and with the rigorous imposition of it in divine worship. 
Some things contained in the book, they considered to be 
erroneous ; others superstitious ; and the greater part to bfe 
derived from the corrupt fountain of popery, and, there- 
-fore, could not with a good conscience observe the whole ; 
on which account, they were treated by the prelates with 
the utmost severity. The principal debate in the first par- 
liament of this queen's reign, was not whether popery or 
protestantism should be established; but whether they 
should carry on the reformation, so happily begun in the 
days of King Edward, to a greater degree of perfection, 
and abolish all the remains of superstition, idolatry, and 

* It is observed, (hat when the exiles aiid others came forwards in public, 
a certain gentleman made suit to the. queen, in behalf of Matthew, Mark^ 
Z'Ukcy and Jghn, who had long been imprisoned in a Latin translation, 
that they also might be restored to liberty, and wallc abroad as formerly in 
the English tongue. To this petition her majesty immediately replied, 
** That he should first know the minds of the prisoners, who perhaps 
desired no such liberty as he requebted.*' — HtylirCs Hist, of Refor„ 
p. 275. 

+ Burnet's Hist, of Refor. vol. li. p. 378. — Strype's Annals, vol. i. 
p. 41—44. t Ibid. p. 69. 

^ This act was designed to establish a perfect and universal conformity, 
among the laity, as well as the clergy. It required ** all persons diligently 
and faithfully, having no lawful or reasonable excuse, to resort to tbeir 
^parish church, every Sunday and all holidays, on pain of punishment by 
the censures of the church, and also on pain of forfeiting twelve-pence for 
every such offence, to be levied by way of distress/*— J3um's Bed, Lum, 
vol. ii. p. 145. Edit, 177£r. 


popish innovations, which beiog still retained in the church, 
were stumbling blocks to many worthy subjects.* 

In the year 1559, tlie queen published her Injunctions^ 
consisting of upwards of fifty distinct articles. She com- 
manded all her loving subjects obediently to receive, and 
truly io observe and keep them, according to their offices, 
d^^rees and^ estates, upon pain of suspension, deprivation, 
excommunication, and such other censures as to those who 
had ecclesiastical jurisdiction tinder her majesty, should 
seem ineet.t Though in these injunctions the queen mani- 
fested some disapprobation of the Romish superstitions and 
idolatry, she was much inclined to retain images in churches, 
and thought they were useful in exciting devotion, and in 
drawing people to public worship. Her object was to 
unite the .papists and protestants together.t She still re- 
tained a crucifix upon the altar, with lights bumtnc^ before 
it, in her own chapel, when three bishops officiate^ all in 
rich copes, before the idoL§ Instead of stripping religion 
(rf* the numerous, pompous ceremonies with which it was 
incumbered, she was. inclined rather to keep it as near as 
possible to the Romish ritual : and even some years after 
her accession, one of her chaplains having pieadM^' m 
defence of the real presence,^ she presented her public thanks 
to liim, for his pains and piett/4 , She spoke with gveai 
bitterness against the marriage of the clergy, and rep^ited 
having made married persons bishops.i Her maiesty 
having appointed a comnvittee of divines to review Aing 
£dward's liturgy, she commanded them io strike oat aU 
passages offensive to the pope, and to make the penile 
easy about the corporeal presence of Christ in tbe sacra^ 
ment.*« The liturgy was, therefore^ exceediiigly wril fitted 
to the approbation of the papi8(8.ff The queen com- 
manded, that the Lord's table siicmld be placed in the form 
of an alt^r; that reverence should be made at the name of 
Jesus ; that music should be retmned in the churches; ancl 
that all the festivals should be observed as in times of 
popery.J}: The reformation of King Edward, therefore, 
instead of being carried forwards ani perfected, was, ac- 
cording to Burnet, removed considerably backwards, partly 

* MS. Remarks, p. 463. + Sparrow's CoUec. p. S5— 86. 

' t Bumefs Hist, of Refor. vol. ii. p. 397. § Ibid. vol. iii. p. S92* 

{] Heylin's Hist, of Refor. p. 124. Edit. 1670. 

I Strype's Farker, p. 109. 

- ♦• Bamet's Hist, of Refor. vol. ii. p. 392. 
• f f Heylin's Hist, of Pre». p. 259. 

I I HeyliD's Hist, of Refor. p. 283. Edit. 1674. 


from the queen's love of outward magnificence in religioTi^ 
and partly in compliance with the papists.* 

Many of our excellent reformers who had espoused the 
^use of nonconformity, in the days of King Ed^rd, 
retained their principles, and* acted upon them, during 
their exile in a foreign land, especially those who being 
driven from Frankfort, settled at Greneva and other places. 
Nor did they forget their principles upon the accession of 
Elizabeth. Having settled for several years among the 
best reformed churches in Europe, they examined more 
minutely the grand principles of the reformation, and 
returned home richly fraught with wisdom and knowledge. 
They wished to have the church purged of all its anti- 
christian errors and superstitions, and to have its discipline, 
its government, and its? ceremonies, as well as its doctrine, 
regulated by the standard of holy scripture. On the con- 
trary, many of the bishops and . clergy being too well 
affected to popery, opposed a thorough reformation, 
accounting that of King Edward sufficient, or more than 
sufficient, for the present church of Englancl. Therefore, 
so early as in the year mentioned above, there were many 
warm debates betwixt the two contending parties.t 

In addition to the oath of suprelnacy, a compliance 
with the act of uniformity, and an exact observance of 
the queen's injunctions, a public creed was drawn up by 
the bishops, entitled " A Declaration of certain principal 
Articles of Religion,'* which all clergymen were obliged 
to read publicly at their entrance upon their cures. These 
were, at this time, the terms of mmisterial conformity. 
There was no dispute among the reformers, about the first 
and last of these qualifications, but they differed in some 
points about the other two. Many of the learned exiles 
and others, could not, with a good conscience, accept of 
livings according to the act of uniformity and the queen's 
injunctions. If the popish garments and ceremonies had 
been left indifferent, and some liberties allowed in the use 
of the common prayer, the contentions and divisions which 
afterwards followed, would no doubt have been prevented. 
But as the case then stood, it was almost miraculous that 
the reformation did not fall back to popery ; and if some 
of the nonconforming divines had not in part complied, in 
hopes of the removed of these grievances at some future 
period, that would most probably have been the unhappy 

• Barnet'i Hist, of Refor. vol. ili. p. 305. 

f Ibid. vol. a. p. 401.— Baker's MS. CoUec. vol. zzvu. p. 387. 


consequence. Many cliurches were for a considerable time 
without ministers, and not a few mechanics, luid persons 
altogether unlearned, were preferred, which brought much 
reproach upon the protestant cause; while others of the 
first rank for learning, piety and usefulness, were laid aside 
in silence. There was, indeed, very little preaching through 
the whole country.* The Bishop of Bangor writes, during 
this year, " that he had only two preachers in all his 
dioccse.'*+ Indeed the bishops in general were not insensible 
of the calamity ; but instead of opening the door a little 
wider, for the allowance of the more conscientious and 
zealous reformers, they admitted the meanest and most 
illiterate, who would come up to the tenns of conformity .^ 
And even at tliis early period, there were many of the clergy, 
^ho, though preferred to benefices, could not conform, but 
refused to observe the public service, and to wear the holy 

Sirments ; at which the queen was exceedingly ofiended.§ 
r. Matthew Parker was this year consecrat^ Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

In the year 1562, sat the famous convocation, when 
*' The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion," much the same 
as those of King Edward, were drawn up and subscribed 
by all the members then fitting, and required to be sub* 
scribed by all the clergy in the kingdom. Tlie convooa* 
lion proceeded next to consider the rites and ceremonies of 
the church, when Bishop Sandys presented a paper recom- 
mending ij^e abolition of private biptism, and^the crossing 
of the infant in the forehead, which, he said, was need/ess and 
very superstitious^ Another paper was, at the same time^ 
presentra to the house, with tlie following requests:-— 
^' That the psalms may be sung distinctly by the whole 
" congregation ; and that organs may be laid aside. — ^That 
" none may baptize but ministers; and that they may leave 
** off the sign of the cross. — That in the administration of 
" the sacrament, the posture of kneeling may be left indif- 
5* ferent. — ^That the use of copes ana surplices may be 
^^ taken away; so that all ministciTs in their ministry .use a 
*' ^rave, comely, and long garment, as they commonly do 
^^ in preaching. — That ministers be not compelled to wear 
^< such gowns and caps, as the enemies of Christ's gospel 
^^ have choeen for the special array of their priesthood.— 
^^ That the words in the thirty-third article, concerning the 

« Biog. Britao. vol. t. p. dS9T. Edit. 1747. + MS. Register, p. 886. 

It Neal*8 Puritans, vol. i. p. 146. 

^ Strype*! Parker, p. 106. || Strype^s Annals, fol. i. p. S97. 


*< punishment of those who do not in all things conform to 
** the public order about ceremonies, may be mitigated. — 
** That all the saints' days, festivals, and holidays, bearing 
*^ the name of a creature, may be abrogatiwi/' — ^This paper 
was subscribed by one provost, five deans, twelve arch- 
deacons, and fourteen proctors, many of whom were 
eminent for learning and ability ; but their requests were 

In the above convocation, there was a great difference of 
sentiment among (he learned reformers, which occasioned 
many warm debates upon points of great importance, 
especially upon this, " Whether it was most proper to 
retain the outward appearance of things, as near as possible 
to what had been practised in times of popery." While 
the one party maintained the affirmative, the other asserted, 
that this outward resemblance of the Romish church, would 
encourage the people in their former practices, nourish in 
them the old root of popery, and make them a niore easy ptey 
to their popish adversaries. Therefore they recommended 
that every thing might be removed as far as possible from 
the church of Rome.f In the conclusion, the contrary 
party prevailed : and the bishops, conceiving themselves 
empowered by the canons of this convocation, began to 
exercise their authority by requiring the clergy of their 
respective dioceses to subscribe to the litujrgy, the ceremo- 
nies, and ti^e discipline of the church; when such as 
refused, were branded with the odious name of Puritans. 
This was a term of reproach given, them by their enemies^ 
because they wished to serve and worship God with greater 
purity than was allowed and established in the church of 
England.): All were stigmatized by this name, who distin- 
guished themselves in the cause of rdigiom libei'ty, and 
who could not in all points conform to the ecclesiastical 

In the year 1364, Archbishop Parker, with the assistance 
of several of the bishops, published the jidveriisemenis, 
with a view to secure a due conformity .among ecclesiastical 
persons. By the first of these advertisements, all preachers 
throughout the province of Canterbury were at once disqua- 
lified ; and by the last, they were required to subscribe, and 
promise not to preach or ex{x>und the scriptures, wiUiout 
a license from the bishop, which could not be obtained 

• 8ti7pe*i AniMili, p. S98. vol. ii. Adden. p. 1$, 
<f Burnet*! Hist, of Refer, vol. Hi. p. S08. 
:( FuUer'i Gburcb Hiit. b. Ix. p. 76. 


without a prolcstaiion and promise ujider their hand of an 
absolute couformity to the ceremonies. No less than eight 
protestations were also required to be made and subhcribed 
by all who should be admitted to any oHice or cure in the 
church.* Though the archbishop and his brcKhren at first 
met with some difficulties in carrying them into effect, (the 
queen refusing to sanction them,) yet afterwards, pre- 
suming upon her majesty's favour, they succeeded accoraing 
to their wishes.f Upon the approach of these severities, 
Mr. Whitfingham wrote a long and pressing letter to the 
Ji^arl of Leicester, warmly urging him to interpose with the 
queen, to hinder their e^^ecution. In the conclusion of this 
most piathetic epistle, he says, '' I need not appeal to tiie 
word of God, to the history of the primitive church, and 
to the just judgments of God poured out upon the nations 
for lack of true reformation. Judge ye bciwixt us and 
our enemies. And if we seek the glory of God alone, the 
enjoyment of true christian liberty, the overthrow of all 
idolatry and superstition, and to win souls to Christ; I 
beseech your honour to pity our case, and use your utmost 
endeavours to secure our liberty ."j 

Many of the clergy in both the universities, and in the 
country, but especially in the city of London, refused to 
wear tiie square cap, the tippet, and tlie surplice. ^' And 
it is marvellous,'' says Mr. Str^-pe, '' how much these habits 
were abhorred by many honest, well-meaning nie^ ; wlio 
styled them antichristian ceremonies, and by i^pi mcims fit 
to be used in a true christian church."^ Bat Archbishop 
Parker and other high commissioners beii^ resolved to 
reduce the church to one unifonu order, cited many of the 
clergy before them, adrnpnisliing some, and threatening 
others. Among thosi; who appeared, were Dr. Sampson, 
dean of Christ-chifrch, Oxfor^y and Dr. Humphrey, presi« 
dent of Magdalen coUege, in the same university. They 
were divipes of gre^t renown throughout the kingdom, for 
learning, pie^, and zeal for the reformation, but were 
(Cast into prison for nonconformity.|| Tlie famous Mr. 
Whitehead, ^i^ several others, \yas cited at the bs^q 

« Sparrow's CoUec. p. 123—128. 

+ Sfrype's Parker, p. 151—161. 

t See Art. Whittingham. ^ Strypc*8 Parker, p. 151. 

n It 'it' proper liere to obserre, that throughout the Introduclioo, no 
jLBtliority will be given where the same things are treated more pt large in 
the body of the work. Therefore, in order to examine the evidence of 
what the author has asserted, as well as a more circumstantial detail of facts, 
the reader, in all such instances, b directed to the respective articles. 


time, and, refusing to subscribe, was immediately sus- 
pended. Mr. Becon, another celebrated reformer, being 
cited, and refusing to subscribe, was immediately srques* 
tered and depriv^. Mr. Allen was cited, and received 
the like censure. Many others were suspended and deprived, 
who, having wives and children, laboured under great 
poverty and want. Being driven from their ministerial 
employment, some, to procure a livelihood, betook them- 
selves to trades, some to husbandry, and some went to sea.* 
The principal reasons of these and other learned divines 
now refusing conformity, were^l. Because those things 
which the prelates required, were unsupported by scripture 
and primitive antiquity. — 2. They were not received by 
other reformed churches. — And, 3. They savoured very 
much of the errors and superstitions of popery .f On these 

grounds, they disapproved of some things in the Bock of 
ommon Prayer, and forbore the use of the habits and 

In the year 1565, the archbishop and his brethren in 
^commission, not content with exercising all their own au- 
thority to its fullest extent, sought the favourable assistance 
bf the council, and enforced an exact conformity to the 
ecclesiastical establishment with still greater rigour. They 
convened the London ministers before them ; and whc^i 
they 'appeared in court, Mr. Robert Cole, a clergyman,t 
being placed by the side of the commissioners in priestly 
apparel, they were addressed in these words: — ^ My 
masters, and ye ministers of London, the counciFs pleasure 
is, that strictly ye keep the unity of apparel, like this man 
who stands fa^e cahonically habited with a square cap, a 
8cholar*s gown, priest- tike, a tippet^ and, in the church, a 
linen surplice, x e that will subscribe, write Voh; those 
that wiQ not subscribe, write Noloi' Be brief: make no 
words." When ' some ' of the ministers offered to speak, 
they were immediately interrupted with the command, 
" Peace^ peace; and apparitor^ call over the churches : 
ye masters, answer presently under the penalty of con- 
tempt.^'S In the conclusion, sixty-one promisea confor- 
mity, but thiiijf'seven absolutely refused, being, as the 
archbishop acknowledged, the best among them. These 

^ Strjrpe*! Orlndal, p. 99. f MS. Remarks, p. ISI. 

X This Mr. Cole, for his subicriptioB and conformity, was preferred by 
the archblihop to the benefice of JSow and AllhaUows, London.— JS«iirer*s 
MS^ C9ll§e. Tol. xxf li. p. 387. 

S Stryp«*i Grindal, p. 98.^Annals, toI. i. p. 4S3. 


were immediately suspended, and told, that if they did 
not cmifonn within three months, they should be deprived 
of all their spiritual promotions.* Among, those who 
received the ecclesiastical censure, was Mr. Crowley, whd 
was afterwards deprived and imprisoned. Mr. Brokelsby 
was sequestered, and afterwards deprived, being the fiist 
who was thus censured for refusing to wear the surplice. 
Dr. Turner, dean of Wells, was sequestered and deprived 
for refusing to wear the surplice, and to use the Book of 
Common rrayer. The venerable Miles Coverdale was 
driven from his flock^ and obliged to relinquish his benefice. 
In consequence of these proceedings, many of the churches 
in London were shut up, for want of ministers. " This,"** 
says the archbishop, '^ was no more than he foresaw before he 
began ; and that when the queen put him upon doing what 
he had done, he told her, mat these precise folks,^' as in 
contempt he calls them, '^ would offer their goods and bodies 
to prison, itither than they would relent."f 

Notwithstanding these proceedings^ the nonconformists 
greatly multiplied, and they were much esteemed and 
countenanced by persons of quality and influence. God 
raised them up many friends in both hou3es of parliament, 
and in her majesty's privy council : as, the Earls of Bed- 
ford, Warwick, and Leicester, Sir Francis KnoUys, Sir 
William Cecil, and many others. All these • were ^the 
constant friends of the puritans, and used their power and 
influence to obtain a further reformation.t Though in the 
latter they utterly failed of success, they often protected 
the. persecuted ministers, or procured their release from 
suspension, deprivation, and imprisonment. 

The principal persons for learning and piety, in the 
university of Cambridge, notanty opposed the above 
severities, but refused conformity. The fellows and scholars 
of St. John's coll^, to the number of nearly three hundred^ 
threw away their surplices with one consent ; and many in 
other colleges followed their example.^ This, indeed, 
presently roused the zeal of the jealous archbishop. He 
looked upon Cambridge as becoming the very nursery rf 
Puritanism ; and, therefore, to crush the evil in the bud, 
he warmly recmnmended the chancellor to enforce an exact 
conformity throughout that fountain of learning. In the 
mean time, the heads of colleges being dissatisfied with 
these proceedings, wrote a pressing letter to the chancellor, 

• Strype's Parker, p. «11, «15. + Ibid. p. 285. 

t MS. Renarks, p. Ill, 193. h Strype*s Anoalf, vol. i. p. 441. 


wishing him to put a stop to such severe measures. They 
observe that multitudes of pious and learned men thought 
in their consciences, that the use of the garments was utterly 
unlawful ; and that the imposition of them upon all in the 
university, would compel tliese worthy persons to forsake 
the place, which would leave the university very destitute. 
Such an imposition of conformity, say they, will prove 
exceedingly detrimental to the preaching of the gospel^ as 
well as to good learning.* The chancellor being a man of 
great prudence and circumspection, and loath to give offence 
by using severities, made some demur, with which the 
archbishop was displeased. Those who refused conformity 
reminded the chancellor, that they had cast away the cere- 
mcmies, not out of malice, for vain glory, an affection for 
pcqyulaxity, contempt of laws, or any desire of innovation, 
iMit out of love to the truth. They could call the Searcher 
of Hearts to witness, that in what they had done, they had 
sought to enjoy peace (^ oonacience, and the true worship 
of Grod. rThey prayed, therefore, that their consciences 
might not be brought into a state of mo^ grievous bondage 
and exquisite torment, faiy being forced to observe the 

The proceedings of the prelates in censuring so many 
ministers of high reputation, was very afflictive to the 
foreign reformed churches. Therefore the famous Beza 
wrote a letter this year to Bishop Grindal, exposing the 
evils attending the impositicm of conformity. He observes^ 
that '' if they do ofiend, who choose to leave their churches^ 
rather than conform to rites and vestments against their 
consciences; a greater guilt is contracted by those who 
choose to spoil these flocks of able pastors, ratlter than suffer 
those pastors to make choice of their own apparel; or, 
choose to rob the people of the food of their souls, rather 
than suffer them to receive it otherwise than on their knees."t 
He observes also, that this intended conformity designed 
^' to admit again, not only those garments which are the 
signs o( BtmTs priests^ but also certain rites, which are 
degenerated into the worst of superstitions : as the signing 
with the cross,- kneeling at the conununion, and such like.*'^ 

The church of Scotland wrote, at the same time^ a most 

♦ Among: those who sniMcrrbed this letter was even Dr. John WhitglH, 
afterwards the celebrated archbishop. This man was now a zealous friend 
of the nonconformists ; but soon after as zealous a persecutor of them* 
^Strype'8 Parker, p. 194. + Ibid. p. 198, |94, 196. 

i UeyJin's Hist, of Pres. p. 39. S Su^pe*! Griodal, p. US. 



affectionate aiid pressing letter to the bishops and pastors of 
England, exposing the evil of persecution, and recom- 
mending peace among brethren. '' We understand,'^ say 
they, <^ that divers of our dearest brethren, among whom 
are some of the Jbest learned in the realm, are deprived 
from the ecclesiastical function, and forbidden to preach, 
because their consciences will not suffer them to use such 
garments as idolaters in time of blindness, have used in 
their idolatry. We crave in the bowels of Jesus Christy 
that christian charity may prevail among you. Ye cannot 
be ignorant how tender a thing the conscience of man is. 
If then the surplice, comer cap, and tippet, have been 
badges of idolatry, and used in the very act of idolatry, 
wlia^ hath the preacher of christian liberty, and the open 
rebuker of all superstition, to do with the dregs of that 
liomish beast ? Our brethren who of conscience refuse that 
unprofitable apparel, do neither condemn, nor molest you, 
who use such vain trifles. If you should do the like to 
them, we doubt hot that you will please God, atid comfcHt 
the hearts of many, which are wounded by the present 
extremities. Our humble supplication is, that our brethren 
among you, who refuse the Rotnish rags^ may find such 
favour of you prelates, as your Head and Master com- 
mandeth eveiy one of his members to shew to all others. 
We expect to receive your gentleness, not only because 
you fear to offend Grod's majesty, by troubling your 
brethren with such vain trifles ; but also because you will 
not refuse the humble request of us your brethren and fellow- 
preachers of Jesus Christ. We suppose you will esteem us 
to be of the number of those, who flght against the Romish 
antichrist, and travel for the advancement of the universal 
kingdoni of Jesus Christ; before whom, we, and you, and 
your brethren, must soon give an account."* 

Many 'of the puritans having, for the sake of peace, 
conformed as far as they possibly could, at length endea- 
voured, though under great discouragements, to obtain an 
accommodation. But the prelates proceeding with still 
gresiter severity against all who could not come up to the 
standard of conformity, made it too evidently appear, that 
they sought not their conformity, but their utter extir- 

• This letter, dated Edinburg, Dec. 27, 1566, is entitled " The mioisteni 
and elders of the cbarches within the realme of Scotlande, to their brethren 
the bishops bnd pastours of Englande, who have renounced the Romano 
antichrist, and doe professe with them the Lord Jesus in sinceritie, desireth 
the perpetnaU increase of the Holy Spirit."— Parte of a Megister, p. 123 


pattoD» Having made application to certain persons of 
(listbguished eminence^ the business was laid before the 
parliament ; and during this year^ six bills were bioo^ht 
into the house of commons^ to promote a further reformation 
of tlie church. They were warmly supported by many 
eminent statesmen, and one of them passed the house ; but 
coming up to the lords^ it met with some opposition ; and 
by the superior power and influence of the bishops^ it was 
<:ast out.* 

Through the heavy oppressions of the prelates, many of 
the puritans, both ministers and others, withdrew from the 
national church, and set up their separate assemblies. They 
laid aside the ecclesiastical ceremonies and the Book of 
Common Prayer, and worshipped God in a way which to 
tbem appeared more agreeable to the word of God. The 
reason assigned for their separation was^ ^^ that the ceremo* 
pies of antichrist were so tied to the service of God, thai 
no one might preach, or administer the sacraments without 
tbem^ being compelled to observe these things by law.** If 
tbe use of the habits and certain ceremonies had been left 
discretionary, both ministers and people would no doubt 
have been easy. This being denied, they entered into a 
serous consultation, when they came to this conclusicmr 
^ That, since they could not have the word of God 
preached, nor the sacraments administered^ without idola'- 
trou9 gear; and since there had been a separate ccmgre* 
gaticMi in London, and another at Geneva, in Queen Mary's 
time, which used a book and order of preaching, adminis* 
Iration oi[ the sacraments and discipline, which the great 
Mr- Calvin approved of, and which was freed from tbe 
superstitions of the English service y that therefore it was 
tlieir duty in their present circumstances, to break off from 
the public churches, and to assemble as they had opportu- 
nity in priyate houses, or elsewhere, to worship God in a 
manner that might not offend their consciences."f This 
was about the year 1566, and was the aera of that Sepa- 
ration from the church of England which continues to 
this day. 

The chief leaders of the separation were Messrs. Cole- 
man, Button, Halingbam, Benson, and Hawkins, all, ac« 
cording to Fuller, active and zealous nonconformists, 
beneficed within the diocese of London4 Notwithstanding 

* MS. Remarks, p. 463. 

+ Parte of a Register, p. 25.— 8trype*s Parker, p.8iI>S4^ 

t Fuller's Cbuicb Hist. b. iz. p. 81. 

introduction: 29 

the threatenings and severities of the prelates, they continued 
to meet in their private assemblies, as they found oppor- 
tunity; and oftentimes assembled in the fields and the 
woods in the neighbourhood of London, to avoid the disco- 
very of their watchful enemies.* But they ventured at 
length to appear more openly ; and Jmie 19, 1567, having 
agreed to havea ^rmon and the Lord's supper at Plumbers^ 
hall in the city, they hired the place, as some one intimate^ 
under pretence of a wedding. Here, the sherifls and other 
officers discovered them, and broke up their meeting, when 
about one hundred were assembled ; most of whom were 
taken into custody, and sent to Bridewell, the Compter, 
and other prisons. Having remained in prison nearly two 
years, and their patience and constancy being sufficiently 
tried, twenty-four men and seven women were released by 
an 'order from the couuciLt 

The puritans of these times had many objections against 
the established church. They complained of the assumed 
superiority of bishops above presbj ters. — They excepted 
against the numerous, pompous titles of ecclesiastical 
officers. — ^They complained of the exorbitant power and 
jurisdiction of the prelates. — They lamented the want of 
Eodly discipline. — They disliked some things in the public 
liturgy : as, the frequent repetition of the Lord's prayer, 
the responses, some things in the office of marriage, the 
burial of the dead, &c. — ^They disliked the reading of the 
apocryphal books, to the exclusion of some parts of ca- 
nonical scripture. — They disallowed of the cathedral mode 
of worship. — They disapproved of the church festivals or 
holidays, as having no foundation in scripture. — They dis- 
approved of pluralities, nonresidencc, and lay patrons.— 
And they scrupled confbnnity to certain rites and ceremo- 
nies : as, the cross in baptism ; the promises and vows ; the 
use of sponisors, to the exclusion of parents ; the custom o£ 
confirming children ; kneeling at the Lord's supper ; bow* 
ing at the name of Jesus; me ring in marriage; and the 
wearing of the surplice, with other ceremonies equally 
without foundation in scripture.}: 

During the above year, the puritans felt the oppressiiMis 
of the ruling ecclesiastics. Mr. Evans was convened before 
them and prosecuted, for keeping conventicles. Mr. Law- 
rence, a Suffolk divine of great eminence, was suspended 
&r nonconformity; and Dr. Hardyman sufiered deprivation. 

* Heylln's Hist, of Pres. p. 259. f Sto pe'i Grinda), p. 136- 

J Nears Puritans, ?ol. i. p. 209—213. 


Mr. Stroud, minister of Yalding, in Kent, was cast into 
priMKi, excommunicated, depriv^ of his ministry, reduced 
to extreme poverty, and obliged to enter u|Km tlie employ- 
ment of correcting the press tor his support Other puri- 
tans, denominated peaceable nonconformists, obtained for 
some time a connivance or toleration. These were Drs. 
8am{ison, Humphrey, Wybum, Penny and Corerdale, 
with Messrs. Pox, I^ever, and Johnson.* 

AI)out the year 1570, other oppressions were inflicted 
upon certain London ministers : Mr. Crane and Mr. Bonbam 
were both silenced and cast into prison for nonconformity. 
The tbrmer was afterwards for the same crime committed to 
Newgate; where, after languishing a lon^ time under the 
hardships of the prison, he was delivered by death from 
all his afflictions. Mr.. Axton, an excellent divine, for 
refusing the apparel, the cross in baptism, and kneeling at 
the Lord's supper, was convened before the Bishop of 
Lichfi(*ld and Coventry, and, after a lon^ examination, was 
deprived and driven to seek his bread m a foreign hmd. 
The celebrated Mr. Cartwright, of Cambridge, was cited 
before Dr. Whitgill and others, when he was deprived of 
his public ministry, exi)elled from the university, and forced 
to depart out of the kin^om. Innumerable, indeed, were 
the hanlships under which the puritans groaned. By the 
rigorous prociHHlings of the ruling prelat€^ the church was 
depri veil of many of its brightest ornaments ; and nearly all 
its faithful i)nstors were eject^nl; especially in Northampton* 
8hln\ Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Norfolk, and SuffQlk.f 
While those ravagt*s were made upon the church of Christ, 
•cvcral thousands of ministers of inferior character, such as 
common swearers, drunkards, gamesters, whoremongers, 
and mnssin^i^ priests^ only because they were conformable, 
continuixi in their ofhces, enjoyed their living and ob- 
tained prefennent. Most of the bishops havmg efidured 
persecution and banishment in tlie days of Queen Bfarr, 
and being now exalted by promotion, honour, and wealth, 
Jt>netot their fiirmer cHindition, and persecuted their brethren 
of tlie same faith, who could uot come up to the standard of 

At this'periml, there was considerable ym^y in the kind 
of bread usttl in the Ixmr$ supper : some ministers, in 
mnfonuily to the papists aiKl the queen^s injunctions, used 
the 9Mf(rr bread ; but oUiers, in conformity to scripture 

♦ $tr> |N^'« INirktrr. p. ^MH. i MS. Rtf bier, p. I4T. 


and the conTictions of their own minds, renounced the 
popish relict, and used the loaf bread. This gave great 
ofience and much trouble to Archbishop Parker, who, with 
the assistance of Bishc^ Grindal, laboured much to bring all 
the clergy to an exact uniformity.* 

The above proceedings having excited considerable alarm 
in the nation, some attempts were made in the parliament 
of 1571, to obtain a reformation of the ecclesiastical laws. 
The motion was warmly supported by some of the ablest 
statesmen ; but was no sooner become the subject of publi'c 
discussion, than the queen took great offence, and forbad 
the house to concern itself about such matters.t The 
commons ventured, however, to present a supplication to 
her majesty, in which, they observe, tliat for want of true 
ecclesiastical discipline, there were great numbers of minis- 
ters of. infamous lives, while those possessed of abilities for 
the sacred function were cast aside as useless. They com- 
plain of the great increase of popery, atheism and licen- 
tiousness, by which the protestant religion was in imminent 
danger. " And," say they, " being moved with pity 
towards so many thousands of your majesty's subjects^ daily 
in danger of being lost- for want of the tbod of the word^ 
and (rue discipline; we, the commons in this present 
parliament assembled, are humbly bold to open the griefs, 
and to seek the salving of the sores of our country ; and to 
beseech your majesty, seeing the same is of so great import- 
ance, that the* parliament at this time may be so long 
continued, as that by good and godly laws, provision may 
be made for a reformation of these great and grievous wants 
and abuses, and by such other means as to your majesty 
shall seem meet, a perfect redress of the same may be 
obtained ; by which the number of your majesty's faithful 
subjects will be increased, popery will be destroyed, the 
glory of God will be promoted, and your majesty's renown 
will be recommended to all posterity."t But the queen 
broke up the parliament without taking the least notice of 
the supplication. 

These proceedings occasioned an act to pass during this 
parliament, requiring all ministers ^^ to declare their assent 
to all the articles of religion, which onfy concern the 
confession of the true christian faith, and the doctrine df 
the sacraments." This was a great alleviation to the non* 

♦ Strype's Parker, p. 308—310. 

+ D. Ewes's Journal, p. 157, 185.— Strype's Parker, p. 324. 

} MS. Register, p. 98, 93, 


oonfonnists, when they all readily subscribed. But th€ 
bishops and clergy in convocation had the ccmlBdence, at 
the same time, to make new canons of discipline, by which 
they greatly increased the burdens of the puritans. They 
required subscription to all the articles, even those rdating 
io the rites, ceremonies, order and policy of the church, 
as well as others, contrary to the above statute. The 
bishops called in all their licenses to preach, forbidding 
all ministers to preach without new ones. Most ol the 
nonconformists claiming the 'liberty allowed them by the 
laws of the land, refused the canonical subscription, as a 
most grievous usurpation over their consciences ; for which 
great numbers were turned out of their livings.* This led 
them to preach in other churches, or in private hoNLises, 
without license, as they were able to procure an opportubity. 
But the queen hearing of this, immediately commanded 
the archbishop and oUier ecclesiastical commissioners not 
to suffer any minister to read, pray, preach, or admini«tar 
either of the sacraments, in any church, chapel, or private 
place, without a license from her majesty, tbe archbishop, 
or the bishop of the diocese, f 

^These tyrannical measures, instead of bringing the puri- 
tans nearer the standard of conformity, drove them Jbrther 
from the church. They could not with a good conscience, 
observe the new ecclesiastical impositions ; and, therefore, 
the chief among them were cited to appear at Lambeth ;i 
among whom were Drs. Sampson and Wybum, and Messrs. 
Goocmian, Lever, Walker, Goff, Deering, Field, Brown, 
and Johnson. These divines were ready to sul^^cribe to 
the doctrines of faith and the sai^raments, according to law, 
but excused themselves from doing more. Goodman was 
suspended, and constrained to sign a recantation. Lever 
quietly resigned his prebend in the church of Durham. 
Ileering was long molested and suspended. Johnson suffered 
similar treatment. Dr. Willoughby was deprived for re- 
fusing the above canonical sub^ription.^ Mr. Gilby and 
Mr. Whittingbam endured many troubles for their noii^ 

These proceedings opened the eyes of the people ; and 
the parliament in 1572, warmly espoused the cause of the 
distressed ministers. The queen and bishops having most 
shamefully abused their pretended spiritual power, two 
bills were brought into the house, in one of which the 

♦ MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 135. (1—2) 

f Strype's Parker, p. 324, 325. J Ibid, p. 326. S ^*^^y P- ^2* 


hardships under which the puritans groaned, were intended 
to be redressed.* The bills passed smoothly through the 
commons, and were referred to a committee of both houses; 
which so alarmed the bishops, and gave such offence to the 
queen, thai, two days after, she acouainted the commons^ 
that it was her rojral pleasure, that no oil! relating to religi<m 
should henceforth be introduced into that house^ till. after 
the same had been considered and approTed by the cleigy ; 
and she commanded the house to deliyer up the two bills 
last read, touching^ rites and ceremonies.f With this hisrh 
stretch oi her majesty^s prerqgatiTe^ the onnmons quiray 
and tamdy complied, and their efforts came to nothii^. 

In the mean tune, the bishops stuck close to the canonical 
disdpline; enforced conformity with the utmost rigour; 
and, according io the computation of Blr. Strype,): there 
were at least one hundred ministers deprived this year, for 
revising subscription. The university of Cambridge was^ 
indeed, become a nest of puritans. Dr. Browning and Mr. 
Brown, both fellows of Trinity college, were convened 
before the heads, and cast into prison for nonconformity, 
Mr. Clarke, fellow of Peter-house, and Mr. Millain, fellow 
of Christ's college, were expelled from their collies, and 
banished from the university.^ But these severe proceedings 
had not the effect intendedf : for, instead of crushing the 
nonconformists, the more they were persecuted, the more 
th^ multiplied. 

Th& puritans having in vain sought for a reformation 
from the queen and the bishops, resolved to apply to the 
parlianwnt, and stand bv the constitution. They published 
a treatise, presenting their grievances in one view. It was 
compiled by Mr. Field, assisted b^ Mr. Wilcocks, and 
revised by others. The work was entitled << An Admonition 
to the Parliament ;'' to which were annexed, Beza's letter 
to the Earl of Leicester, and Gaulter's io Bishop Parkhurst, 
upon the reformation of church discipline. It contains 
a platform of the church ; the manners of electing ministers ; 
with their several duties, and their equality in govemmmt. 

« Serype's Pftrker, p. 394. 

f D. Ewes's JoarniU, p. 907. — Strype*8 Aoaali, toI. ii. p. 185. 

± Strype*! Aonab, toI. ii. p. 1S7. 

S la opposition to tlie above tkcti, Biiliop Maddoz ininQatfi tlist gfea^ 
favour and indolgence were iliewB to tlie porilaos, daring Uiii year} aa4 
refers to the words of Mr. Btrype, saying, *' That they were as fs«l% 
treated as might be i no kind of brotherly persuasion omitted to#arda 
4bem ; and oMist of them as yet kept their livings i though one or fiM were 
A isptaced.'* What degree of troth is contained in this statement, Cftry oii» 
win easily jttdge.^itraddox'f rindicMHon^ p. ITS. 
VOL. I. D 


It then exposes with some degree of sharpness the oorrop* 
tions of the church, and the proceedings of the bishops. 
The admonition then concludes, by petitioning the houses, 
that discipline^ more consonant to the word of God, and 
more agreeable to other reformed churches, majrbeestar 
blished by law. Mr. Field and Mr. Wilcocks presented it 
themselves to the house, for which they were apprdiended, 
and sent to Newgate, where they remained in dote and 
miserable confinement at least fineeii months. While the 
authors were thus prosecuted, the book spread abroad, and 
toon passed through several raitions.* 

The leading puritans having presented their numerous 
petitions to the queen, the bishops, and the parliament, to 
little or no purpose, agreed to attempt to promote the desuefl 
reformation in a more private way. For this purpose^ they 
erected a presbytery at Wandsworth, near Londcm. Tte 
members of this association were Messrs. Smith, Crane, 
Field, Wilcocks, Standen, Jackson, Bonham, Saintloc, 
and Edmunds ; to whom were afterwards joined Messrs. 
Travers, Clarke, Barber, Gardiner, Cheston, Crook, Egeiton, 
and a number of respectable laymen. Eleven eiders were 
chosen, and their offices described in a rc^ist^r, entitled 
<^ The Orders of Wandsworth." This was the first presby- 
terian church in England. Notwithstanding that all ima*- 

Einablc care was taken to keep their, proceedings secret^ the 
isliops' eves were upon them, who gave immraiate intelli- 
gence to the high commission; upon which the queen issued 
Eer royal proclamation for a more exact observance of the 
act of uniformity. And though the bishops knew of the 
presbytery, they could not discover its members, nor prevent 
others from being erected in other parts of the kingdmn.i' 

While multitudes of the best preachers were utt^y 
silenced, the church of England stood in the greatest need 
of their sealcms and faitliful labours. It was, indeed, in a 
most deplorable condition. The conformable clergy ob- 
tained all the benefices in their power, and residra npcm 
none, utterly neglecting their cures : many (rf'them alienated 
the church lands, made unreasonable leases, vrasted the 
wood upon the lands, and granted reversions and advowsons 
for tlieir own advantage. The churches fell greatly into 
decay, and became unfit for divine service. Among the 
laity there was very little devotion; and the Lord^s day was 

* For tt circiamstmntial mcconat of tlie controversy excited by tbe p«UI* 
cfttum of the «' Admonition," tee Art. TboBU Cnrtwriskt. 

i F«ll«r\ Church UUt. b. u. p. 10S.^Ncia*s PttritUM, vid. i. p. 866. 


generally proftined. Many "were mere heathens, epicures, 
or atheists, especially those about the court; and good 
men feared that some sore judgment hung over the natmi.* 
In the year 1573, the queen issued her royal proclama- 
tion, <^ strictly commanding all archbishops and bishops, all 
justices of assizes, and all i^hers having authority, to put in 
execution the act of uniformity of common prayer, with all 
dilL^ce and severity, neither favouring, nor dissembling 
with any one person, who doth neglect, despise, or seek to 
alter the ^odly orders and rites set forth in the said book." 
The proclamation requires further, ^^ that all who shall be 
found nonconformable in the smallest matter, shall be imme- 
diately apprehended and cast into prison ; all who shall 
forbear coming to the common prayer, and receiving the 
sacraments, according to the said book, shall be immediately 

E resented and punished ; and all who shall either in private 
ouses, 6r in public assemblies, use any other rites of com- 
mon prayer and administration of sacraments, or shall 
maintain in their houses any persons guilty of these things, 
shall be punished with the utmost severity /'f This, from 
the supreme gproemor of the church, inspired the zealous 
prelates with new life and courage. They enforced sub- 
scription upon the clergy with great riffour. Though tlie 
forms of subscription varied in different dioceses, that which 
was most commonly imposed was the following : ^' I ac- 
*^ knowledge the book of articles agreed upon by the clergy 
^* in the synod of 1563, and confirmed by the queen s 
*^ majesty, to be sound and according to the word of God.~ 
** That the queen*s majesty is the chief governor, next under 
<^ Christ, of this church of England, as well in ecclesiastical 
** as civil causes.— That in the Book of Common Prayer, 
^ there is nothing evil or repugnant to the word of God, but 
** that it may well be used in this our christian church of 
** England.— And that as the public preaching of the word 
<<infliis church of England is sound and sincere, so the 
^* public order in the ministration of the sacraments is con- 
*' sonant to the word of God."t 

Upon the rigorous imposition of these forms, many minis- 
ters not being able with a good conscience to comply, were 
brought into ereat trouble. Messrs. Deering and Cartwright, 
together with Dr. Sampson and other excellent divines, 
endured much cruel usage for nonconformity .§ Dr. 
Wybum, and Messrs. Brown, Johnson, Field, Wilcocbi^ 

• Strype's Barker, p. 395. ^■ Sparrow's CoUec. p. 169, 170. 

X Parte of a Register, p. 81. ^ Strypc's AnnaU, ▼ol. H. p. 865— J882. 


Snrnnr^ and King, weredrprhned of their Inrings, and four 
or tlirm conuniUed to Newgate. They were told, that if 
thejr did not comidy in a dioit tune, they should be 
baniiJiod, though there was no law in existence to iniict 
an^ such puniwment.* Mr. Jdinson, who was fisUow of 
King*s collqpe, Cambridge, and domestic chaplain to the 
Lord Keeper Bacoo, was tried at Westminster-hall fiir 
nonconformity^ and sent to the Gatehouse where^ through 
his cruel impnsomnent, he soon after died. Several otlien, 
cast into pnson at the same time, died under the pieMiiies 
of their confinement. Mr« Bonham, Blr. Standen and Mr. 
Pcnn, were committed to prisoiu where they remained a 
lonj^ time. Mr. Wake, rector of Great-Billinff ; Mr. FiEigety 
minister of Oundle ; Mr. Mosely , minister o( Hordingstooe ; 
Mr. Gildcrd, minister of CdRinj^ree; and Mr. iSiwson, 
minister of Weston-Fayell, all m the diocese o( Peter- 
borough, were first suspended for three weeks, and then 
depriveu of their livings. They were all useful preachers. 
Four of them were liccnwd by the university, as learned and 
religious divines, and three had been moderators jn, the 
leligious exercises. Mr. Lowth, minister of Carlis^ was 
prosecuted in the hiffh commission at York; while Mr. 
Randcrson and Dr. Crick, two learned and useful divines in 
Norfolk, fell into the hands of the hiffh commissioneis in 
the south, when the latter was deprived of his preferment 
Many others in the diocese (rf* Norwich rrfusing conformity, 
were prosecuted in the ecclesiastical courts.f And Biu. 
Aldricti. with many others in the university of Cambridfe, 
rocciveu much unchristian usage from the governing ecde- 
siastics. At the same time, John Townley, esq. a layman, 
was committed to prison for nonconformity, when Dean 
Nowcll^ his near kinsman, presented a petition to the presi- 
dent of the north and the Archbishop of Ywk, for his 
release, t 

The year 1574 was memorable for the suppression of the 
religious exercises, called prophesumgs. Some of the 
bisli0|)8 behi£. persuaded of tne usefulness of these exercises, 
discovered their unwillingness to put them down. This 

Kve great oiFi^ncc to the queen, who addressed a letter to all 
5 bishops in England, peremptorily commanding them to 
suppress them in Uieir respective dioceses. Her majesty in 
this discovered a most despotic and tyrannical spirit. AOL 
tlic bishops and clergy in the nation must bow to her 

t BdLer't MS, CsUec ▼«!. kzi. p. 389. 


sovereign pleasure.* This was the royal lady who renounced 
the inraUioility of the Pope of Rome. In these exercises, 
the clergy were divided info classes, and each class was 
under the direction of a moderator appointed by the bishop 
of the diocese. They were held once a fortnight, when a 
portion of scripture formed the subject of discussion. 
They were holden publicly in the churches ; and besides 
exposing the errors of popery, they were of unspeakable 
service m promoting a knowledge of the scriptures among 
the people. But the jealous archbishop looked upon them 
as the nurseries of puritanism, calling tliem vain prophe* 
syingsA They tended, in his opinion, to promote popu- 
larity, insuborainaticm, and nonconformity. But the arch- 
bishop did not long survive. For he died May 17, 1575 ; 
when he was succeeded by Dr. Edmund Grindal, Arch- 
bishop of York. He was a prelate of risid and cruel 
principles, and much concerned to e8tiJ>ush an exact 
uniformity in outward things, to the neglect of more 
important matters.} 

During this year, a con^egation of Dutch anabaptists 
was discovered, without Aidgatc, Ixmdon; twenty-'seven 
of whom were apprehended and cast into prison, and four 
bearing fagots at PauFs cross, recanted their opinions. 
Eight were banished from the kingdom, and two were con- 
denmed io the flames, and burnt in Smithfield. The Dutch 
congregation in Lonaon interceded for their pardon, as did 
Mr. F^ox, the mariyrologist ; but the queen remained in- 
flexible^ and the two poor men perfumed Smithlield with 
their ashes.^ 

The puritans, under all their hardships, had many able 
friends at court, who stood firm in the cause of reli^ous 
liberty. Therefore a committee was this year appomted 
by parliament to draw up a bill ^^ For the Reformation of 
(;hurch Discipline." But, as before, the house mast 
probably received a check for attempting to interfere in 
religious matter8.|| 

In the year 1576, many learned divines felt the vengeance 
of the ruling prelates. Mr. Harvy and Mr. Gawton, in 

* Sfrype*f Grindal, Appen. p. 85, 86. f S(rype*s Parker, p. 461. 

X Though a late writer aflimis that Archbishop Parker ** was pruienU 
^tJilb, aod amtiiU t** Home lajs " he was rigid in exactiag conforaity to 
the established worship, and in punishing, by fines or deprivation, all the 
^rltaaical clergyneD, who attenptcd to innovate any thing in the habits» 
ceremonies, or liturgy of the cbnrch.*'— CAur/on*s Life tf S^wellf p. 113. 
— J7iim«*s aut. of Eng. ? ol. ▼. p. 188. 

S See Art. Fox. y MS. Remarks, p. 463. 


additjon to many other troubles, were both suspended for 
fionconforinify. As (he storm approached, the ministers ai 
Norfolk prqiared for it, by presenting their humUe sup* 
plication to the council, in which they express themselves 
as follows :«— <^ As touching your letters wiierein you say, 
that her majesty is fully Ibent to remove ail thosc^ who 
f^annot be pcrsuailed to conform themselves to all oiden 
established, it gricrveth our souk very much, considering 
what desolation is likely to come upon the poor flock of 
Chrurf, by bcins ttius Ixfrcavcd of many excellent pastors, 
who dare not yield to that conformity. Yet knowmg that 
the hearts of ppnces are in the hatids of God, we commit 
our cause, basing (iod's pwn cause, unto, him, waiting for 
a happy issue at his hands. In the mean time^ we pofur 
out our prayers before the throne of his mercy, to direct 
lier majesUr to promote his glory, lamenting our sins, and 
ilie sins or the land, as the reason of our prince It^eing set 
Against so gently a cause. 

** As for oufM^Ives, though we are willing to yield our 
bodies, gcKxIs, and lives to our sovereign prince, we dare 
not yiehl (o this conformity, for fear of that terrible threatn 
ening of the Ijord Jesus : ^ Whosoever shall offend one of 
ihvmt littlo ones, it were bettor for him that a mill-stone were 
hangc'd al)out his neck, and that he were cast into the 
i\v\mi of the sea.' And though wc have ever so much 
knowlnlgc of cliristian liberty, wc dare not cause our weak 
brother (o perish, for wliom Christ died. For in sinning 
against them, and wounding their consciences we sin 
ngninst Christ. Wc conclude with the apostle, ' Where- 
fore if meat (so we say of ceremonies) make my bifother 
to oHendi ] will oat no flesh \^hile the world standeth, lest 
I make my bn>thor to ofFond." Therefore we dare not yield 
to those ceroinonit^, liocausc, so far from edifying and 
buildini^ up the church, they have rent it asunder, and 
torn it ui |)toros, to its gn^t misery and ruin, as God 
knowoth; and unU^ss some mitigation be granted, still 
grrator misery and ruin will follow, by stopping the 
mouths of the servants of God. 

«^ Although hor maji'sty he incensed against us, as if we 
would obey no laws, wo take the Lord ot heaven and earth 
to witiicM, that we acknowledge, from the bottom of our 
hearts* her majesty to be our lawful queen, placed over ns 
by God for our sood : and we give God our most humble 
and hearty thanis lx>r her happv govctnment ; and, both 
in public and private* wc constancy piay for her prosperity. 


We renounce all fbreign power, and acknowledge her 
majesty's supremacy to be lawful and just. We detest all 
error and h^^sy. Yet we desire that >her majc^sty will not 
think us disobedient, seeing we suffer ouisdves to be dis* 
/placed, rather than yield to some things required. Our 
bodies, and goods, and all we haye^ are in her majesty's 
hands ; only our souk nDc reserve to our Gody who alone is 
able to save us or condemn us. 

^' We humbly crave," say they, " that you will deal 
with her majesty, in our behalf. Let hw majesty under- 
stand, tiiat all laws commanding things which edify not, 
but are offensive, are contrary to the word of God. Let 
her further understand how dangerous a thing it is, to urge 
the observance of human ceremonies with greater severi^, 
than ibe observance of the law of God. Tne word of God 
is in danger of being made of no effect, by the traditions 
6{ men. Though, in scripture, ministers are commanded 
to preach the word of God, this is now not half so strictly 
examined and enforced, as the observance of the ceremonies. 
Through the whole land it is manifest, that a minister who 
is conftomable to the ceremonies, may continue on his 
charge undisturbed, though he cannot teach : so if he be 
ever so able to teach as God hath commanded, yet if he 
cannot conform to those ceremonies which men have devised 
and appointed, he must not continue in the ministry. This 
must needs be preferring the ordinance of man Ubfore the 
word of God."* 

This supplication proving ineffectual, Messrs. Jolm More, 
Richard Crick, George Leeds, Thomas Roberts,^ Vincent 
Goodwin, Richard Dowe, and John Mapes, all ministers 
in or near the city of Norwich, were suspended.t Mr. 
Thickpenny, a minister of good learning, and much be* 
loved by his parishioners, was suspended for nonconformity. 
Mr. Greenham, a divine of a most excellent spirit, receivra 
the like treatment, because he could not in conscience sub- 
scribe and wear the habits, though he cautiously avoided 
speaking a^inst them, lest he should give ofience. Mr. 
Rockrey, a divine of great eminence at Cambridge, was 
twice expelled from the university for a similar offence. Mr. 
Field and Mr. Wilcocks having already suffered a long 
and painful imprisonment, were brought into fresh troubles. 
They were ccmvened bdfore Bishop Aylmer, who pro^ 
nounced Mr, Field obstinate, for having taught children in 

* MS. Rcf Uter, p. ie53-S56. f Ibid. p. 285. 


genflemeiii'-hoiises, oontrary to tbe prohibitian of tlie aich« 
bislu^. Ayhner recommencled, as their puiiishnieiity tibat. 
ihey shookl both be lent into the most barbaiou parts 
of the coontiy, where they mieht be profitaUy emplOTcd 
in turning the people from the errors of pop^. Mr. 
Whittingnam, oean of Duriiam, a divine oi distinguished 
eminence^ was exercised with many troubles, which con- 
tinued to the day of his death. 

In the year 1579, Mr. Lawrence, already menlMiiied, 
was suspeikled by his diocesan. Though repealed interces- 
sions w&e made for him, particulariy by the lord tieasofer, 
the bishop peremptorily refiised to restore him, without' a 

S^rfect conformity to all the rites and oeremooies. Mr. 
erbury underwent a long examination before the high 
commission^ when he was treated with much foul, afanstve 
langnage. Bishop Aylmer, seldiMn sparing in bitter in- 
vectiyes, called him <<a very m^ an idhtj and tijbol.^^ 
He was then sent to the Marshalsea, where he renuuned a 
prisoner several years. Aylmer, indeed, was not beUncI 
any of his brethren in the persecution of the puritans* 
Tins prelate, to enforce a due observance of the ocdrsias- 
tical orders, cited the Ijondon ministers before him no less 
than five times in one year. On these occasions, he made 
inquisition wheQier they truly and faithfully observed all 
things contained in the Book of C<nnmon Prayer ; whether 
any preached without a license; and whether any kepi 
private conventicles. In the visitation of his diocese, he 
inquired of ministers, churchwardens, and swcNm'men, in 
eveiy parish, whether there were any persons who refused 
to couKmn, to attend the church, or to receive tJie commu- 
nion ; and for what cause they refused. He required all 
ministers to wear the surplice, to keep to tlie eautct CHrder 
of public service, and to observe all the ceremonies wifliout 
the slightest alteration. His lordship had no mercy on 
such as did not comply in every punctilio ; and warmly 
declared, that he would surely and severely punish offender^ 
or, « I wiU Ue," said he, « in the dust for it."» 

This prelate had very little compassion in his nature^ 
and apparently as little regard for tbe laws of tiie. country, 
or the cries of the people for ibe word of Grod. There 
was a great scarcity of preachers in all parts of England; 
and even the city of London was now in a most lamentable 
state, as appears from their petition to parliament, in which. 

• Strype's Aylmer^ p. 64^ 05* 81-<-89. 


aie tliese words :—<« There are in tibii city a great mmiher 
of cbuTdies, bat the one*Imlf of them at the least are ulterfar 
unfumiflhed of preaching nunistere, and are pestered wim 
candlesticks not of gold, but of clay, with watchmen thai 
have no otcs, and doads that have no water : the other 
half, paithr by means of nonresid^its, which are yerpr 
many; ana pflotly throurii the poyeity of many meanly 
qualified, there is scareefy the te$Uh man that makes con- 
science to wait upon his charce^ whereby the Lord^s 
sabbath is often wholly n^ected, and tsn the most part 
mkerably mangled; ignorance increaseth, and wickedness 
comes upon us like an anned man. Therefore we humbly 
on our knees beseech tiiis honourable assembly, in the 
bowels and blood of Jesus Christ, to become humble 
suitors to her majesty, that we may have guides ; that the 
bread of life may be iHOug^t home to us; that the pipes of 
wal^ may be brou^t into our assemblies; Aat there maj 
be fiMxl and rdfreshing for us, our poor wives and fiM-lom 
children: so shall the Liord have his due honour; yoududl 
discharge good dutir to her majesty; many languishing 
souls diall be comforted; atheism ami heresy banished; 
her majesty have more foithful sul]9ects; and you more 
hearty prayers for your prosperity in this life, and fiill 
happiness in the life to come."* 

In the county of Cornwall there were one hundred and 
forty clergymen, scarcdy any of whom could preach a 
sermon, and most of tb^n were pluralisis and nonresidents. 
The inhalntauts of the county, in their supfdication to the 
parliament, gave the following aflSsctinff description of their 
case : — ^ we have about one hundred and sixty churches, 
the greatest part of which are supplied by miNk who are 
guilty of the grossest sins ; some fornicators, some adultamns, 
some fdons, bearing the marks in their hands-for the said 
offence; some drunkards, gamesters on the sabbath-day, 
&c. We have many nonresidents, who preach but once 
a quarter ; so that between meal and meal the silly sheep 
may starve. We have some miuKsters who labour painfully 
and faithfully in the Lwd^s husbandry ; but they are not 
suffered to attend thdr callings, because the mouths of 
papists, infidels, and filthy livem^ are open agdnst them, 
and the ears of those who are called lords over them, are 
sooner open to their accusations, though it be only fov 
ceremonies than to the others' answers. Nor is it safe for 

* MS. Refiiter> p. 508. 


us to Iiear them; for thoogli our own fountains are dried up^ 
jei if we seek for the waters of life elsewhere, we are dted 
into the spiritual courts, reyiled, and threatened with ex* 
oommunicatioD."* The ground of this scarcity was the 
violence of the high commission, and the narrow terms (tf 
conformity. Most of the old incumbents, says Dr. Keltridge, 
were disguised papists, more fit to sport with the timbrel 
and pipe, than to take into their hands the book of Grod«f 

The common topic of conversation now was the Queen's 
marriage with the Duke erf* Anjou, a notorious papist.]: 
All true protestants were displeased and under alarming 
apprehensions. The puritans in general protested against 
the match, dreading the consequence of haying a proiestani 
bodiij under a popish head. Mr. John Stubbs, a student 
of lancobi^s-inn, and a gentleman ci excellent abilities, 
published a book, entitled ^^ The Discoverie of the Gaping 
Gulph, whereinto England is like to be swallowea by 
another French marriage, if the Lord forbid not the banps, 
by letting her Majestic see the sin and punishment ihtsseoi.'*^ 
It no sooner came forth, than the queen issued her proda** 
mation to suppress the book, and apprehend the author and 
printer. Stubbs the author, Suigleton the printer, and 
Page the disperser, were apprehended, and sent^iced to 
have their right hands cut off. 8ingleton was pardoned^ 
but Stubbs and Page were brought to a scaffold erected at 
Westminster; where, with terrible formality, their right 
hands were cut off, by driving a cleaver through the wrist 
with a mallet ; but as soon as Stubbs*s right hand was cut 
off, he pulled off his hat with his left^ and, to the great 
amaiement of the spectators, exclaimed God save the 
Qu€en.S He was then sent to the Tower, where he re^ 
mained a long time; but afterwards proved himself a loyal 
subject, and a valiant and faithful commander in the wura 
in Ireland. 

Many of the puritans being dissatisfied with the terms of 
conformity, and the episcopal ordination of the church of 
England, went to Antwerp and other places, where they 
received ordination •according to the practice of the foreign 
reformed churches. Among these were Messrs. Cartwri^t^ 
Fenner, Ashton, Travers, and Wright. The last, upoa 
his return, became domestic chaplain to Lord Rich; but 
for saying, that ^' to keep the queen's birth-day as ai^ 

• MS. Register, p. 300. + Stripe's Aylmer^ p. 32. 

i Strype's Annals, vol. ii. p. 566. 

i Kenoers Ulit. of £ng. vol. ii. p. 437. 


koUdaVf was to make her an idoly'^ Bishop Aylmer cool' 
mittea him to the Pleet. Lord Rich, for attempting to 
vindicate him, was at the same time sent to the Marshal- 
sea, and Mr. Dix to the Gatehouse.* Mr. Moriey, a 
Norfolk minister, and Mr. Handson, preacher at Burr SC. 
Edmimds, were both greatly molested, and suspended for 
nonconformity. The lord treasurer, with^ several other 
eminent persons, interceded with the bishop for the resto* 
ration of Mr, Handson, but all to no purpose. The angry 
prelate peremptorily declared, that he should not be re- 
stored, unless he would jpubticly acknowledge his faulfp 
and enter into bonds for his good behaviour in future. Mr. 
Drewit was committed to Newgat^ and Mr. Nash to the 
Marshalsea, where they remained a long time. Also, 
during this year, Matliew Hament, a poor plow-wright at 
Hethersett, near Norwich, being suspectctl of hdding 
many unsound and dangerous opinions, was convened 
before the Bishop of Norwich, condenmed as an heretic, 
and. May SOth, committed to the flames in the castle-ditdu 
As a preparative to this punishment, his ears were cut off 
on the ISth of the same month.f These proceedings were 
too conformable to those of the church of Rome. 

Great numbers of pious and learned ministers were now 
indicted at the assizes, for omitting to use the surplice, the 
cross in baptism, the ring in marriage, or some part of the 
conunon prayer. They were rauKed with the worst of 
felons, and exposed to public contempt, to the great dis- 
honour of God, and injury of her majesty's subjects. 
Many persons of quality in the various counties of England, 
petitioned the lords of the council in behalf of the per^« 
cuted ministers. In the Suffolk petition are these woids :— - 
<^ The painful pastors and ministers of the word, by what 
justice we know not, are now of late brought to the bar at 
every assize; marshalled with the worst malefactors, in- 
dicted, arraigned, and condemned for matters|, as we pre- 
sume, of very slender moment : some for having holidays 
unbidden ; some for sinking the hymn nunc dimiUis in the 
morning ; some for tunung the question in baptism from 
the infants to the godfathers, which is only^ot^, for thou; 
some for leaving out the cross in baptism ; some for leaving 
out the ring in marriage ; whereunto," say they, ^' neither 
the law, nor the lawmakers, in our judgment, had ever any 

« Strype's Aylmer, p. 86. f Heyli|i*s Hist, of Pres. p. 280, 281. 

^ Fftrte of a Register, p. 128. 


But instead ctf" reliering the. suffering ministers, tbeir 
Inirdens were greatly increased. In the year 1580, the 
parliament pawed a law, entitled '^ An Act to retain the 
Queen^s Suojects in their due Obedience/' which enacted. 
^ That all persons who do not come to church or chapel, 
or other place where common prayer is said, according to 
the act of uniformity, shall forfeit txcenttf pounds per month 
to the queen, and suffer imprisonment till paid. Those 
who are absent ibr twelve months, shall, besides their 
former fine, be bound with two sufficient sureties in a bond 
of tTDo hundred pounds^ untiT Hiey conform. And every 
schoolmaster who does not come io common prayer, shall 
forfeit ten pounds a month, be disabled from teaching school, 
and suffer a year's imprisonment.'** This, says a learned 
churchman, was little better than making merchandize a£ 
souls.f The fine was, indeed, unmerciral, and the com- 
mon people had nothing to expect but to rck in jails. 

The l^islature, by these vidient measures, overshot the 
mark, and instead of crushing the puritans, or leccmciling^ 
them to the church, they drove them farther from it. Men 
of integrity will not easily be beaten from their principles' 
by canons, injunctions, subscriptions, fines, or imprison- 
ment; much less will the^ esteem the church nghting 
with such weapons. Multitudes were by these methods 
driven to a total separation, and they became so far opposed 
to the persecuting church of England, as not io allow it to 
be a true church, nor its ministers true ministers. They 
renounced all communion with it, not only in the prayers 
and ceremonies, but inv hearing the word and the sacraments. 
These were called Browmsts, from Robert Brown, at this- 
time a preacher in the diocese of Norwich. The Browmsts 
did not differ from the church of England in matters of faith ; 
but were very rigid in points of discipline. They main- 
tained the discipline of the church of Iijigland to be popish 
and antichristian, and all her ordinances to be invalid. 
They apprehended that, according to scripture, every 
church ought to be confined within a single congregation ; 
and the choice of its officers, and the admission and exclu- 
si(m of members, with all its other regulations, oi^ht to be 
determined by the brotherhood. Many of the Brownists 
were great sufferers in their zeal for nonconformity : among 
these were Mr. Copping and Mr. Thacker, ministers in the 
county of Suffolk. After suffering imprisonment seven 

♦ Barn's Ecd. Law, ▼ol. ii. p. 146. 
f FaUer*s Church Hist. b. ix. p. 131. 


years, for spreading Brown^s books against Uie bishops aiid 
the established church, they ivere tried, cond^ouied, and 
banged at Bury SL Edmunds. At the same time, Mr. 
Jolm Lewis, for denying the godhead of Christ, and, it is 
said, for holding other detestable heresies, was burnt at 
Norwich, September 17, 1583.» 

Upon t^ death of Archbishop Grindal,f Dr. John 
Whi^ift became Archbishop of Canterbury, and was con- 
firmed September 33, 1583. The queen charged him '' to 
restore the discipline of the church, and the uniformity 
established by law, which,^^ says she, << through the am- 
nivance of some prelates, the obstinacy of the puritans, 
and the power oT some noblemen, is run out of square.^ X 
Therefore, in obedience to her majesty ^s royal command^ 
the new archbishop immediately published the following 
articles, and sent them to the bishops of his province, for 
their direction in the government of their dioceses:— 
'^ That all reading, preacuing, catechising, and praying in 
any private family, where any are present besides the 
family, be utterly extinguished. — That none do preach or 
catechise except he also read the whole service, and admi- 
nister the sacrament four times a year. — That all preachers, 
and others in ecclesiastical orders, do at all times wear the 
habits prescribed. — And that none be admitted to preach, 
or to execute any part of the ecclesiastical function, unless 
they be ordained according to the manner of the church of 
England; nor unless they subscribe the Uu-ee following 

1. <^ That the queen hath, and ought to have, the sove- 
^ reignty and rule over all manner of persons, bora 
^' within her dominions, of what condition soever they be ; 
^' and that none other power or potentate hath, or ought to 
^< have, any power, ecclesiastical or civil, within her realms 
^ or dominions. 

2. " That the Book of Common Prayer, and of ordaining 
^< bishops, priests, and deacons, containeth in it nothing 
^ contrary to the word of God, but may be la^vfully used ; 

« Parallel betwixt Phaoaties, p. U. Edit. 1661 : from Stow, 
f Griodal* in his latter days, was much inclined to favour the pnritaofy 
iuid wasy with great difficulty, brought to pnnish them for their noncoa- 
^ormity. He had not sat long in the chair of Canterbury, before he was 
^suspended and confined in his own house, for not strppressiog the religkHM 
exerciset called Prophesyingiy which his conscience told him should hate 
been encouraged and promoted. He continued under the tjFimanical cen- 
sure several years.— tftim«'« Hiit. ofEng, toI. v. p. 188.-— GfranfMr*! Bi0g* 
fiist. fol. i. p. 204. 

t Kenneths Hist, of Eng. fol. ii. p. 494. 


^ and that he himself will nse the same, ami none other, in 
^public prayer and administration of the sacraments. 

3. ^^ Tnat he atloweth the book of articles/ agreed upon 
^ in the convocation holden at London in 1562, and set 
•* forth by her majesty's autliority; and he believe all the 
^articles therein contained to be agreeable to the word 
«of God."* 

These were called WhitgiJVs articles, because he was 
&eir principal author. Sul^cription to them was required 
for many years, without the warrant of any statute or canon 
whatsoever. By Whitgift^s strict imposition of them upon 
all ministers, multitudes who refused to comply were sus- 
pended and deprived. They would most cordially have 
fubscribed to ihejirst and thirds but could not in conscience 
•ubscribe, <^ That the Book of Common Prayer and Ordi- 
BBtton contained nothing contrary to the voord of Gqdy\ 
These proceedings excited universal alarm, and great num- 
1ier» oi worthy ministers were brought under the eccle- 
siastical censure. Sixty-four ministers were suspended in 
the county of Norfolk, sixty in Snfiblk,t thirty m Sussex, 
Airty-ei^t in Essex, twenty in Kent, and twenty-one in 
JUncolnshire* Among those in the county last mentioned, 
were Messrs. Charles Bingham, vicar of Croft, John 
Somerscales of Beseby, Joseph Gibson of Swaby, William 
Huming, vicar of Claxby, Reignald Grome of Thedilthorp 

• Strype's Whftf^m, p. 115, 116. f MS. Register, p. 519. 

^ The names of those suspended in Snffblk, were the following, ft^^T^ 
fi»nr of the last being suspended on one day; — Nicholas Bonnd, minister 
•f Norton; Richard Grandish, A.M. rector of Bradfield; Lawraoce 
Whitaker, A. B. rector of Bradfield ; Richard Holden, A. B. rector of 
IVstock; Gkolter Allen, B. D. of Rushbrook; Reignald Whitfield, A.M. 
of Barrow; Thomas Rogers of Horningsheath ; Anthony Rowe of Hedgetset; 
Thomas Warren; William CooIk; William Holden ; Nicholas Bonningtojn, 
tector of Chettisham ; John Tylmen, A. M< of Borgholt ; Richard Dowe, 
A.M. vicar of Stratford ; John Carter, A.M. vicar of Bramford; Martiii 
Brige, A. M. vicar of Brettenbam ; Henry Sandes of Box ford ; John 
Holden, rector of Bildeston ; Thomas Cranshawe« A. M. rector of Bozted f 
Feter Cook, cnrate to Mr. Cranshawe ; John Knewstubs, B. D. rector of 
CSockfieldi William Hey, rector of Nedging; John Aulthroppe of Saff- 
^nry ; Robert Ballard, A. B. rector of Clare: Lawrance Faircloogh, vicar 
of Haverhil ; John Ward ; Nicholas Egleston, rector of Stradshlll ; 
WiUiam Tomer, rector of Wratting-Parva; Robert Prick of Denhan; 
Thomas Sotton, A. M. rector of firiswell ; Josias Hallington, Edtnaai 
iaimon, Thomas J^iAaye, Thomas Wattis, Mr. Phillips, Roger Ntttle^ 
Koger GeiTrey, John Smith, John Forthe, Thomas Moore, William Browne^ 
John Cooper, William Flemmiag, Robert Sweete, WiUiam Bentloc, Joha 
Smith, ThoDia» Hagas, Daniel Dennis, George Webb, William Bend, JolHi 
English, Thomas Fowle, Robert Cotsford, Richard King, Mr. Lovell, Mu 
Walsh, Mr. Pigge> Mr. Hill, Mr. Smith, and Dr. Crick.— i(f5. Reghtt^ 


St: Hefien, Mr. Sheppard^ vicar of Bardney, Mr. Bradley 
of Torksey, Mr. Huddlestone of Saxilby, Mr. Hellet of 
Carlton in Moreland, Mr. Nelson of Skinnand, Mr. Hughe 
of SUk-Willouffhby, Mr. Daniel of Ingolsby, Mr. Richaid 
Holdsworth of Soothby, Mr. Thomas Fulbeck of Boultham, 
Mr. Anth(my Hunt of West-Deeping, and Mr. Richard 
Allen of Ednam.* Great numbers in the diocese of Peter- 
borou^ in the city of London, and other parts of the 
kincdom, received the like ecclesiastical censure. 

Multitudes of the best ministers and . most laborioos 
preachers in the nation, as the £arl of Leicester observes, 
were now deprived of their ministry .f The terrible storm 
fell up<Mi Mr. Fenner and Mr. Wood, who were imprisoned 
twelve months, and suspended seven or eight years. Mr. 
Stroud was deprived of his ministry, and commanded to 
leave the country. He had so high a reputation, and was 
so universally beloved, that no less than thirteen petitiom 
were presented to the archbishop for his restoration; but all 
to no purpose. Messrs. Underdown, Hopkinson, Norden. 
and Hely, together with Mr. Anthony Ilobson, vicar of 
Leominster; Mr. John German, vicar of Buringham ; Mr. 
Richard Whitaker, vicar of Almerby ; Mr. William Clark, 
vicar of Langton ; Mr. John Bingham, minister of Iladleigfa, 
Mr. Turner, Mr. Star, Mr. Jackson, and many others, were 
all suspended at the same time.t Mr. Hill, minister at 
Bury St. Edmunds, for having omitted the cross in baptism, 
and making some trivial alteration in the vows, was sus- 
pended, several times indicted at the assizes, and committed 
to prison, where he continued a long time. The venerable 
Mr. Fenn was cited to Lambeth and suspended. Messrs. 
Hooke, Paget, and Oxenbridge, suffered the like eccle* 
siastical censure. Mr. Daniel Dvke, a most exceUent 
divine, was twice suspended, deprived of his ministry, and 
driven out of the county. Mr. Benison was committed to 
the Gatehouse, where, to his unspeakable injury, he re- 
mained five years. Upon his application to the council, 
the lords were so moved with the reading of his case, that 
they wrote to Bishop Aylmer, signifying that he ouj^ht to 
make the good man some considerable recompence ror his 
hard dealing. Dr. Browning was deprived oS. his fellowship 
at Cambridge, and forced from the university. Mn Brayne^ 
another learned divine at Cambridge^ was cited to Lambeth, 
and, refusing the oath ex officio^ was suspended. - Many 

^ MS. Register, p. 696— 7IS4 f Ibid. SLS. } Ibid. p. S93. 

48 nmiODUCTIOX. 

oChen in the diooete of Ely were prMeciited for Moem* 
fermity. Abo Slewn, Barber. Field, Egerton, and Rockrcv, 
were all lunpeiided, part or whotn contiiiiuxl under the 
Centura many yean* Mr. Klliston of Pn^toii, in North* 
amptonshir^ was. for tbnie years together, continually 
maleited and cited before the prelates. During that periodi 
he had ten joumies to London, seven to PctenxHough, one 
to Cambridge, and many to Leicester and NortbMipton. 
He was greail v impoverished, suspended from his minfstiyy 
and deprived of his living. Mr. Cawdrev, rector of 
Lufienham in Rutlandshire, a divine of good reputatioui 
was suspended, deprived, cast into prison, di»ffraded from 
the mimstry, and, witli a family of eight children, left to 
starve as a mere layman : also, during his troubles^ which 
continued manv years, he had ^&^y-/i2W expensive joumies 
to London. Mr. John Holden, rector of Bildcston, was 
•nspended and excommunicated for not subscribing to 
Wnitgift^s articles.* Mr. Hopluiis, vicar of Naaing, in 
Essex, was, for the same thing, deprived of his benefice. 
Mr. Whiting of Pftnfidd, was twice suspended, and then 
deprived. Mr. Hawkdon, vicar of Fryon, wa« indicted at 
the assiaees^ suspended, and deprived of his living. Mn 
Huckle of Kytnorp-Roding, was suspended; and though 
the lords of the council applied io tlie bishop for his 
restoration, his grace positively refused. Mr. Oirnwell of 
Markshall, was suspended, and openly reviled by the 
bishop, who called him wreichj and beastj and committed 
him to the custody of his pursuivant. Mr. Nrgtw of Leigh, 
was suspended ami deprived, for not promising to wear the 
surplice, though there was no surplice in the iMrish. Mr. 
Sendge of Last liavirigficlcl, whs suspencknl and three 
times indicted at the assizes. Mr. Can»w of Hatfirld, l>i*ing 
cited before the bishop, and n;f using the oath cv officio^ was 
suspended, dq)ri ved, and comniittcxl to the Fleet ; and Mr. 
Allen, his patron, was committed at the same time. Mr. 
Giiibnl, vicar of Maldon, was twice; suspended, and cast 
into prison, and his troubles contiuiied srvcnil years. Mr. 
Money of llidgwell, having been mol(*stcd several years, 
was indicted at Qie assizes, committed to prison, and obliged 
io enter into bonds not to preach any more within tlie 
diocese of l^indon. Upwarus of thirty other ministers in 
tlic county of Essex were suspended, deprived, or worse 
treated, by the inhumau proceedings of Bishop Aylmer, 

• MS. Regliter, p. A80, MT. 


for refnsing tp .mibscribe, wear the sarplioe, or jBome other 
trivial matter.* He, moreover, advised the heads of the 
. university of Cambridge to call in all their licenses, and 
expel all who refused to wear the apparel, soying, ^< The 
&l&y that is bound up in the heart of a child, is to be 
expelled bv the rod of discipline."f This cruel, perse- 
cuting prelaAe might, therefore, with truth say, <^ He was 
hated like a dog, and was called the oppresior of lAe 
thUdren ef God ft 

WhUeihe puritans were snffering the above extremities^ 
there was the greatest scarcity ci pieachers in all parts of 
the kingdom. It appears from an impartial survey of all 
the counties oi England, that there were only 9000 preachem^ 
to serve nearly 10,000 parishes :§ and while many of the 
best and most useful preachers were silenced, there wi^ne 
multitudes of pluralists, nonresidents, and ministers, who 
could not preach. There were 416 ministers who could 
not preach m the county of Norfolk, 457 in LincolBBhiie, 
and the same in other connties.| Numerous pditioos weie^ 
at the same time, presented to paiiiament in favour of the 
su&ring nonconformists; but by the opposition and in« 
fiuence of Whitgift and other i»elates, they were rejected.! 
The lords of the council being much concerned for the 
persecuted ministers, wrote to Whitgift and Aylmer^ 
saying, ^< That they had received complaints, that great 
numbers of zealous and learned preachers in various coun« 
ties, especially in Essex, were suspended or deprived ; that 
there was no preadiing, prayers, or sacraments in the 
vacant places ; that in some places, the persons appointed 
to succeed them, had neither good learning, nor good 

* The names of these persecated servants of Christ, were the follow! i^ :— > 
Mem^. Wyresdiale of Maldon, Carr of Rayne^ Tonstal of Totham, Piggot 
^ Tilbary, Ward of Writtle, Dyke of Co^eshall, Nortbey of Colchester, 
New man of Co^geshall, l^ye of Pildon, Parker of Dedham, Farrar of 
Langham, Serls of Lexden, Lewis of St. Peter's, Colchester, Cock of St. 
Giles's, Colchester, Beaamoat of Bastfaorpe, Redri^ of Hatton, Chaplain 
of Hempsted, Calverwell of Felsted, Chapman of Dedham, Knevit, Mile- 
end, Colchester, Rogers of Wethersfield, Wilton of Aldham, Forth of 
Great-Glasion, Winkfidd of Wicks, Dent of Sonth-Sonthberry, Pain of 
Iblesbnry, Barker of Prittlewell, Larking of Little- Waltham, Camillas 
itasticns •f Fangy, Howell of Faglesham, Maiburne of Great-Makeriag, 
Knight of Hempst«i, and Chadwick of Dsinbury. These, says our author^ 
are the painful ministers of Essex, of wboin says the bishop, *' You shall 
be whUe with me, or I will be black with yon."— JH^. Regitttr^ p. dl4y 

+ Strype'fi Aylmer, p: 09. 1 Ibid. p. §6. 

S MS. Ae«|bter, p. 206. \ Ibid. f. ^«. 

i )»trype*s Whai^ p. 176—189. 

VOL I. £ 


name ; and that in other places, a great number of penon§ 
occupying cures, were notoriously unfit, some for lack of 
learning, and others chargeable with enormous fiiults i as^ 
drunkenness^ JUthiness of lifcj gaming at cardsy haunting 
of ale-houses J &c. against whom they heard of no pro* 
ceedin^."* The Lord Treasurer Burleigh, also, him* 
aelf addressed the archbishop, saying, <M am sorry to 
trouble you so oft as I do, but I am more troujbled myseU^ 
not only with many private petitions of ministers, lecom* 
mended fcnr persons of credit, and peaceable in their 
ministry, who are greatly troubled by your grace and 
your ccdleagues ; but I am daily charged by counsellors 
and public persons, with n^lect of my duty, in not 
staying your grace^s vehement proceedings against minis* 
t^rs, whereby papists are encouraged, and the queen's 
safety endangered^ — I have read over your tweniy-'four 
articles, formed in a JRomish styky to examine all manner 
of mlimters, and to be executed ex officio nuro. I think 
the Inquisition of Spain used not so many questions X6 
comprehend and to trap their priests. Surely this judicial 
and canonical sifting of poor ministers, is not to edify or 
reform. This kind of proceeding i& too much savouring 
of tiie Romish Inquisition^ and is a device to seek for 
offenders, rather than to reform them."f But these appli- 
cations were io no purpose: for, as Fuller observes, 
<( This was the constant custom of Whilgift ; if any lord 
or lady sued for favour to any n(Hiconformist, he would 

Srofess how glad he was to serve them, and gratify their 
esirc», assuring them for his part, that all possible kindness 
fihould be induced to them, but he would remit nc^ing of 
his rigour. Thus he never denied any great man's desire, 
and yet never granted it; pleasing them for the present 
with general promises, but stUl kept to his own resolution ; 
whereupon the nobility ceased making any further applica* 
tion to nim, knowing them to be ine^ctual."t 

The commons in parliament, at the same time, were not 
unmindful of the liberties of the subject. They presented 
a petition to the upper house, consisting of sixteen articles, 
with a view to further the reformation. of the church, to 
remove the grievances of the puritans, and to promote aa 
union of the conformists and nonconformists. But by the 

S ^position of the bishops, notiiing c^d be doiie.^ All 
at the puritans coula obtain, was a kind of conHk^nce 

• Fuller's Church Aist b. iz. p. 151. f Ibid. p. 15ft. 

X Ibid. p. 218. S D. Bwei*f Journal, p. Se»1-^89. 


Ibetwixt the Archbishop and the Bishop of Winchester, on 
the cme part; and Dr* Sparke and Mr. Trayere, on the 
other, in the presence of the Earl of Leicester, Lord Gray, 
Sir Francis Walsingham, and some others. The confer- 
ence was held at Limibeth, concerning things needful to be 
reformed in the Book of Common Prayer.* 

In the year 1586, thepersecution of the puritans went for- 
wards with unabating fury. The celebrated Mr. Travels was 
silenced by Archbishop Whit^ift. Mr. Udal was sus- 
pended and depriyed of his livmg. Mr. Glover was con- 
vened before W hitgift, and cast into prison. Mr. Moore 
was cited before the high commission at York, where he 
endured many troubles. Mr. Hildersham, a most excel- 
lent divine, was suspended, and commanded to make a 
public recantation. Dr. Walward, a learned professor of 
divinity at Oxford, and Mt*. Gillibrand, fellow of Magr 
dalen coU^e in the same university, were both citra 
before the high commission at Lambeth ; when they were 
suspended, enjoined public recantations, and obliged to 
enter into bonds till they were performed. Mr. Gardiner 
was deprived and committed to Newgate by Bishop 
Aylmer, from whom he received most cruel usa^. Mr. 
WiggintiHi, vicar of Sedburgh, was deprived of his living, 
and afterwards apprehended and carried before Whit^ifl ; 
who, upon his reiusal of the oath ex officio^ conmutted 
him to prison, where he was treated with the utmost bar- 
barity. The tyrannical archbishop also deprived him a 
second time, and degraded him from the ministry. Mr. 
Wigginton aflerwaras obtaining his release, returned 
borne ; and venturing to preach after his lordship's cen- 
sure, he was apprehended and sent prisoner to Lancaster 
castle, where he remained a long tune under verv crud 
usage. At the same time, about one hundred and rorty oi 
his people, for hearing him preach, were exconmiuni- 
cated. The zealous minister navinff at length obtained 
his liberty, was again apprehended and carried before 
Whitgift, who, for rrfusmg the above oath, committed 
him to the Gatehouse, where he continued most probably^ 
till he consented to be banished. Mr. Settle, a Sufiblk 
divine, was arraigned before the archbishop, who treated 
him with vei^ reproachful language, calling him osi, cb&, 
fool; and aA;er many threatemngs, the angry prelate sent 
nim to the Gatehouse, where he continued close prisoner 

♦ See Art. Travera. 


many years. Such were Hie proceedings of that arch- 
bishop who b said to haye been eminently distinguished for 
his mild and esceellfttt temper.* 

' The suffering puritans, during this year, presented a 
petition to the convocation, tenainff to promote a recon* 
ciliation betwixt the conformists and nonconformists, but 
most probably without the least effect.f They also made 
another effort to obtain a redress of their grievances from 
the parliament, by presenting an humble supplication to 
the bouse of commons ; in which they say, << It pierces 
our hearts with jmef to hear the cries of the people for the 
Word of God. xhe bishops either preach not at all, or 
very seldom. And others abandon their flocks, contrary 
to the charge of Christ, feed my sheep. But mat num* 
here of the best qualified for preaching, and or the most 
industrious in their spiritual function, are not suflfered 
quietly to discharge their duties, but are followed with 
Innumerable vexittions, notwithstanding they are neither 
heretics nor schismatics^ but keep withm the pale of the 
church, and persuade others so to do, who would have 
departed from it. They fast and pmy for the queen and 
the church, though they have been rebuked for it, and 
diversly punishea by officers both civil and ecclesiastical. 
They are suspended and deprived cf their minisAnr, and 
the fruits of tneir livings sequestered to otho^. Tiiis has 
continued many years ; and last of all many of them are 
committed to prison, when some have been chained with 
in>ns, and continued in hard durance a long time. 

^^ To bring about these severities, the bishops toider the 
suspected persons an oath ex officio^ to answer all int^rro* 
gatories to be put to them, though it be to accuse thern- 
sdves ; and when they have sot a cmifisssion, they proceed 
upon it to punish them with all rigour, contrary to flie 
iawis of Gkxl and the kmd. Those who ref^ed have been 
cast into prison, and commanded there to lie without bail, 
till they would yield. The grounds of these troubles are 
not imjneiyy immoraliiy. want of learning or diligence in 
their ministerial work, but not being satisfied in the use of 
certain ceremonies and orders of the church of Jfome, and 
for not being able to declare, that every thing in the Bo^ 
of Common Prayer is ngreettble to the uord vf CfodJ^t 
•Two bills were at the same time brought into the house of 
commons, for the abolition of the (Ad ecclesiastical lawf| 

♦ Paule's Life of Whifgift, p. 37. + Parte of a RegUter, p. 3Sa» 

t MS. Register, p. 678. 


and the did Book of Gomraon Prajer, and for the esta« 
Uishment of a new one ; but the queen being ofiended) 
forbad them to proceed.* 

All the endeavours of the puritans proving ine&clual, 
and being wearied with repeated aj^lications to their 
superion, they began to despair of obtaining relief. There* 
tore, in one of their assemblies, they came to this con* 
clusLoa : ^' That since the magistrates could not be induced 
to reform the discipline of the church, it was lawful, after 
waiting so many years, to act without them, and introduce 
a reformation in the best manner they could." They had 
their {Mrivate classes or associations in Essex, Northampton* 
ehirc, Warwickshire, London, Cambridge and other places^ 
whmi they consulted about the most proper means of pro* 
moting the desired object. And haying revised their book^ 
ontitM ^^ The Holy Discipline of the Church, described 
in the Word of God," it was subscribed by above^t^e hun^ 
dred ministers, all divines of good learning, and of unspot* 
ted lives, f 

• In the year 1587, Mr. Holmes, rector of Kenn, was 
driven from his flock and his living. Mr. Horrocks, vicar 
of Kildwick, in the West-Riding of Ycwrkshire, was con- 
vened before tlie hi^ commission at York, committed .to 
York castle, and enjoined a public recantation, for suflTer* 
ing Mr. Wilson, another puritan minister, to preach in 
bis church, though it was bis native place. Mr. Wilson 
was also convened, and cast into prison. After he had 
obtained his release, he was obliged to remove out of the 
archbishop's province ; and going to London, he was called 
before WJiitgift and suspeiKkd. Mr. Allison was twice 
suspended. Mr. Penrv was summoned before the high 
commission and committed to prison. BCr. Johnson and 
Mr. Bainbrigg, both fellows in the univefsity of Cambridge, 
and popular preachers, were cast into prison, where they 
continued a long time. Mr. Jewel was tried at the public 
astfizfs for nonconformity, and condemned to suffer five 
months* imprisonment. Mr. Wight was harassed for 
many years, when his study was broken open, searched, 
and his private papers carried away. Mr. Darrel and 
Mr. Moore were both cited before the hish commission at 
Lambeth, when the former was deposed nrom bis ministrv, 
and ccanmitted dose prisoner to the Gatehouse, and the 
latta dose prisoner to the Clink, where they continued 

« MS. Remarks, p. 465. . i Neal*! Pariifiis, voLI. p. 423. 


many years. Mr. Udal was summonc^d be£bre the council^ 
sent close prisoner to the Gatehouse, and not suflfered to have 
pen, inkf or paper^ or any one to speak to him. He was 
afterwards tried at the puDiic assizes and condemned as a 
felon. Having received sentence of death, pardon. was 
offered him if he would have recanted ; but he continued 
firm to his principles, and died in the Marshalsea, as a 
martyr in the cause of religious lilierty. 

The proceedings of the high commission against the 
afflicted puritans, now exceeding all bounds, men of the 
greatest eminence began even to question the le^lity of 
the court. But the archbishop, to get over this diii^culty,^ 
and remove the odium from himself, sent the princi^d 
nonccmformists, especially those possessed of worldly estates, 
to be prosecuted in the star-chamber.^ . Indeed, several of 
the bish<^$, as well as many of the lords temporal, opposed 
these proceedings; f^nd it appears from a l&t now before 
me, that upwards of one hundred and twenty of the house 
of commons, were not only averse to persecution, but zea^ 
lous advocates for a reformation of tibe church, and the 
removal of those burdens under which the puritans 
groaned.f Therefore, in 1588, a bill against pluralities 
and ncmresidence passed the commons, and was carried up 
to the lords; but by the determined opposition of the 
zealous prelates, it came to nothing4 

The puritans still continued to hold their associations. 
Many divines, highly celebrated both for learning and 
piety, were leaders in their assemblies, and chosen mode- 
rators : as, Messrs. Knewstubs, Gifford^ Rogers, Fenn and 
Cartwright.^ At one of these assemblies, held at Coventry^ 
it was resolved, ^' That private baptism is unlawful.— r 
That the sign of the cross ij)ught not to he used in baptism.— 
That the raithful ought not to communicate with ignorant 
ministers. — ^That the calling of bishops is unlawful.— 
That it is not lawful to be ordained by them, nor to rest 
iu theur deprivation of any from the ministry .-—And that 

* Faller*8 Chorck Hist. b. iz. p. 187. 

f MS. Chronology, vol. \u p. 417. (1*5.) 

% During the debate upon this bill in the upper hoosei, when it wi^ 
signified tl^it ^he qiieen woild confer ^ith the bishops npoa the points 
contaiqed iq tlie biU, the celebrated Lord 6ray said, ** he greatly won* 
dered at her m^fcsty choosing to confer with those who were enemies to 
the reformation s and added, that he wished the bishops might be 'served! 
as ^ey were in the days of Henry Vf If . when tliey wtre all thrust oat of 
doors.*'— Strype's Jnnais^ vol. iii. p. 5i3,-'FulUr'9 Church HUU b. ix» 
p. 190. 

S Slfype> Annals, vol. Ui. p. 470, 471. 


for the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline, it ought to 
be taught the people, as occasion shall serve.* Some of 
the Hu»re zealous nonconformists about this time, published 
Martin Mar-Prelate, and other satirical pamphlets, f They 
"were designed to expose the blemishes of the established 
church, and the tyrannical proceedings of the bishcqps. 
They contained much truth, but ivere clothed in very 
offensive language. Many of the puritans were charged 
with being the authors: as, Udal, Penry, Throgmorton, 
and Wi^nton; but the real authors were never, known. 
However, to put a stop to these publications, the que^i 
issued her royal proclamation, ^' For calling in all schismo' 
iical and seditious books, as tending to introduce monstrous 
and ^dangerous innovation, with tne malicious purpose of 
dissolving the present prelacy and established church." f 

The mime of contention betwixt the conformists and 
nonconformists, broke out this year with redoubled fury, 
when Dr. Bancroft, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, 
ventured to assert, that the order of bishops was superior 
to that of predbyters, by divine appointment, and that the 
denial c^ it was heresy. This new doctrine S was readily 
adopted by many, in favour of their high notions of epis* 
copal ordination, and gave new fiiel to the flame of con* 
troversy . They who embraced the sentiments of Bancroft, 
considered all ministers not episcopally ordained, as irre- 
gularly invested with the sacred office, as inferior to the 
Romish priests, and as mere laymen.|| 

In the year 1590, the persecution c^ the puritans still 
raged with unabating fiiry. Many of the best divines were 
prosecuted with the utuKMst rigouir in the high commission 
and the star-chamber. Mr. Hubbock and Mr. Kendal, 
two diyines in great repute at Oxford, were cited before 

• Fuller's Chwck HisLb. is. p. 194. 

f The bishops having cried out loadly ngi^inst Martio Mar- Prelate, it 
was prohibited that tio person should presume to carry it about him, upon 
pain of puoishment. This the queen declared in the presence of the Earl 
of Leicester, who, pulling the book out of his poclLet, and shewing it the 
queen, said, ** what then ifvill become of me?'* But it does not appear 
that any thing was done.— Selecitofi HarUim MUctL p. 157. Edit. 1793. 

± Sparrow's Collec. p. 173. 

i The first English reformers admitted only two orders of charch^ficers, 
bishops and deacons, to be of divine appointment. They accounted a 
bishop and a presbyter to be only two names for the same office. But 
Bancroft, in bis semon at Paul's Cross, January 18, 1588, maintaiaed, 
$hal the bishops of England were a distinct order from priesti, and pos- 
sessed a soporiority over them, jure divino, Mr. Strype thinks that Bancroft 
published this nets doctrine under the instructions of WbitgifL — Strype's 
Whitgifti p, 898. I Mosfaeim's Eccl. Bif t. toI. It. p. 393. 


'WMtgiRj and sufpended. Mr. Hildenham was {nmectttod 
a second time in the high commission, and again snsprnded. 
He was oUiced to enter into bcmds not to {Heach in aav 
part of JSi^umd ; and when restored he was not aUowed^ 
m some time, to preadi at any place south of the riirer 
Trent The celebrated Mr. Cartwright, with many of his 
brethren, endurect much severe per^cution. This divine 
luyin^ been prosecuted for nonconformity, was driven into 
a foreign land, where he remained several years in a state 
of exile. Upon his return for the benefit of his health, he 
was immediately apprehended, and, though in a very Ian- 
ffuishing condition, was cast into prison. At lengA, 
Saving obtained his liberty, he was suspended by his 
diocesan, and convened before the high commission, wlien 
thirty^one articles were exhibited against him. Bat ie« 
fusing the oath ex official to answer these articles, he was 
immediately committed to the Fleet, with his bpsthien, 
Messrs. Stephen Egerton, Humphrey Fenn, Danid Wi^it, 

• Farmer, Edward Lord, Edmund Snape, Andrew 

King, ■ Rushbrooke, Wiggins, John Fidd, ■> »■■ 

Royde, John Pkyne, William Proudlove, Melanctm 
Jewel, &c.» Many others were summmied at the sane 
time : as, Messrs. Henry Aivoy, Thomas Edmunds, WiUiam 
Perkins, Edmund Littleton, John Johnson, Thomas Stone, 
Thomas Barber, Hercules Cleavely, and Andrew Nutter. 
These believing it to be their duty to take the oath, deposed 
many things relative to the associations, and thus became 
witnesses against their brethren ; for which they were most 
probably released. But the others underwent many exami* 
nations; received much unkind treatment in tibe high 
commission and star-chamber; and they cxmtinued in 
prison several years. As this storm was gathering, Mr. 
Francis Kett, a man of some learning, and master of arts 
in one of the universities, was convened before the Bishop 
of Norwich ; and for holding divers detestable opinions, 
as they are caUed, he was condemned and burnt near the 
city <» Norwich.f Such was the outrageous persecution in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth ! 

In the year 1593, the nonconformists had many \kAA and 
zealous advocates in both houses of parliament. Mr. 
Attorney Morrice, a man of distinguished eminence, moved 
the house of conunons to enquire into, the inquisition and 
other proceedings of the bishops, contrary to the honour 

• 8trype*s Whltgift, p. 931~SS3. 

f FMraUel betwisit i%aaaii€», p. U. Edit. 1661 : froai Stow. 


t( God, ths laws of tlie realm, and the liberty of Un 
mbject; compelling learned and godly miii[ster8 upcm their 
Dvn oaths, \o accuse thenwelves, and to deprive, degrade 
and imprison them up(m this accusation.* He also offered 
two bills lo the house ; the one against the oath ex officio^ 
the other against the illegal proceedings of the bishops, in 
which he was warmly supported by Sir Francis Knollys 
an'd other famous statesmen. But the queen, by her own 
arbitrary command, forbad the house to discuss eccle- 
siastical matters, and charged the speakn, upon his alte- 
^ance, not to read (he bills, t Mtxricewas, at the same 
time, seized in the house, and carried prisoner to Tulburjr 
cistle, where he continued many years. 

The parliament having tamely yielded its own libertiei 
ud those (^ the subject, to the tyrannical power of the 
queen, passed one of tlie most unjnst and inhuman acts fiv 
oppression and cruelty, that was ever known in a pro- 
(otant country. It is entitled " An Act for the Panish« 
uent of PeiBons obstinately refusing to come to Church ;" 
ud enacts, " that all persons above the age of sixlero, 
icfusing to come fo church ; or persuading others to deny 
ber majesty's authority in causes ecclesiastic^; or di«siud- 
ing them Irom coming lo church ; or being found present 
■t any conventicle or meeting under pretence of religion; 
■ball upon conviction be committed to prison without bail, 
tQl they shall ccHiform and come to church." But in case 
nich o^enders should refuse to subscribe a most debasing 
recantation, itisfurtherenacted, "That within three months, 
tbey shall abjdre the realm and go into PEBPETtrAL 
■AMiHiMBNT. And if they do not depart within the time 
tDpointed; oiiftheyeverretum without the queen's license, 


The case of the nonconformists was by this act worse than 
that of felons. Herein the queen exceeded the tyranny of 
Ilfiiry Ydl. Fur alisolule as that monarch was, he con- 
tentai himself with punishing those who opposed the 
ntabliiihed religion by some overt act; but by this new 
slalufe, the subjeclii were obliged, under the heaviest 
~ laity, to make an open profisaon of the established 
^ion> by a constant attendance on its public 8eTTice.'% 
L^presaion of this statute fell chiefly upon ibe 
-■ ' meed all communion with the national 

* MS. Remark!, p. 4W.' 

■rt Bed, Uw, ml. U. p. 9i7 , S48. 


chorcb, and* were now become yery nnmerous.* Tbei^ 
were several consideraMe persons at their head: as, 
Messrs* Smyth, Jacob, Ainsworth, Johnson, and Grreen^ 
wood. Their London congregation being obliged to meet 
in different places, lo hide itself from the bishops* officers, 
was at length discovered on a LortPs day at Islington, in 
the very place in which the protestant congregation met .in 
the reign of Queen Mary; when about Jiftj/^sis weie 
apprehended, and s«it two by two \o the ditferent prisons 
about Lond(xi, where many others had been long con* 
fined. The names of roost of these persecuted servants of 
Christ, with the cruel oppressions they endured, are now 
before me. They suffered a long and miserable confine- 
ment ; and under the barbarous usage they met with, many 
of them died in prison.f Mr. Roger Rippon, who died this 
year, is said to have been the last of sixteen or seventeen that 
were murdered in Newgate. Numerous femilies, as well as 
indiyiduals, were driven into banishment, while many died 
in close imprisonment, and others suffered upon the sallows. 
Among the latter were Mr. Henry Barrow and Air. Jcriin 
Greenwood. Those persons having endured several years 
close confinement in the Fleet, were tried, condemned, and 
executed at Tyburn, giving the strongest testimony of their 
unfeigned piety towards God, and their unshaken loyalty 
to the queen. Also, Mr. John Penry, a pious and learned 
minister, was arraigned, condemned, and executed in a 
most cruel and barbarous manner. Mr. William Dennys 
was also executed on the same account, at Thetford in 
Norfolk.} These violent proceedings drove great numbers 
of the Brownists into Holland, where their leaders, Messrs. 
Smyth, Johnson, Ainsworth, Jacob, Robinson, and others, 
by leave of the states, erected churches according to their 
own views of the gospel, at Amsterdam;^ Amheim, Middle-? 
burgh, and Leydeii, 

Several champions now appeared in defence of epis^ 
copacy : as, Drs. Bancroft, JBilcon, Bridges, Cosin, and 
Scam. These were answered by Bradshaw, Fenner, 

* Sir Walter Raleigh declared io parliament, that in their Tarions con- 
fregatioDS, they were increased to the nnoiber of twenty tbpnsaiid. — JDl» 
iwea's Journal, p. 617. — Townshend'a CcUeetioM, p. 76. 

f Baker*s MS. Collec. toI. x'i\. p. 311. zv.59— 111. 

X '' These round dealings/* says a reverend author, *< did a litUe terrify 
the rest of the puritans, and checked the fhrionsness of the wi«er tort. 
Bot having the Earls of Leicester, Warwick, and Shrewsbury, Lord^ 
North and Bnrleigh, Sir Francis Walsingbam, and Siir Fntiwis KooHyf, with 
othnv of the nobility, for their honourable patrons, they resumed their con« 
nige.*'~Petrce*t Fin^aHon, p«rt i. p. Ul .-^FmWi Hiti. tf PM% p. 61 • 


Monrice, and others ; though the press i¥as shut agafaist the 
puritans. But Bancroft was their bitterest enemy. In 
nis " Survey" and ", Dangerous Positions," he lyrote with 
much fierceness, misrepresentation, and abusfe, H^ re^ 
proached the principles and practices of the puritans, as 
if they were enemies both to church and state, when they 
only sought, in the most peaceable manner, to promote a 
reformation of the ecclesiastical discipline and ceremonieSi 
according to their views of the word of God.* 

Towaras the close of Queen Cllisabeth^s reign many seve-i 
rities were inflicted upon the nonconformists. Mr. W illiani 
Smyth was apprehended and cast into prison. Mr. 
Smythurst was depriyed of his living, and treated wit]| 
great injustice by the high commission. Mr. Rudd was 
convened before the high commission, suspended, and 
forced to make a recantation. Mr. Aderster, a Lincoln* 
shire divine, having endured many sufferings by suspension, 
tdeprivation, and other censures, in the mgh commisdon 
at Xambeth, was tried at the public assizes, when Judge 
Anderson treated him worse Ihan a dog. Mr. Clarke, 

Sreacher to the society at LincolnVinn, London, and 
Ir. Philips, preacher at St. Saviour's, Southwark, were 
both summoned before the high commission; when the 
.former was deprived, and the latter suspended and com^ 
mitted to the Gatehouse. Mr. Bradshaw, an excellent 
divine, was silenced by Archbishop Whitgift ; and a great 
number of ministers in Norfolk were under suspension, and 
their people greatly oppressed in the ecclesia^ical courts. 
iSome, indeed, supposed that the puritans were now van- 
quished, and their number greatly diminished, by the 
irigorous execution of the penal laws.f This, however, k 
contrary to matter of fact. For in the banning of die 
next reign, there were at least fifteen hundred ministers who 
avowed their nonconformity to the national church. The 
queen died March 34, 1603, having reigned upwards of 
jfortv-four years. 

The puritans of these times were not without their failings^ 
being men of like passions with their adversaries; yet^ 
^hite they opposed the episcopal impositions and oppres* 
sions, if tiiey nad accomplished their wishes, there is cause 
to fear, that they would have imposed their own discipline. 
Their notions of pivil and religious liberty were ccmrused, 
and their principles and bdiaviour sometimes rigid; yet 

f U8. Remrks, p. 461. f FaUefi ChariA Hiit. b. Iz. p. 233. 


tbey were men eminent for piety, devotion, and zeal in the 
cause of Christ. The suspensions and deprivations oi this 
Ions reign are said to amount to several thousands** But^ 
vrhue the nonconformists were thu& harassed, tlie church 
and the nation were in a most deplorable state. Great 
numbers of churches, in all parts of the country, were 
without ministers ; and among those who professed to be 
ininisters, about three thousand were mere readers, who could 
not preach at all. And under pretence (^maintaining order 
and uniformity in the church, popery, inunorality, and 
Ymgodliness were every where promc^d: so that while 
the zealous prelates pretended to be building up the church 
of England, they were evidently undermining the chmck of 

Sect. III. 

JWmt the Death of Queen Elizabeth, to the Death of 

King James /, 

King James was thirty-six years old when he came to 
the crown of England, having reigned in Scotland from 
his infancy. His majesty's behaviour in Scotland had 
raised too high the expectations of the puritans : fbey 
idlied upon his education, his subscribing the covenant, his 
professoi kindness for the suffering nonconformists, and his 
repeated declarations. He had declared in the general 
assembly at Edinburgh, with his hands lifted up to heaven, 
^< That he praised God that he was bom to be king of the 
purest kirk in the world. As for our neighbour Kirk of 
lEngland," said he, ^' their service is an evil-said mass in 
English. They want nothing of the mass but the lifitings.**^ 
The king had given great o&nce to the English bishops, by 
saying, <^ that their order smelled vilely of popish pride ; 
that they weie a principal branch of the pope, uont of his 
bcme, and flesh of his flesh ; that the Bock of Common 
JPrayer was the English mass*book : and that the. surplice, 
copes, and ceremonies were outward badges of popery.'*^ 
Tnue expectations of the puritans were, therefore, n^Uj 

* Neal's Pnritaiis, vol. i. p. 511.-*«-The Bunber of clergy swpepdtd Mti 
deprived for noQconformity was* acconHog to Hume, ver^f greMv.Ml 
eomprebended at one time a ^hird •/ all the ecclesiifatics in the kingdom f( 
*^Bitt» of Mng. vol. V. p. S3T- 

f MS. Remarks, p. 411. 

t Cslderwood'8 Hist, of Scotlaod, p. 256. § MS. ReiO^lpt f« 535. 


raised ; and upon the king*8 accession, they took fresh 
courage, omitted some thin^rs^ in the public service, threw 
aside the surplice, and rejected the unprofitable cere* 
monies. During his majesty's progress to London, th^y 
presented their millenary petition^^ subscribed by above 
1000 pious and able ministers, 750 of whom were out of 
twenty-five counties.* It is entitled " The humble Petition 
of the Ministers of the Church of England, desiring Re^ 
formation of certain ceremonies and abuses of the Church.** 
They observe, << that they being more than 1000 ministers^ 
groaning under the burden of human rites and ceremonies, 
with one consent, threw themselves at his royal feet, for a 
reformation in the church service, ministry, livings, and 
discipline, "f But amidst all their hopes, many of thera 
rejoiced with trembling ; while James himself had, properly 
speaking, no other religion, than what flowed from a priii* 
ciple which he called kingcraft. t 

Indeed, this soon appeared at the Hampton-court con* 
fcience. This conference, and the disputants on both sides, 
WTjre appointed by his majesty^ For the church, there 
were nine bishops and about the same number of di^itaries ; 
but for die puritans, there were only four divmes. Dr. 
Rainolds, Dr, Sparke, Mr. Chadderton, and Mr. Knew* 
stubs. These divines having presented their request of a 
further teformation, in several particulans,§ towards the 
conclusion the king arose from nis chair, and addressed 
Dr. Raindds, saying, << If this be all your party have to 
fl(a^, I will niake them conform, or I will hurry them out 
of the land, or else do worse.'' And to close the whole^ 
he said, << I will have none of this arguing. Let them 
confenn, and that quickly, or they shall hear of it.") Such 
was the royal logic of the new monarch ! This conference, 
ebacfyes the judicious historian, was only a blind to intro* 
duce episcopacy into Scotland.! The conduct of the king, 
who bore down all before him, was highly gratifying to the 
dignified prelates. Besides other instances of palpabte 
fcttcry, Archbishc^ Whitgift said, « He was tenly pef*- 
l^uaded the king spoke by the spirit of God."»» 

« Clark*8 LItes annexed to Martvr, p. IIG. 

f FoUer's Chnrch Hist. b. x. p.'s2. 

± Warner's Hist, of Eng. toI. li. p. 477. 

§ See Art. Raiooldt. g BarloTr's Sum of Conference^ p. 170, 177* 

1 Rapin's Hist, of Eng. tol. ii. p. 162. 

*• Welivood'if Memoirs, p. SI.— Bishop Bancroft, faning on hisknect 
before the king, on this occasion, and with his eyes raised to him, said, 
** I protest my heart melteth for joy, that Almighty God, of his singalar 
mercy, has given us soch a king, as since Christ*s time hath not beco."*- 
Mosheim't £cc(. Hi$L Tol. t. p. 396. 


Tiie above mock confeDence, as it is justly cidled, tlraght 
the puritans what to expect. The threatened storm soon 
overtook them. The persecuting prelates having received 
new life, presently renewed their tyrannical proceedings. 
Bfr. Richurd Rogers, of Wethersfield in Essex, a divine of 
incomparable worth, and six other ministers, were convened 
befcnre the archbishop, and, refusing the oath es officio^ 
were all suspended. They were cited to appear before him 
a second time ; but the archbishop died on the very day of 
their appearance. Whitgift, acc(»ding to Fuller, was one 
nS the worthiest men the church cS England ever enjoyed.* 
Mr. Strype observes, that he was equal to both his piede* 
oessors, Parker and Grindal, in right godly and episcopal 
mdowments; and that great wisdom, courage, and g&Hle* 
mess accompanied all his orders.f He was, however, an 
unfeeling and a relentless persecutor, and extravagratly 
fimd of outward splendour, usually travelling with a moc^ 
magnificent retinue, t 

^Dr. Richard Bancroft having acquitted himself so much 
to the king^s satisfection, in the c(mferenoe at Hampton- 
court, was thought the fittest person to succeed Whitffift 
in the chair of Canterbury.^ He trod in the stqps of liis 
(ffedecesscnr in all the iniquities of persecution. He entered 
upon the work where Whiteift concluded, and immediately 
convened Mr. Rogers and his brethren before him. - They 
endured continual molestations for a Ions time, having 
many expensive journies to London* Mr. iS^gers was citea 
also before the Bishop of London, who protested <^ by tho 
help of Jesus, that he would not leave one nonccmfonnable 
minister in all his diocese ;'' but his deafli soon after put 
an end to his career. Mr. Baynes, the excellent lecturer 
at Cambridge, was silenced, and his lecture put down. 
Dr. Taylor was suspended from his ministry. Mr. Hilder- 

« Chorcli HUt. b. z. p. 25. f Life of Parker, Pret p. 5. 

- X His train Bometimes consisted of 1000 horse. The archbishop beii^ 
once at Dover, attended by five hundred horse, one bnodred of which 
were his own senrants, many of them wearing chains of gold, a penoJi of 
distinction then arriving from Rome, greatly wondered to see an Eaglisb 
archbishop with- so splendid a retinue. But seeing him the following 
Mbbath in the cathedral of Canterbury, attended by the above magnlficenl 
train, with the dean, prebendaries, and preachers, in their surplices and 
•carlet hoods ; and hedring the music of organs, cornets, and sacbats, be 
was seized with admiration, and said, " That the people at Rome were 
led in blindness, being made to believe, that in England there was neither 
archbishop, nor bishop, nor cathedra], nor any ecclesiastical government i 
bnt that all were pulled down. But he protested, that unless It were ia 
the pope't chapei^ he never saw a more solemn sight, or heard a mora 
heavenly sound."— Panfo'* Life of Whitgift, p. 104—106. 

^ Granger's Biog. Hist, vol. i, p. 340. 


sfaam vhBa smpehded a third time for noocoafortiuty ; and 
nuuiy otlien suffered the like extremity. 

Numerous coagregations being deprived of their zealous 
and fiiitliful pastors, the distressed people presented a 
petition to the king, in behalf of their suffering ministers J 
which, because it was presented while his majesty was 
hunting, he was exceedingly displeased. The poox puritan 
ministers were now persecuted in erery quarter, some of 
them being suspended, and others deprived of their livings.* 
And while the Inishcqps were highly commended for sus* 
pending or deprivii^ all who could not conform, Sir 
Richard Knightly, Sir Valentine Knijghtly, Sir Edward 
Montague^ and some others, presented a petition to the 
king in behalf oi the suffering ministers in Northampton- 
shire ; for which they were summoned before, the council^ 
and told, that what they had done << tended io seditioii| 
and was little less than treason.'^ 

The king now issued two proclamations, intimating ill 
the one, what regard he would have to the taider consciences 
of the papists ; hut in the other, that he would not allow 
the least indulgence to the tender consciences oJthepuritans.t 
In his majesty^s long speech, at the opening of the first 
session of parliament, he said, '^ I acknowkdm; the Roman 
^^ church to be our mother church, although defiled with 
^' some infirmities and corruptions;" and added, << I would 
^' for my own part be content to meet them in the mid- 
^^ way ; but spoke with great indignation against the 
puritai^^ And many of the ininist^s still refusing to 
confi[irm, the king issued another proclamation, dated July 
10, 1604, allowing them to consider of their conformity till 
the end of November following: but in case of their 
refusal, he would have them all deprived, or banished out 
of the kingdom.! 

Most of the bishops and clergy in the convocation which 
sat with the above parliament, were very zealous against 
the puritans. Bishop Rudd was, indeed, a noble excep- 
tion. He spoke much in their praise, and exposed the 
injustice and inhumanity of their persecutors. The book 
of canons passed both houses, and was afterwards ratified 
by the king's letters patent, under his great seal.f By th^t 
canons, new hardships were laid upon the oppressed puri- 
tans. Suqiensicms smd deprivations were now thought not 

• .Winwood's Meaorials, toI. ii. p. 36, 4S. f Ibid. p. 49. 

t lUpia'i Hist, of Eng. toI. ii. p. 163. S Ibid. p. ISS, 166. 

i MS. fUoarks, p. S6S. t Sparrow's Collec. p. 86S« 


to be a MScifst pnidmieiii for thesoi of MMoafinuly. 
The puritans leceived the terrible sentence of exoorammii* 
oitioD, bein^ tamed out erf* the congiegaliiNi, le&deied 
buMoMe of sneingfor their lawful dms, imprisoDed for 
life, denied dirisUan burial, and, as fiur as possible, eMdmdki 
from ike kmffdam ofheaoen. Archbishc^ Bancioft, nowal 
the brad rful eccleriastiGal aflSttiis, enfoiced the obserranoe 
of an the festivals of the (Aurch, the use of copes, snipiioeB, 
eaps, hoods, &c. and obliged the dogy to snbsoribe abeA 
to Whitgift's three articles, whidi, by canon xxxri. thej 
were to declare they did wUUngly and from their ktmiu 
By these oppressive measures, rour hnnoied ministers were 
anqpended and cast out of their livings ;• some of whom 
were ezcommmiicaled and cast into prison, while others^ 
to preserve their consciences, were driven into a slate of 

Among the painful sufferers at this time, were Mr* 
llaunsel, minister of Yarmoutfi, and Mr. Lad, a merchant 
of the same place. Fcmt holding a supposed convenlidey 
thfT were cited before the high commission at lArnb^^ 
and, refusing the oath ex officio^ were cast into prison* 
When they were brought to the bar, Nicholas Fuller, esq* 
a bendber of Gray's-im^^ and a learned man in his pro^fes* 
iion, was their counsel; who, for pleading their cause, was 
cast into prison, where he continued to the day of his death. 
Mr. Wottcm and Mr. Cleaver, two leamra and useful 
divines, were suspended for noncfmformity. Mr. Rush^ 
fellow of Christ's colle^, Cambridge, was convened nml 
lequired to make a public recantation. Mr. Randall Bates', 
a pious and excellent preacher, was committed to ^ Gale- 
house, where, after a long and miserable confinemeat, he 
died under thcf hardships of the prison. These seventies 
drove many learned ministers and their followers out of the 
kingdom, when they retired to Amsterdam, Rotterdam, 
Le^en and other places; Among these were Dr. William 
Ames and Mr. Robert Parker, botli divines of distinguishei 

Indeed. Archbishop Bancrc^ incessantly harassed aad 
leagued tiie puritans, to bring them to an exact conformity. 
t)n account of his rigorous proceedings, great nuttbtis 

« Sion'i Plea, p. 75.— MS, Remarks, p. saS.-^Some of ««r bigh-elnirdi 
liistorlans, it is acknowledged, iiave dtminislied the Dumber to fortj-fi?e» 
oUiert to fiorty-nine, evidently with a desifo to reai^fc the odtaat Umm the 
peVsecating prelates.— iftf^'t MiU. of Ptm^ p. 3T0>*- Hp t tiif s f < Mu*. 
mf SiMUmd, p. 479. £diL 1077. 


T€8olTed to transport themselves to YirginiBL^ and settle in 
that uncivQixed country, y^hexe they could enjoy the 
Messing of religious liberty. Some having departed for 
the new settlement, and the archbishop seeidg many more 
ready for the voyage, obtained his majesty's proclamation,, 
forbidding them to depart without the king's license. The 
arbitrary court was a];q[>rehensive this sect would in the end 
become too numerous and powerful in America,* The 
distressed puritans must not enjoy liberty of ccmscience 
at home, nor retnove to another country, even amon^ 
imcivilized pagans, where they could enjoy it. — ^The hi^ 
ccmunission, says Bishop Kennet, b^an now to swell into 
a grievance, of which die parliament complained. Every 
man must conform to the episcopal church, and quit his 
opinion or his safety. That court was the touch-stone, to 
try whether men were current. <^ This," he adds,^^ was 
the beginning of that mischief, which made such a bloody 
tincture in both kingdoms, as neVer will be got out of the 
bishops* lawn^ sleeves J** i^ 

The parliament, in 1610, was deeply concerned about 
these proceedings. In their petition to the king, they say, 
^^ That divers painful and learned pastors, who have long 
travelled in the work of the ministry, with good fruit and 
blessing of their labours, who were ready io subscribe to 
the true christian faith and doctrine of sacraments, for not 
conforming in some points of ceremony, and refusing 
the subscription directed by the late can(His, have been 
removed from their ecclesiastical livings, being their b^^ 
Iiold, and debarred firom all means of maintenance, to the 
great grief of sundry of your majesty's well-affected 
subjects. "t And in a memorable speech during this parlia- 
ment, it was said, ^^ The depriving, degrading, and 
imprisoning learned and godly ministers, whom GoA hath 
furnished with most heavenly graces, is the crying sin of 
the land, most provoking to God, and most grievous to the 
subjects."^ A bill was, therefore, introduced against 
pluvalities and, nonresidence; another against canonical 
subscription ; a third against scandalous ministers ; a fourth 
against the oath ex officio; and they all passed the commons. I 
An address was also presented to the king, entitled ^< An 
humble supplication tor toleration and liberty to enjoy and 

* lUpin's Hist, of Eog. toI. ii. p. 176. 

f Kennct's Hist, of Eog. vol. ii. p. 6S1, S82. 

X 6alamy*8 Churcii and Dissenters, p. 131. S 1^*^* P* W- 

j] MS. RemarlLS, p. 629. 

VOL. I. F 


observe the ordiaances of Jesus Christ in the ministratioir 
of his churches, in lieu of human constitutions." It was 
published by those who apprehended the church of England 
to be fast approaching towards the church of Rome.* But 
all these endeavours proved ineffectual to obtain a further 
reformation of the church. f Archbishop, Bancroft died. 
November 10, 1610, and was succeeded by Dr. Greorga 
Abbot, an avowed enemy taall the superstitions of ucfoery^t 

King James, to shew bis zeal against heresy, naa nofw 
an opportunitjT of exercising it upon two of hin own 
subjects ; who, in the year 1611, were burnt alive for- their 
heretical opinions. One was Bartholomew Legatt, a native 
of the county of Essex. He was a man of a bold spirit, a 
fluent tongue, well skilled in the scriptures, and of an 
unblameable conversation. He denied the divinity of 
Christy and a plurality of persons in the Godhead. The 
king himself, and several of the bishops, conferred with 
him, and endeavoured to convince him of hb errors.^ 
Haying continued a long time prisoner in Newgate, he was 
at length brought before the king, many of the bishops, and 
many learned divines, in the consistory of St. Paul's; where 
he was declared a contumacious and obdurate heretic, and 
delivered over to the secular power. The king having 
signed a writ de heretico comburendo to the sherifis of 
I^ndon, he was carried to Smithfield, March 18, and,^ before 
an immense number of spectators, was burnt to ashes. 
Pardon was offered him at the steke if he would have 
recanted, but he firmly refused.) 

Mr. Edward Whiteman of Burton-upon^Trent, was, at 

• MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 619. (2.) 

f The puritans were now oppressed by every means that conld be 
devised. Mrs. Venables, a lady of great liberality and exemplary Pie^yy 
being deeply concerned for the numerous persecuted servants of C^ritt, 
bequeathed in her last will £5000, to be distributed among the suffering 
nonconformist ministers. This was no sooner known at court, than the 
money was seized, and given to such ministers as were confolrmable. Such 
was the fraud and barbarity of the times ! ! — MS. Remarks, p. 565. 

"f Bishop Kennet styles Archbishop Bancroft '* a tturdy piece," and 
gays, *' he proceeded with rigour, severity and teraf A, against the puritans." 
— Kennefs Hist, of Eng, vol. ii. p. 665. 

^ The attempt of the king to convince Legatt having utterly faned, be 
•rose in a passion from his chair, and, giving him a kick with bis royal foot, 
said : *' Away, base fellow, it shall never be said, that one stayeth in my 
presence^ that hath never prayed to our Saviour for seven years.*'— -jFWIsr^ 
Church Hist. b. x. p. 62. 

II He had a brother, called Thomas Legatt, who, at the same tim^, for 
holding certain heretical opinions, as they are called, was committed to 
Newgate, where he died under the pressures of his confii|effleat«— ^esaiy^t 
Discevery of AnabaptUtSt P« ''7. £dit. 162S. 


» _ 

the same time, convicteil of heresy by Dr. Neile, bishop of 
Coventry and Lichfield, and bon^t at Lichfield, April IL 
In the king's warrant for his execnticm, he is charged with 
no less than sixteen distinct heresies, among which are those 
of the £bioDites, Corinthians, Arians, and Anabaptists, and 
other heretical, execrable, and unheml-of opinions. Some 
of the opinions imputed to him savoured of vanity^ super* 
stiti(Mi, and enthusiasm; and he was certainly an oUect 
more deserving of compassion than of punishment.*. But, 
to gratify the wishes of his oiemies, he must pass through 
the fire. — ^There was another condemned to be burnt foi 
similar heresies ; but the constancy of the above sufferers 
haying greatly moved the pity of the spectators, he was left 
to linger out a miserable lite in Newgate.f 

Many of the puritans being driven into exile, continued 
a number of years in a foreign land. They raised congre- 
gations and formed christian churches, according to their 
views rf the New Testament. ^ Mr. John Robinson, pastoi^ 
of the church at Leyden, first struck ou^ the congregational 
or independent form of church government. Afterwards, 
about a hundred of his church transplanted themselves to 
America, and laid the foundation of the colony of New 
England. But some of the worthy exiles ventured at length 
to return home. Mr. Henry Jacob having espoused the 
sentiments of the independents, returned about the yeair 
1616; and communicating to his friends his design of 
forming a separate church, like those in Holland, they^ 
seeing no prospect of any reformation of the national church, 
signified their approbation. They spenj|; aday in solenm 
devotion, to implore the divine blessing upon the under* 
taking ; and having made an open confession of their fiiith 
in Christ, they joinTed hands, and convenanted with each 
other to walk together in all the ordinances of Grod, as far 
as he had already made known to them, or should hereafter 
make known to them. Mr. Jacob was chosen pastor by the 
sufiiage of the brotherhood, and others to the ofiice of 
deacons. This was the first independent church in 

During this year, his majesty, by the advice of the 
bishops, issued his royal directions for a better conformity 
to the established church. He required ^^ That all students 
who took their degrees, should subscribe to the thirty-sixth 
canon. — That all scholars should wear their scholastical 

* Narration of the barning of Legatt and Whitcmao, £dit. 1651* 
^ Fuller's Church Hist. b. x. p. 62—64. 


habits. — That no one be allowed to preach without perfeet 
confonnity. — And that no preacher shall maintain any point 
of doctrine not allowed by the church of England."* 
The distressed puritans felt the iron rod of their cruel 

K^rsecutors in vanous parts of the couiitiy. Messrs. Ball, 
icholls, P^t, and many others, in the diocese of Chester, 
were often cited before the high commission, when attach- 
ments were issued to apprehend them, and commit them 
to prison. They were obliged to conc^ themselyes, and 
heavy fines were laid upon them for their nonappearance, 
and were aggravated from one court day to another; tin 
their case was returned into the exchequer, when, to their 
unspeakable itrjury, they were obliged to compound. Mr. 
Bradshaw had his house searched oy the bishops' pursui- 
vants, and he was suspended. Mr. John Wilkinson was 
several times spoiled of his goods, and kept many years in 
prison by the furious prelates. Mr. Hildershani was 
suspended a fourth and a fifth time. He was aflerw'ards 
summoned before the high commission, and, refusing the 
oath esc officio^ committed first to the Fleet, then to the 
Kin^Vbench, where he continued a long time. Having 
obtamed his liberty, he was censured in the ecclesiastical 
court, upon the most glaring false witness, and fined i£ 8,000, 
pronounced excommunicate, d^raded fnnn his ministiy, 
ordered to be taken and cast into prison, required to make 
a public recantation in such form as the court should 
appoint, and condemned in costs of suit. His two friends, 
Mr. Dighton and Mr. Holt,- being committed, one to the 
Fleet, the other to the Gatehouse, were fined i£lO,000 
each, excommunicated, ordered to be publicly denounced, 
to make their submission in three different places, con. 
danned in costs of suit, and sent back to prison. The 
learned Mr. John Selden, for publishing his " History of 
Tithes,'* was summoned before the high commission, and 
obliged to sign a recantation.f 

To prevent the growth of puritanism, the king, in the 
year 1618, published his ^^ Declaration for Sports aa the 
Lord's-day," commonly called the Book of Sports. It 
was procured by the bishops, and all ministers were enjoined 
to approve of it, and read it in the public congregations ; and 
those who refused were brought into tiiie high commissiony 


♦ Heylin'9 Life of Laod, p. 72. 

f Mr. Selden was justly denomiaaCed the glory of Eoglaod for his HA* 
common learnini^. Archbisbop Usher ased to say, <* I am not wortky to 
carry bis books after htm.'* 


suspended and impris<»ied. << It was designed,'' says 
Bishop Kennet, <^ as a trap to catch men of tender con- 
sciences, and as a means of promoting the ease, wealth and 
grandeur of the bish(^."« 

' The king, at the opening of the parliament in 1620, made 
this sdemn declaration : " I mtan^'' said he, ^^ noi to compd 
any ma9i$ conscience ; for I ever protested against it A fiut 
his majesty soon forgot his own declaration ; and to increase 
the distress of the puritans, he set forth his directions to all 
the clergy, jforbidding them to preach on the deep points of 
controversy betwixt the Arminians and Calvinists. The 
puritans had hitherto suffered only for refusing Uie ceremo- 
nies, but now their doctrme itself became an offence. . Most 
Calvinists were now excluded from court preferments. The 
way to rise in the church, was to preach up the absolute 
power of the king, to declaim against the rigours of Cal- 
vinism, and to speak favourably of popery. Those who 
scrupled were neglected, and denominated (hcirinal puri" 
tans; but having withstood all the arbitrary proceedings 
adopted both in church and state, they will be esteemed by 
posterity, as the glory of the English nation.^ 

Many of the puritans now groaned under the oppressive 
measures of the prelates. Mr. Collins was cast into prison 
for nonconformity. Though he was not suffered to preach 
in the churches, he preached to the malefactors in prison, 
and there procured himself a subsistence by correcting the 
press.^ Mr. Knight of Pembroke college, Oxford, was cited 
up to London, and committed to the Gatehouse. Mr. Peck 
having catechised his family, sLnd sung a psalm in his own 
house, when several of his neighbours were present, they 
were all required by Bishop Harsnet to do penance and 
recant. Those who refused were immediately excommu- 
nicated and condemned in heavy costs. The citizens of 
Norwich afterwards complained of this cruel oppression to 
parlian^nt. The celebrated Mr. Dod was often cited before 
the bishops, and was four times suspended. MiC Whatcly 
was convened before the high conunission, and required to 
make a public recantation. Mr. Whiting was prosecuted 
by the Bishop of Norwich, and brougt^t bpfpre the high 
commission, expecting to be deprived of consi^rable 

* Several of the bishops, however, decU^red their opinion against the 
Book of Sports. And Archbishop Abbot bjeing at Croydon (he day on 
which it was ordered to be read in the churches, expressly forbad it to be 
read there. — KennetU Bist, of Eng. vol. i^. p. 7^09. 

-^ MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 667.(13.) i Neal's Pari taos, vol. ii. p. 128. 

^ Wood's AthensB Ozod. vol. ii. p. 794. 


estates; Imf, happily, while the cause was pendiw, Kii^ 
James died, ana the prcsecution was dropped. The lui^ 
finished his course March 27, 1625, not without suspkrion 
of having been poisoned by the Duke of Buckingham.* He 
was a mere pedant, without judmient, courage, or steadi- 
ness, being the very scorn of &e age. His reign was a 
continued course of mean practices.f He invaded the 
liberties of his subjects; endangered the religion q[ his 
<:ountry ; was ever grasping at arbitrary power ;t and, in a 
word, liberty of conscience was totally suppressed.^ I 

Sect. IV. 

From the Death of King James L to the Death of 

King Charles L 

When King Charles came to the crown, he was at first 
thought favourable to puritanism. -His tutor, and all his 
court, were puritanically inclined. Dr. Preston, one of the 
leading puritans, can^e in a coach to London with the King 
and the buke of Buckingham, which gave great ofience to 
the contrary party. His majesty was so overcharged with 
grief for the death of his father, that he wanted the comibrt 
of so wise and great a man.i The puritans, however, soon 
found that no favour was to be expected. The unjust and 
inhuman proceedings of the council-table, the stab- 
chamber, and the high commission, during this reign, 

♦ Harris's Life of James I. p. 237. Edit. 1763. 

-f Burnet*8 Hist, of his Times, vol. i. p. 17. 

j: Bennet'S'Mem. of Reformation, p. 147. 

§ Hume's Hist, of Eng. vol. vi. p. 116. — 1| Bishop Laad observes of 
-James, that the sweetness of his nature was scarcely to be paralleled, aod 
little less than a miracle. Clemency, mercy, justice, and peace, were all 
eminent in him; and lie was the most learned and religious prince tlnU 
£ngland ever knew. On the contrary, the learned Mosheim affirms, ** tliat 
*' as the desire of unlimited power and authority was the reigning passioQ 
** in the heart of this monarch, so all his measures, whether of a cWil or 
** ecclesiastical nature, were calculated to answer the purposes of his 
*' ambition. He was the bitterest enemy of the doctrine and disciplipe of 
*^ the puritans, to which he had been in his youth most warmly attached i 
" the most infleiible and ardent patron of the Arminians, in whose rain 
*' and condemnation in Holland he had been singularly instrumental ; and 
** the most zealous defender of episcopal government, against which be bad 
** more than once expressed himself in the strongest terms." Though be 
was no papist, he was certainly very much incliMd to popery, and ** was 
*' excessively addicted to hunting and drinlLing."— Brei;fa<e oft,audf p. 5. 
— JTmAciWs Eccl, Hist vol. ▼. p. 385, 391, 392.^H«rri5's Xt/e ofjamul^ 
p. 46, 66. ^ 

I Burners Hist, of his Time> toI. i. p. 19. 


are unparalleled.. The tyro former vrere become courts of 
laWy to determine matters o( right; and courts of revenue^ to 
bring money into the treasury. The coundlrtable^ by pro* 
clamations, enjoined upon the people what was noteajoined 
by law ; and the star-chamber punished the disobedience oi 
those proclamations by heavy fines and imprisonment. 
The exorbitances of this court were such, that there were 
very few persons of quality who did not suffer niore or^less, 
by the weight of its censures and judgments. And the high 
commission became justly odious, not only by meddling 
with things not within its cognizance, but by extending its 
sentences and judgments to a degree that was unjustifiable^ 
and by treating the common law, and the professors of it, 
with great contempt. From an ecclesiastical court for the 
reformation of manners, it became a court of revenue^ im* 
posing heavy fines upon the subjects.* 

These courts made strange havoc amon^ the puritans, 
detaining them long in prison, without brmging them to 
trial, or acquainting them witii the cause of their conmiit- 
ment. Xheir pro^edings were, in some respects, worse 
than the Romish Inquisition; because they suspended, 
degraded, exconununicated, and imprisoned multitudes of 
learned and pious ministers, without the breach of any 
established law. While the heaviest penalties were 
inflicted upon the protestant nonconformists, the papists 
lived without molestation. Indeed, the king .gave express 
orders '' To forbear all manner of proceedings against 
Roman catholics, and that all pains and penalties to which 
they were liable, should cease."t 

The Arminiaii tenets, warmly supported by Bishop Laud 
and his brethren, now began rapidly to gain ground. The 
points of controversy became so much the subject of public 
discussion, that the king issued his royal proclamation, 
threatening to proceed against all who should maintain any 
new opinions, contrary to the doctrines as by law esta- 
blished. Though this proclamation appeared to be in 
favour of the Calvinists, the execution of it being in the 
hands of Laud and his brethren, it was turned against them, 
and made use of to silence them ; while it gave an uncon- 
trouled liberty to the tongues and pens of the Arminians.:): 
Many were, indeed, of opinion, that Bishops Laud and 
Neile procured this injunction on purpose to oppress the 

* ClaKDdon's History, ?ol. i. p. 68, 69, 222, 283. 
f Rmbworth's Collectionsi ?ol. i. p. 173. 
t Ibid. p. 416, 417. 


Calyiakts, who should venture io hteak if, while fliey 
should conniTe at the disobedience of the contnurj party. 
It is certain, the Calvinisls were piosecated for disobejrin^ 
the proclamation, while the Arminians were tolerated and 
countenanced.* The puritans, who wrote in defence of 
die received doctrines of the thirty ^nine articles, were cen« 
sured in the high conunission, and their books suppressed ; 
and when thejr ventured to preach or dispute upon those 
points, they were suspended, imprisoned, fcnrced to recant, 
or bamshed to a foreign land.f 

The king now usuroed an arbitrary power, much more 
extensive than any of his predecessors. Heniy YIII. did 
what he pjeased by the use of parliament ; but Chules 
evidently designed to rule vrithout parliament.^ To ccm* 
vince the people that it was their duty to submit to a 
monarch of such principles, the clergy were employed io 
preach up the doctrine of passive obedience and nim- 
resistance. Dr. Manwaring preaching before his majesty, 
said, << The king is not bound io observe the laws of 
^^ the realm, concerning the subject's rights and liberties, 
<^ but that his royal wm and pleasure, in imposing taxes 
^^ without consent of parliament, doth oblige the subject's 
^' conscience on pain of eternal damnation."^ 

The church being governed by similar arbitrary and 
illegal methods, it was easy to foresee what the mmcon- 
formists had to expect. Tbey were exceedin^y harassed 
and persecuted in every comer of the land. In the year 
1636, Mr. Brewer was censured in the high conunission, 
an4 conunitted to prison, where he continued fourteen 
years. Mr. Smart, prebend of Durham, was many times 
convened before his ecclesiastical judges; then sent to ibe 
high commission at York, and kept a prisoner nine 
months. He was next sent to the high commission at Lam- 
beth ; then returned to York, fined j^500, and ordered to 
recant ; for refusing which, he was fined a second time, 
excommunicated, deprived, degraded, and committed to 
prison, where he remained eleven or twelve years^ suffering 

« Rapin's Hist. vol. ii. p. 25S. 

*f Pry one's Canterburies Doome, p. 161. 

t Rapin's Hist, ?ol. ii; p. 259. 

^ Manwaring, for this sermon, was sentenced by the hoose of loitis im 
pay a fine of a thousand pounds, to make a public submission at the bar 
of both houses, to be imprisoned durini; the pleasure of the lords* and 
declared incapable of holding any ecclesiastical dignity : Nevertheless, he 
•maA so much a court favourite, he obtained the king's pardon, with a good 
benefice, and afterwards a bishopricT—Z^tif. > 


immense dama^. These severities were inflicted by the 
instigation of Laud, soon after made Bishop of London, 
and prime minister to his majesty.* This furious prelate 
was no sooner exalted, than he made stran^ havoc among 
the churches. Agreeable to the king^s injunctions, many 
excellent lecturers were put down, and such as preached 
against Arminianism or the popish ceremonies, were 
suspended ; among whom were Drs. Stoughton, Sibbs, 
Taylor, and Gouge, with Messrs. White of Dorchester, 
Rogers of Dedham, Rogers of Wethersfield, Hooker of 
Chelmsford, White of Knightsbridge, Archer, Edwards, 
Jones, Ward, Saunders, Salisbunr, Foxley, William 
Martin, and James Gardiner.f Mr. Henry Burton was 
brought before the council-table, and the high conmiission. 
He was afterwards apprehended by a pursuivant, then 
suspended and committed to the Fleet. Mr. Nathaniel 
Bernard was suspended, excommunicated, fined ^1,000, 
condemned in costs of suit, and committed to New Prison, 
where be was treated with great barbarity; and refusing to 
make a public recantation, after languishing a long time, 
he died through the rigour of his confinement. But the 
unparalleled cruelty of this prelate most appeared in the 
terrible sentence inflicted upon Dr. Alexander Leighton. 
He was seized by a warrant from the high commission ; 
dragged before Bishop Laud ; then, without examination, 
carried to Newgate, where he was treated a long time with 
.unexampled barbarity. When brought to trial before 
that arbitrary court, the furious prelate desired the court 
to inflict the heaviest sentence that could be inflicted upon 
him. He was, therefore, condemned to be degraded from 
his ministry, to have his ears cut, his nose slit, to be 
branded in the face, whipped at a post, to stand in the 
pillory, to pay j^ 10,000, and to suffer perpetual imprison- 
ment. This horrible sentence heins pronounced. Laud 
pulled off his hat,' and holding up his hands, gone thanks 
to God J who had given him the victory over his enemies4 

During these cruel proceedings, Mr. Palmer and Mn 
Udney, two lecturers in Kent, were silenced. Mr. Angier 
ivas suspended.^ Mr. Huntley was grievously censured 
in the high commission, and committed to prison, where 
he continued a long time. Mr. John Workman was 

* Prynne*s Cant. Doome, p. 78. f Ibid. p. 362, S73. 

t For an accoaot of the barbarous execution of this shocking sentence, 
see Art. Leiehton. 

^ Caiamy^s Account, toI. ii, p. 395. 


suspended, ei^cpminunicated, condemned in costs of siiif, 
cast into i>rison, and obliged to make a puUic recantation at 
three different places. Mr. Crowder was conmutted close 
prisoner to Newgate for sixteen weeks, then deprived of 
nis living, without there being any cliarge, witness, 0¥ 
other proof brought against bini. Many others were pro- 
secuted and deprived.* Bishop Land being made chan- 
cellor of Oxford, carried his seviTities to the university. 
He caused Mr. Hill to make a public recantation ; Messrs. 
Ford, Thome, and Hodges to be expelled from the univer* 
sity ; the proctors to be deprived for receiving their app^; 
and Drs. Prideaux and Wilkinson to be sharply admo- 
nished. Mr. William Hobbs, fellow of Trinity college, 
having preached against falling from grace; and Mr. 
Thomas Cook of Brasen-nose college, having in his Latin 
serm<m used certain expressions against the Arminians, they 
were both enjoined public recantations. Dr. Prideaux, Dr. 
Burgess, Mr. White, Mr. Madye, with some others, suffered 
on the same account, f 

By the unfeeling persecutions of the bishops, the puri- 
tans were driven from one diocese to another, and many 
of them obliged to leave the kingrdom, and seek their bread 
in a foreign land. Messrs. Higginson, Skelton, Wil- 
liams, Wifcon, Wheelwright, Philips, Latborp, Hooker, 
Stone, Cotton, with many others, fled to New England. 
Many of these divines, previous to their departure, were 
harassed, prosecu^, and cruelly censured by the ruling 

The distressed puritans who remained at home, pre* 
sented a petition to his majesty, in which they say, ^^ We 
are not a little discouraged wM deterred from preaching 
those saving doctrines of God's free grace in election and 
predestination which greatly confirm our faith of eternal 
salvation, and fervently kindle our love to God, as the 
seventeenth article expressly mcntioneth. So we are 
brought into great strait, either of incurring God's heavy 
displeasure if we do not faithfully discharge our embassage, 
in declaring the whole council of God ; or the danger rf 
being censured as violaters of your majesty's acts, if we 
preach these constant doctrines of our church, and confute 
the opposite Pelagian and Arminian heresies, both boldly 
preached and pruited without the least censure."t This 

♦ Wharton's Troubl<^ of Laud, vol. i. p. 519. 

,f Prynoe's Cant* Doome, p. ITS, 176.— Rushworth's Collec. vol. ii« 
P* 283. X Prynot's Cant. Doome» p. 165, 


appears, howerer, to have been followed with no good 
effect. By silencing so many learned and useAd ministers^ 
there was a great scarcity of preachers, and a famine of 
the word of God in every comer of the land ; while igno* 
rance^ superstition, profaneness^ and popery, every whaie 

The sufferings of the people for "Want of the bread of 
life continually increasing, a number of ministers and 
gentlemen formed a scheme to promote preaching in the 
Country, by setting up lectures in the differ^it mari^eC 
towns. To defray the expence, a sum of money was 
raised by voluntary contribution, for purchasing such 
impropriations as we^ in the hands of the laity, the profits 
of which were to be divided into salaries of forty or fifty 
pounds a year, for the support of the lecturers. The 
money was deposited in the hands of the folloMring persons, 
as FEOFFEES : Dr. George, Dr. Sibbs, Dr. O&pring, and 
Mr. Davenport, of the clergy; Ralph Eyre, Simon Srown^ 
C. Sherland, and John White, esqrs.; and Messrs. Jolm 
Gearing, Richard Davis, Grcorge Harwood, and Francis 
Bridges, citizens vf London. Most people thought the 
design wa^ very laufiable, and wished them good success; 
but Bishop Laud'-iooking upon the undertaking with an 
evil and a jealous eye, asu it was likely to become the great 
nursery of puritanism, applied to the king, and obtained 
an information against all the feoffees in the exchequer. 
The feoffment was, therefore, cancelled, their proceeding 
declared illegal, the impropriations already purchase, 
amounting to five or six thousand pounds, wefe confiscated 
to the king, and the feoffees themselves fined in the star- 

If the persecuted puritans at any time ventured to except 
against the proceedings of this fiery prelate, they were 
fture to feel his indignation. Mr. Hay den having spoken 
against them from the pulpit, was driven out of the diocese 
of Exeter, but afterwards apprehended by Bishop Harsnet, 
who took from him his horse, his money, and all his papeis, 
and caused him to be shut up in close prison for thirteen 
weeks. His lordship then sent him to the high commission, 
when he was deprived, degraded, and fined, for having 
preached against superstitious decorations and images in 
churches. Mr. Hayden venturing afterwards to preach 
occasionally, was again apprehended by Bishop Laud, 


* Frynne's C&Qt. Docfme, p. 385. f Ibid. p. 385-^387. 


who sent him first to the Gkiteboine. then to BrideweD, 11^^ 
he was whipped and kept to hard kbour ; then confined 
in a cold dark hole during the whole rf winter, bein^ 
diained to a post in the middle of the room, with irons oo 
his hands and feet, haying no other food than bread and 
water, and a pad of straw to lie on. Before bis release, 
he was obliged to take an oath, and give bond, to preach 
no more, but depart from the kingdom, and never retuni. 
Henry Shirfield, esq. a bencher (rf* LincoLiVinn, and 
recorder of Salisbury, was tried in the star-chamber, for 
taking down some painted glass from one of the windows 
cf St. £dmund*s church, Salisbury. These pictures were 
extremely ridiculous and superstitious.* The taking down 
of the glass was agreed upon at a restry, when six justices 
erf* the peace were present. Towards the close of his trial. 
Bishop Laud stood up, and moved the court, thai Mr. 
Shirfield might be fined i? 1 ,000, removed from h^ recorder* . 
ship, committed to the Fleet till he paid the fine, and then 
bound to his good behaviour. The whole of tiiis heavy 
sentence was inflicted upon him, excepting that the fine 
was mitigated to j^500.f 

In the year 1633, upon the death of Archbishop Abbot, 
Laud was made Arclibishop of Canterbuty ; when he and 
several of his brethren renewed their zeal in the persecution 
of the puritans.^ Numerous lecturers were silaiced, and 
their lectares put down. Mr. Rathband and Mr. Blackerby, 
two most excellent divines, were often silenced, and driven 
from one place to another. Mr. John Budle, rector of 
Barnston, and Mr. Throgmorton, vicar of Mawling, were 

Srosecuted in the high commission.^ Mr. Alder and Mr. 
essey were both silenced, the latter for not observing the 
ceremonies, and removing a cnicifix.|| Mr. John Vincent 
was continually harassed for nonconformity. He was so 
driven from place to place, that though he had many 

* There were in thin window fteren pictures of God the Father id the 
form of little old men, in a blue and red coat« with a pouch by his side. 
One of them represented him creating the sun and moon with a pair of 
compasses ; others as working upon the six days creation ; and at last at 
sitting in an elbow chair at rest. Many of the people, upon their going ia 
and out of the church, did reverence to this window, because, as they 
•aid, the Lord their God was there. — Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 102. 

+ Ibid. p. lOS.—Rushworth's Collec. vol. ii. p. 153—156. 

i Archbishop Abbot, who succeeded Bancroft, is said to have imitsiied 
the moderation of Whitgift ; and that Laud, who succeeded Abbot, imU 
tated the voratk of Bancroft. — KenneVs Hist, of ISng, vol. ii. p, 665» note» 

i Wharton's Troubles of Laud, vol. i. p.dSS-'d^Q. 

II Calamy's Contin. vol. i. p. 46. 


children, not t^o of them, were bom in the same county. 
Messrs. Anffel, Buckley, Saunders, Bridges, Roberts, Erbeiy, 
Cradock, Newport, and others, were suspended, and some 
of them driven out of the country.* Mr. John Carter was 
censured by Bishop Wren, but death soon after delivered 
him from all his troubles. Messrs. Peters, Dav^iport, 
Nye,f and others, to escape the fury of the stofm, fled to 
Holland. Mr. Peters, previous to his departure, was ap« 
prehended by Archbishop Laud, suspended, and committed 
tor some time to New Prison. Many others were drivea 
to New England, among whom were Messrs. Norton, 
Burr, Shepard, Sherman, and Nathaniel Ward, who was 
deprived and excommunicated by the archbishop. 

During this year the king, by the recommendation of 
Laud, republished the <^ Book of Sports," for the encou- 
Tagement of recreations and pastimes on the Lord's day. 
This opened a flood-gate to all manner of licentiousness, 
and became the instrument of unspeakable oppression to 
great numbers of his majesty's best subjects. The ruling 
prelates, though unauthorized by law, required the clergy 
to read it before the public congregation. This the puritans 
refused ; for whik^h they felt the iron rod of their tyrannical 
oppressors. Dr. Staunton, Mr. Chauncey, and Mr. Thomas, 
for refusing to read the book, were suspended.:t Mr. 
Fairciou^ was often cited into the ecclesiastical courts. 
Mr. Tookie was turned out of his living. Mr. Cooper was 
suspended, and continued under the ecclesiastical censure 
seven years. Mr. Sanger was imprisoned at Salisbury. 
Mr. Moreland, rector of Hamsted-Marshall in Berkshire, 
was suspended and deprived of his living.^ Mr. Snelling 
was suspended, deprived, excommunicated, and cast into 
prison, where he continued till the meeting of the l(Mig 
parliament. Dr. Chambers was silenced, sequestered, and 
c^ast into prison. || Messrs. Culmer, Player, and Hieron 
being suspended, waited upon the archbishop, jointly 
requesting absolution from the unjust censure; when his 
grace said, <^ If you know not how to obey, I know not 
how to grant your favour," and dismissed them from his 
presence. Mr. Wilscm was suspended from his office and 
benefice, and afterwards prosecuted in the high commission. 
Mr. Wroth and Mr. Erbery from Wales, Mr. Jones from 

« Wbarton's Trouble* of Uud, vol. i. p, 6S2, 5S3. 

*f Calamy*s Accoaot, vol. ii. p. S9. 

t Clark's Lives, last vol. part i. p. 162. ^ MS. Reiaarluiy p. 90S. 

I CaUunj's Acco0Bt aad Coniia. 


GIoucestenhiTe, Mr. Whitfield of Ockham, Mr. Garth of 
Woversh, Mr. Ward of Pepper-Harrow, Mr. Farrol of Pur- 
bri^t, Mr. Pegges of Weeford, and Mr. Thomas Valentine^ 
minister of Chalibnt St. Giles, with many others, were brought 
firom various parts of the country, and prosecuted iii the 
Jugh commission.* Mr. Edmund Calamy, Mr. William 
Bridge, Mr. Thomas Allen, and about thirty other worthy 
ministers, for refusing to read the book and observe Bishop 
Wren's articles, were driven out of the diocese.f And 
Laud, at the same tune, caused upwards of tw^ity ministers 
to be fined and expelled frcnn their livings, for not bowing 
at the name of Jesus.^ 

Towards the close of this year, William Prjrnne, esq. a 
member of Linooln's-inn, having published a book, entitled 
^'Histrio-mastix; or, the Plajrs Scourge," exposing the 
evU of plays, masquerades, &c. • was sentenced to have his 
book burnt by the common hangman, to be put from the 
hkty to be for ever incapable of Ins profession, to be turned 
out of the society of Lincoln's-inn, to be degraded at 
Oxford, to stand in the pillory at Westminster and Cheap- 
side, to lose both his ears, one in each place, to pay a fine 
of five thousand pounds, and to suffer perpetual imprison- 
ment.§ Dr. Bastwick, a physician of Colchester, naving 
published a book, entitled Eknchus religionisy papisticw, 
with an appendix, called Flagellum pontificis and eptsoh 
pomm Latialium, so greatly ofiended the prelates, by 
denying the divine right of bishops above that of presby* 
ters, that by the high commission, he was discarded from 
his profession, exconmiunicated, fined one thousand pounds, 
and imprisoned till he should recant. And Mr. Burton 
having published two sermons against the late innovations, 
entitl^ ^^ For God and the King," had his house and 
study broken open by a serjeant at arms, and his books and 
papers carried away. He was then suspended, and com- 
mitted close prisoner to the Fleet, where he remained a 

These terrible proceedings made many conscientious non- 
conformists- retire, with their families, to Holland and New 
England. Mr. Thomas Goodwin, Mr. Jeremiah Burrou^hs^ 
Mr. William Bridge, Mr. Sydrach Sympson, Mr.Julmes 
Herring, Mr. Samuel Ward, and many o^eis^ baviog 

♦ Pry one's CaiK.Doonie, p. 149, 151, 
+ Calamy's Account, vol. ii. p. 6, 476. 

? Huntley's Prelates' Usurpations, p. ISi, 
Rusbworth's Collec. vol. ii. p. 233. 



endured the cruel oppressions of the prelates, went to Holland. 
Mr. Herring had been driven from his flock, and several 
times suspended. Mr. Ward had been suspended, required 
to recao^ condemned in costs of suit, and cast into prisma 
where he had remauied a long time. And Messrs. Mather^ 
Bulklejr, Hobert^ Symes, Whitfield, Rogers, Partridge, 
Whiting, Knollys, and Chauncey, withdrew finunthe storm^ 
and fled to New £ngland. This was no rash adventure* 
They suffered many hardships by suspension and imprison* 
ment, previous to their departure. Mr. Chauncey was twice 
prosecuted by. the high commissicm, suspended from his 
ministry, cast into prison, condemned in costs of suit, and 
obligea to make a recantation. 

While these fled from the storm, others continued to 
endure the painful conflict. Dr. Stoughton, rector of 
Aldermanbury, London; Mr. Andrew Moline, curate of 
St Swithin^s ; Mr. John Goodwin, vicar of St. Stephen^s^ 
Colcman-street ; and Mr. Viner of St. Lawrence, Old 
Jewry, were prosecuted for breach of canons. Mr. Turner- 
ajtid Mr. Lindall, with some others, were censured in the 
high commission. Mr. John Wood, formerly censured 
in the high commissiiNi, and Mr. Sparrowhawke of St. 
Mary's, Woolnoth, were both suspended for preaching 
against bowing at the name of Jesus. Dr. CorndiiiiB 
Burgess and Mr. Wharton sufiered in the high commis* 
sion. Mr. Matthews, rector of Penmayn, was suspended 
by his diocesan, for preaching against the observance of 
popish holidays.* Mr. Styles was prosecuted in tlk? 
ecclesiastical court at York, for omitting the cross in 
baptism. Mr. Leigh, one of the prebendaries of Lichfield, 
was suspended for churching refractory women in private^ 
for being averse to the good orders of the churchy and for 
ordering the bell-man to give notice in open market of a 
sermon. Mr. Kendal of Tuddington, was suspended for 
preaching a sermon above an , hour long, on a sabbafb 
atleruoon. Dr. Jenningson of Newcastle, was prosecuted 
in the high commission, and forced to quit the kingdom^ 
to escape the fury 6f Laud. Mr. Jdhn Jemmet of Berwick, 
was apprehended by a pursuivant, suspended from the 
sacred Action, and banished from the town, without any 
article or witness being brought s^ainsthim; and above, 
twenty other ministers were suspended for nonconformity.f 
Mr. John Evans was sent to the Gatehouse; Mr. John 

* Wharton's Troablet of Laud, vol. i. p. 5S$— 544. 
t Pryane's Ct&t. Doome, p. 381^ 38?, 450, 


Vicars was apprehended by a pursuivant, cast into prison^ 
fined, and deprived of his living; and Mr. George Walker 
ivas prosecuted in the star-chamber, sequestered, and cast 
into prison, where he remained till the meeting of the long 

Dr. Pierce, bishop of Bath and Wells, at the same time 
persecuted the nonconformists without mercy. He drove 
all the lecturers out of his diocese, and put down their 
lectures, as factions, and nurseries of puritanism. Upon a 
reflection on what he had done, he said, <^ I thank Grod, I 
have not one lecturer left in my diocese,'* hating the very 
name. He suspended Mr. Davenish of Bridgewater. for 
preaching a lecture in his own church on a market-aay ; 
and having absolved him upon his promise to preach no 
more, he said. Go thy way, and sin no more, lesi a tcone 
thing btfal thee. He suspended Mr. Cornish for preaching 
a funeral sermon in the evening ; and he questioned Mr. 
Thomas Erford for preaching on a revel-day, saying << his 
text was scandalous to the revel." He sharply reprinuwded 
other ministers for explaining the questions and answers in 
the catechism, and said, '' Tliat was as bad as preaching.** 
For this practice he enjoined Mr. Barret, rector of Barwick^ 
to do public penance.* Dr. Conant, rector of Limington^ 
received mucn molestation from this prelate.f Mr. Riciiard 
AUein, fifty years minister of Dichiat, endured great 
sufferings under him. And Dr. Chambers was silenced, 
sequestered, and cast into prison, being harassed several 

Bishop Wren of Norwich, having ordered the commu* 
nion tables in his diocese to be turnixl into altars, fencing 
them about with rails, many of the people, to avoid super- 
stition and idolatry, refused to kneel before them. Aad 
though they presented themselves on their knees in the 
chancel, they were refused the communion; andafterwiids^ 
for not receiving it, they were exconununicated by tUa 
prelate.^ His lordship had no mercy on the puritanic Bt 
suspended, deprived, ex6ommunlcated,| or otherwiw 
sured no less than Jiftj/ able and pious miaisten^ to the 
of themselves, their wives, and their ddldim. ^ 

* PryDne*t Cant. Doomc, p. S77t 378. 

f Palmer*! Nodcoo. Men. ▼•!• I. P. Sf9. 

1 CalaiDv*B Aipcooiit, toI. 11. p. iSS^tM. 

( Nulson^s Collectioot, vol. M. p« *^ 

Q A minuter*! !on WM excoi 
bU father, wbo bad been ex< 
p. 181. 


Bomber were Messrs. William Lei^, Richard ProQ^ 
Jonathan Burr, BiatthewArowniiig!, William Pbwett> Richard 
Raymund, Joha Carter, Robert Peck, William Bridge^ 
William Green, Thomas Scott, Nicholas Beard, Robert 
Kent, Thomas Alien, John Allen, and John Ward.* Some 
of tlMA spent their days in silence ; others retired into 
foreign countries ; but none were restored, ivithoiit a uror 
mise of ccmfbrmity. This furious prelate, by these seyerities. 
drove upwards of three thousand persons to ecA their bread 
in a fgsfisn land.f 

About the year 1637, many of Ae persecuted puritaoi^ 
to obtain a refuge from the storm, retired to New Ln^aod ; 
an^ong whom were Messrs. Fisk, Moxon* Newmaq, Peck, 
JSzekel Rogers, and Thomas Larkbam.t Mr. Larkbam was 
80 followed by continued vexatious prosecutions, that he 
was a suflferer in almost all the courts in England. He 
was in the star-chamber and high commission St the same 
time. And, he said, he was so constantly hunted by hungry 
pursuivants, that at last, by the tvraupy of the bishops, 
and the tenderness of his own conscience, he was forced into 
exile. § 

While these ravages were made in the churches, nume* 
Tons pious ministers and their flocks being torn asunder, if 
any attempted to separate from the national church, the 
jealcNis arcnbishop was sure to have his eye upon them. Mr. 
JLamb was accoratogly prosecuted in the high commission^ 
and cast into prison. He was confined in most of the jaib 
about London. Mr. Wilson and Mr. Cornwall were com* 
mitted to Maidstone jail. Many others w^e exconununi- 
cated and imprisoned by the archbishop. 

This tyrannical arch-prelate suspended one Mr. Warren^ 
a schoolmaster, for refusing conrormity^ and for reading 
.only books on dt'oimti/ among hi^ scholars. Mr. Ephraim 
Hewet, minister of Wroxall in Warwickshire, was suspended 
by his diocesan, for keeping a fast in his parish, and not 
observing the ceremonies. Mr. JeflFiyes was forced from 
his flock ; and Mr. Wroth and Mr. Erbery were prosecuted, 
when the latter resigned his vicarage, and left the diocese in 
peace. Great numbers in Kent were excommunicated and 
cast into prison. About thirty oi the London mlnistert 

« RnthwortVs Collec. vol. Hi. p. S5S.--Nal80B'g CoUec. vol. ii. p. 400,401f 

f PryBiie'fl Cant. Doomey p. 976. 

t The oamber of ministers driTea to New England by the hard dcallngt 
of the bisbopsy ftom the year ISSOto 1640, anonntcd to about liBCty.-* 
iirS. JtMnarAw, p. 919—021. 

§ Calamy's Contin. Tol.i. p. SSO. 

VOL. I. # 


were convened before their diocesan ; when many of them 
were suspended and excommunicated for refusing to receive 
the sacrament at the rails.* Mr. Miles fiurket, vicar of 
Patteshall in Northamptonshire, was prosecuted in the hi^h 
commission, for administering the sacrament without me 
rails, and for not bowing at the name of Jesus, f Mr* Burton^ 
Mr. Prynne, and Dr. mstwick, already mentioned, having 
been long confined in prison, were prosecuted in the star- 
chamber, whenthey received the following dreadful sentence : 
— '' Mr. Burton shall be deprived of his living, and degraded 
from his ministry, as Mr. Piynne and Dr. Bastwick had been 
already from their professions; they shall each be fined 
d£5,000 ; they shall stand in the pillory at Westminster, and 
have their ears cut ofi*; and because Prynne had lost his 
ears already, the remainder of the stumps shall be cut oS, 
and he shall be stigmatized on both his cheeks with the letters 
S. L. for a seditious libeller; and they shall all three 
suffer perpetual imprisonment in the remotest parts of the 
kingdom. ";( 

^ The church of England and the governing prelates were 
now arrived at their highest power and splendour. The 
afilicted nonconformists, and those who favoured their cause,^ 
felt the relentless vengeance of the star-chamber and hi^L 
commission. Dr. Wifiiams, the excellent Bishop of Lincob, 
was now removed from the court, and retired to his diocese. 
Here he connived at the nonconformists, and spoke with 
somQ keenness against the ceremcmies. He once said, << That 
the puritans were the king^s best subjects, and he was sure 
they would carry all at last." Laud being informed of tihis 
expression, caused an information to be lodged against 
him in the star-chamber, when, after suspension from aJl his 
offices and benefits in the high commission, he was fined 
j£lO,000 to the king, j^l,000 to Sir John Mounson, and 
committed to the Tower during the king's pleasure. Being 
sent to the Tower, his library and all his goods were seized, 
and sold to pay the fine. His papers being seized^ two 
letters were found written to him by Mr. Osbaldeston, chief 

♦ Wharton's Troubles of Land, vol. i. p. 546—557. 

f Pry one's Cant. Doome, p. 96. 

% For a cifGumstantial account of the e;cecation of this barbarons sea* 
tcnce, see Art. Henry Burton. 

^ Many of those who favoured the cause of the Donconformistii, paid 
great sums of money to obtain their release from the ecclesiastical censure. 
And Mr. John Packer,- a gentleman of exemplary piety, charity, and 
zeal for a further reformation, was most liberal in supporting the silenced 
ministers ; and he paid a^l,000 for one of them to be released.— -JfS. Ckr§* 
nologiff vol. iii. A.D. 1640^ p. 44. 


mailer of Westminster school, containing certain dark 
rxpresstons,* on the eround of which he was condemned in 
tfae additional line of ^5,000 to the king, and ^3,000 to the 
Bfchbishop, and kept close prisoner in the Tower. Mr. 
Osbaldeslon was fined j£d,000 lo the kin^, and .£^,000 to the 
archbishop ; to be deprived of all his spiritiuU promotions^ 
lo stand in the pillory before his own school, and have his 
fan nailed to it, and to be imprisoned during the king'a 
pleasure. Mr. Osbaldeston being among the crowd in the 
court, when the sentence was pronounced, immediately 
went home, burnt some papers, and absconded, leaving s 
note on, his desk in his study, with these words : " If the 
archbishop enquire for me, tell him I am gone beyond 
Canterbury." Mr. John Lilbume, afterwards a colonel in 
the anny, for refusing to take an oath to answer all interro- 
gatories conceniing his importing and publishing seditious 
libels, was fined ^5,000, and whipped through the streets 
fiom the Fleet to the pillory in Westminster. While in the 
ptlloiy, he was gagged, then carried to the Fleet, and com- 
oiitted to close confinement, with irons on his hands and 
feet, where he reniauied betwixt two and three years, without 
any persons being allowed to sec him.+ 

These terrible proceedings, without serving the interest 
of the church, awakened universal resentment against those 
ia power. Many thousand thmilics were driven to Holland, 
ud many thousands to New iJigland.^ This so alarmed 
the kin^ and Ike council^ that a proclamation was issued, 
A^ 9^ 1637, obserring, " That great numbers of hia 
■ajatT'B.8iib|ecta were yeoriy tcwisported to New England, 
with their fimiliea and wbdecstotea, Mot tkey migh be oia 
of Ike reach o f ecclfsiatiica/ authariti/,- his majesty therefiire 
tonunaiids, that his officers of the scvcnil ports should bufier i 
■Kue to pass without liorasc from Ihv commisGtwiers of l\ttA 
idqntatione, nnd a teslimotiial from tlirir mrnMcr, of ifacvj 
conformily to llif t.rikTs .-ukI (Tisi|;lii.i .a" M,. church.'^ 
Apd to debar all luiniMcrs. it w.'i> .■iil>i. d. - Thai whcreftl' 
MH^ niinititeni a^ atr not BaaflUmablc Ut Uie tliacipHnJiB 
ceremonies of (he cliB] 
hithe pbiitatH 
lactious iuid« 


good conlbrmitjr and xsmtj of the chuich ; we theiefon* 
expicflslj command you, in his migesty 's name, to sufier 
fto clergyman to transport himself without a lestinosial 
ftom the Archlnshc^ of Canteibury and the Bishop of 
London/'* The puritans must not be suffered to lire 
pmceMy at home, nor yet be altowed to take sanctuary ia 
• foreign land. Tliese unparalleled acts of cruel and ^fiaii* 
tiical injustice in a protestant countiy, turned the hearti of 
lens of thousands to the cause of the |p«ritans« 

Notwithstanding the above prohibitions, multitudes west Ott 
board ships in disguise^ and got over to Ae new pkuitationa. 
There were, indera, eight ships ia the riyer llames bound 
fer New Ellwand, and filled with puritan fiuniUes, animif 
whom was Oliver Cromwell ; who, seeing no end of the 
cmel oppressions in their native country , detennined to 
spend tiie remainder of their days in .^erica. But the 
council being informed of their desi^ issued an order ^1o 
atay those snips, and to put on more all the proviakai^ 
intended for the voyage." To prevent the same in fating 
the king prohibited au masters and owners of ships^ from 
sending any ships with passengers to New England, witlaNit 
a special license from the privy council ; ^ because^" nem 
he, ^ flie people of New England are factious and unworthy^ 
our support. + 

The puritans who remained at home still groaned aadtt 
the merciless oppressicms of the prelates. Ur. Obadiak 
Sedgwick was driven from his living and tli^ people of his 
charge. Mr. Cox was summoned first before Bi^op Hall^ 
then Archbishop Laud. Mr. Simonds, rector of St. MaitinVy 
Ironmonger-lane, London, and Mr. Daniel Yotyer, rector 
of St. Peter's, West-cheap, were deprived, and forced to flee 
into Holland. Mr. Show was cited before Laud, and ho 
fled to New England.^ By the rec<Hnmcndatioa of Land, 
Mr. Edward Moore, a student in the university of Ozfisfd, 
was cast into prison, for (he insignificant crimeof wearing 
liis hat in the town ; and for his behaviour when reproved 
for his fault, he recommended him to be publicly whipped^ 
'and banislKd from the university.^ Mr. Bright tfaa 
suspended for refusing to read the prayer against the Scots ; 
and his brethren, the ministers of Kent, endured many 
troubles for the same crime. Mr. Barber was suspended 
and cost into prison, where he remained eleven mootha. Mr* 

« Roihworlb, Tol. ii. p. 40S, 410. 

f Ibid. i Wharton*! TirMbles of Lndl, TttL i. f. 4fl9— Mi. 

S Wharton^ Troublet of Uad« ToL U. p. 191. 


Sesaej and many othefs being assembled togetber Itnr tba 
purpose of fiuting and prayer, ^vrene intemqited by th# 
punuiTants, and sent to the ToT?er. Afterwards he was 
appreliended and several of bis congregation, and oonmitted 
to the Compter ; bat upon their apj^ication to the parlia- 
ment, they were immediatdly released. Mr. WiUdnson 
wassaspended, but restored by the house of conuncms.* Mr. 
Moietofi, rector of Blisland in Cornwall, was driren from bis 
liying and his flock. Mr. Hughes and Mr. Todd were both 
silenced. Mr. Hieron was apprehended and prosecuted in 
the high commission, for very trivial matters.f By these 
proceedings of the bishops, many thousandlb oi excellent 
chrktians and worthy subject were ruined in their estates^ 
and driven out of the country.t 

In the year 1640, ikt convocation continued to sil, after 
thie parliament was dissolved. The canons adopted in this 
synod, entitled ^' Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical 
treated upon by the Archbishcqps of Canterbury and York, 
&c." are extr^uely superstitious and tyrannical. They 
required of all clergymen to swear *' That th^ would never 
consent to the alteration of the pres^oit government of the 
church, by archbishops, bishops, deans, archdeacons, &c.*' 
And if any beneficed person should refuse this ridiculous 
and crud oath, << he shall after one month be suspended 
from his office ; after a second mohth, he shall be suspended 
from his office and benefice ; and after a t^ird month, he 
sliall be deprived of all his ecclesiastical promotioRS.*^ These 
canons were evidently designed to crush all the puikans at 
once ; but they were soon virtually annulkd.| 

November^ 1640, the long parliament first ass^n- 
Ued, and continued sitting with some little interruptioB about 
tighieen years. The members of this parliament were all 
v^mbers of the church of Englmdy and nearly all advocates 
for episcopal govemmettt.1 The first week was sp^ in 
af^Hnnting committees, and receiving the numerous petitions 
from all parts of the kingdom, craving a redress of grievances 
both in church and state.** Numerous petitions wisre also 

• Calamy's Contio. toI. \. d. 47, 91. 

-f Calamy*8 Account, vol. ft. p, 144, 162, 8SS, T97. 

t Mather's Hist, of New EBg.h. iii. p. 130. 

\ Sparrow** Collec. p. $59, SSD« 

U The above convocation^ tays Clarendon, gave subsidies, .enjoined SA 
oath, and did things, which, in the best of times, might haye been que** 
tioned; and therefore, in the wont| were sure to be condemuoA^^MiH, ^f 
Eebeltton^ vol. i. p. ) IS* 

f pi«DtQ4«o*f Hilt. T#l. i. p. |94. « * Whitlocke's WsmM^ p. SS. 

89 iirraoDucTioN/ 

presented by the puritans who had been many yeais nndet 
close confinement ; when tiie pariiament favourably received 
theni^ released the prisoners, and voted them to recdve 
considerable sums out o( the estates of their persecutors, by 
way of damages. They released Dr. Leighton, who had 
been imprisoned ten years ; Mr. Smart, deven or twelve 
years; and Mr. Brewer, fourteen years. Also, Burtcffiy 
Piynrie, Bastwick, Walker, Lilbume, Bishop Williams, 
and many others, now obtained their liberty. The abore 
canons were^ at the same time, condemned in the house of 
commons, as being against the king's prerc^tive, , the 
fundamental laws of the realm, the literty and property of 
the subject, and as containing divers other things tending io 
sedition and dangerous consequence. For which several of 
the bishops were impeached of high crimes and misde- 
meanours.* The archbishop was impeached of high treason^ 
and conunitted to the Tower.t 

The cammiUee of accommodaiian was appointed by the 
upper house, to consider of such innovations as were proper 
to be taken away. It consisted of ten earls, ten bishops, and 
ten barons. They also appointed a sub-committee of 
bishops and learned divines, to prepare matters for debate, 
Bishop Williams being chairman of both.^ The result of 
their conference was drawn up for the debate of the com- 
mittee, in a number of propositions and queries. But all 
attempts at an acconunodatiou were blasted by the obstinacy 
of the bishops, and by the discovery of the plot for bringii^ 
tjie army up to London to dissolve the parliament. This 
widened the distance betwixt the king and the two houses, 
and broke up the committee, without bringing any thing to 
perfection. The moderation and mutual compliance of 
these divines, it is justly observed, might have saved the 
whole body of episcopacy, and prevented the civil war : but 
the court bishops expected no good from them, suspecting 
that the puritans would betray the church. Some hot 

* RiMhwortb's Collec. vol. W. p. S59. 

+ Prynnc*8 Breviate of Laad, p. 23, 24. 

:^ The names of these bishops and learned divines, were as foUowi: 
Dr. Williams, bishop of Lincoln, Dr. Richard Holdswortb, 

Dr. Ujihcr, archbishop of Armagh, Dr. John Hacket, 
Dr. Morton, bi&hop of Durham, Dr. William Twisse, 

Dr. JIall, blbhop of Exeter, Dr. Cornelias Burgess^ 

Dr. Ramael Ward, Mr. John White, 

Dr. John Prideaux, Mr. Stephen Marsball, 

Dr. Robert Sanderson, Mr. Edmond Calamy, " '.. 

Dr. Dapiel Featley, Mr. Thomas Hill. :* " 

Dr» Ralpb Brownrigg, ^uUer's Church Hist. b. il. f. <74* 


spirits would abate nothing of the episcopal power or profit,, 
but maintained, that to yield any thing was giving up the 
cause to the opposite party.* 

In the year 1641, the pariiament introduced two bills, 
one to abolish the high conunission court, the other the 
star-chamber, both of which obtained the royal assent.t 
The former of these courts, observes Lord Clarendon, had 
assumed a disputable power of imposing fines ; that it some- 
times exceeded in the severity of its sentences; that it 
rendered itself very unpopular ; and had managed its 
censures with more sharpness, and less policy^ than the 
times would bear : but he declares he did not know that 
any innocent clergyman suffered by any of its ecclesiastical 
censures.^ The abolition of these courts effectually clipped 
the wings of the persecuting prelates. 

Numerous petitions being sent up from all quarters for 
preaching ministers, a committee of forty members of the 
house was appointed, called the committee of preaching 
ministersy to send ministers where there were vacancies, and 
provide for their maintenance.^ And there being many 
.complaints of idle and licentious clergymen, another com- 
mittee was appointed, called ilih committee of scandalous 
ministers, to examine these complaint3.|| A third com- 
mittee was appointed, called the committee of plundered 
ministers, for the relief of such godly ministers as were 
driven from their cures, for adfctering to the parliament.! 
Many pious and learned divines were members of these 
committees, who employed their abilities to the utmost for 
public useflilness. 

Upon the presentation (j£ numerous grievances from all 

« Fuller's Church Hist. b. zi. p. 175. 

f Scobeirs Collections, part i. p. 9, 12. 

} Clarendon's Hist. vol. i. p. 221 , 222.-'The high commission, says Hume) 
extended its jurisdiction over the ivhole kingdom, and over all orders of 
men ; and every circumstance of its authority, and all its methods of 
proceeding, were contrary to the clearest principles of law and natural 
equity. The commissioners were impowered to administer the oath ex 
officiOf by which a person was bound to answer all questions, and might 
thereby be obliged to accuse himself or his most intimate friend. The finee 
were discretionary, and often occasioned the total ruin of the offender, 
contrary to the established laws of the kingdom. This court was a real 
Ittquisition ; attended tvith all the imjuiths, as well as cruelties^ inseparable 
from that tribunal. It was armed, says Granger, with an inquisitorial povetf 
to force any one to confess what be knew, and to punish him at discretion, 
— Hume*s Hist, of Eng, vol. v. p. 189. — Qrangtr^s Biog* Bist, vol. L 
p. 206. 

^ Clarendon's Hist. vol. i. p. 295. 

f Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part i. p. 19. 

I Walker's Suf, Clergy, part i. pr73. 


parts of the IdngdonL the pariiaraent appointed a com- 
mittee to draw out of them aU, such kind it remonstrance as 
would gii^e his maj^v an impartial represoitation of the 
deplor&Ie state of the nation. The remonstrance* was 
presented to the king, December 1, 1641 ; and enumerates 
the grievances, oppressions, and unbounded acts oi the 
prerogative, since his majesty^s accession: among which 
were ^' The suspension, deprivation, excommunication, and 
degradation of laborious, learned, and pious ministers.-^ 
The sharpness and severity of the hi^h commission, assisted 
by the cowicil-tabK not much less grievous than the Romish 
inquisition. — The rigour of the bishops^ courts in the 
country, whereby numbers of tradesmen have been im- 

?[>verished, and driven to Holland and New Kngland>— » 
he advancement to ecclesiastical preferments, of those 
who were most officious in promoting superstition, and 
most virulent in railing against godliness and honesty.-— 
The design of reconcilmg the church of England with thai 
of Rome. — ^And the late canons and oath imposed upon the 
dergy, under the most grievous penalties.'^ But the king 
vras displeased with the remonstrance; he published an 
answer to it, and issued his royal proclamation, requiring 
an exact conformity to the religion as by law established.^ 
During the year 1643, the King and the parliament put 
themselves respectively in. a posture of defence, and used 
those military precautions which soon led to all the horrors 
of a civil war, and deluged the land with blood. Both 
parties published their, declarations, in justification of their 
own cause. The king set up his ^niaard at Nottingham, 
where about 2,000 came to him ; and greatly augmented his 
forces out of Shropshire, Worcestershire, and other counties. 
The parliament raised a ^llaht army under the comikiand 
of the Earl of Essex. Many exTcellent divines became 
chaplains to the several regtmehts. Dr. BurjB^ess and Mr« 
Manrtiail, to the general's own regiments; Mr. Obadiah 
Sedgwick, to Colonel Hdllis's negrment; Dr. Downiiig,"lo 
liord Roberts' ; Mr. John Sedgwick, to the Eari of Stam- 
ford's ; Dr. Spurstowe, to Mr. Hampden's ; Mr. Periuns, to 

* I'he debates in parliament about tbe renoiistraBce lasted Trom tlirea 
o^clock in the afternoon, tin ten next morning, which occasioaed Sir B. E. 
to lay, '* It was the verdict of a starved jury." Oliver Cromwell told 
Lord Falkland, that if the remonstrance had been reJMted, be wovlil'liava 
sold alt his estates next momiog, and never have seen England any BMire.— 
WhUlockt'a Mem, p. 49, -^Clarendon* s HiU. vol. i. p.-SiS, 84T. 

f Knshworth's Collec. vol. v. p. 438— Nalsoo's CeUec vol. ii« ^. 

% Roshworth's Collec. vol. v. p. 460. 


Colondl Goedmn^s ; Mr. Moore^ to Lord Whartoif s ; Mr. 

Adoniriim Byfidd, to Sir Henry Cholmley 'ib ; Mr. NaltoBy 

to Coload GrttotliamV; Mr. Aidie, either to Lord firook'a 

or the Earl of Manchester's; aiid Mr. Morton, to Sic 

'^ Arthur Uafiilrigg's; with many more.* 

\ The house of commons had already resolved, '^ That 

\ the Lord's day should be duly observed and sanctified; 

V that all dancing and other sports, either before or aft^ 

divine service, ddotUd be forbom and restrained ; that the 

E reaching of God's word be promoted in all parts of the 
ingdom ; and that ministers be encouraged in this work."f 
May 5, 164S, the parliament issued an order, ^' That ths 
Book of Sports shall be burnt by the common hangman, in 
Cheapside and other public places," which was done by 
direction of the sherifls of London and Middlesex.^ By 
an ordinance of both houses, it was appointed, ^< That no 
person shall henceforth on the Lord's dav, use or be present 
at any wrestling, shooting, bowling, ringmg of belte tor plea- 
sure, mask, wake, church-ale, games, dancing, sports, or other 
^ pastime, under the several penalties annexecL^' An ordi« 
nance also passed for removing all monuments of supeisti« 
tion and idolatry, commanding all altars and tables of 
stone to be demolished, communion tables to be removed 
from the east end of the church, the rails to be removed, 
the chancel to be levelled, tapers, candlesticks, basons, &c 
to be removed irom the communion tables ; and all crosses, 
crucifixes, and images, to be taken away and deiaced. 
And by another, it was appointed, <^ That all copes, sur* 
plices, superstitious vestments, roods, fonts, and organs, be 
utterly defaced.''^ 

June 12y 164S, an ordinance passed both houses for 
calling the assembly of divines.g This assembly was not 
a convocation according to the diocesan modal, nor was it 
called by the votes of ministers according to the presby« 
terian way; but the parliament chose all the members 
themsdves, merely with a view to obtain their opinion wai 
advice, in settlinjg the government, liturgy, and doctrine 
of the church. Their debates were confined to such things 
as the parliament proposed. Some counties had twomenn 
bers, and some only one. But to appear impartial, and 

« SyWester't Life of Btfiter, |iart i. p. 4SU 

f Nal80B*« CoUec. vol. ii. p. 48S. 

X An act of greater scorn, or greater insolency and disloyal inpadeace, 
•ays Dr. HeyliOy was never oiered to a soverel^ and anointed Pruice» 
than this severe osage of tkt Book of Sw^TU^^BUi* of Pru. p. 4S5. 

i 8eabeU*t Oollec. fwt i. §. b»t 99. I Ibid. p. 48. 

do limiobucTioN. 

give each party the liberty to speak, tbey chose many of the 
most learned episcopalians, as well as those of other deno* 
minations.* Lmrd Clarendon reproaches these pious and 
learned diyines, of whom a list is given beIow,f by sajdng^ 
^^ That some were infamous in their lives and conversation, 
md most of them of very mean parts, if not of scandalous 
ignorance, and of no other reputation than of malice to the 

* Many of tbe episcopal divines, several of wbom were bisiiopiy did 
not attend. 

f William Twi8se,D.D. Newbury, William Greenhill/Stepnej'. 

prolocotor. Edward Peale, Compton. 

Corn. Buri^ess, D.D. ) John Greeo, Pencombe. 

Watford, ( - Andrew Perne, Wilby. 

Jobn White, Dorches-r ^"«»«"- Samuel de la Place, French Charcb. 

fer, J John de la March, French Charcb. 

mrilliam Goofre, D.D. Blackfriars. John Dury. 

JKobert Harris, B.D. lianwell. Philip Delme. 

Tho. Gataker, B.D. Rotherhithe. Sydrach Sympson, London. 

Oliver Bowles, B.D. Satton. John Lan^ley, West-Taderly. 

Bdward Reynolds, D.V. Bramston. Richard Cleyton, Showel. 

Jeremiah Whitaker, A.M. Strettoo. Arthur Sal wey, Severn Stoke. 

Anthony Tuckney, B.D. Boston. John Ley, A.M. Bodworth. 

7ohn Arrowsmith, Lynn. Charles Ilerle, A.M. Winwick, (pro- - 
Simeon Ashe, St. Bride's. locator after Dr. Twisse.) 

Philip Nye, Kimbolton. Herbert Palmer, B. D. Ashwell, 
Jeremiah Burroughs, A.M. Stepney. (assessor after Mr. White.) 

John Lightfoot, D.D. Ashly. Daniel Cawdrey, A.M. 

Stanley Gower, Brampton-Bryan. Henry Painter, B.D. Exeter. 

Richard Heyricke,A. M.Manchester. Henry Scudder, Collingboume. 

Thomas Case, London. Thomas Hill, D.D. Tichmarch. 

Thomas Temple, D.D. Battersea. William Reynor, B.D. Egham. 

George Gipps, Ayleston. Thomas Goodwin, D.D. London. 

Thomas Carter, Oxford. William Spurstowe, D.D. Hampdes. 

Humphrey Chambers, B.D. Cla- Matthew Newcomen, Dedham. 

vertoo. John Conant, D.D. Limiugton. 

Tho. Micklethwaite, Cherryburton. Edmund Staunton, D.D. Kingston^ 

John Gibbon, Waltham. Anthony Burgess, Sutton -Cold Held. 

Christ. Tisdale, Uphurstborne. William Rathband, Highgate. 

John Phillips, Wrentham. Francis Cheynel, D.D. Petwortb. 

George Walker, B.D. London. Henry Wilkinson, junior, B.D. 

Edm. Cafamy, B.D. Aldermanbury. Obadiaii Sedgwick, B.D. CoggeshalU 

Joseph Caryl, A.M. LincolnVinn. Edward Corbet, MertoncolLOzford. 

Xazarus Seaman, D.D. London. Samuel Gibson, Burley. 

Henry Wilkinson, B.D. Waddesdon. Thomas Coleman, A.M. BlitOD. 

Richard Vines, A.M. Calcot. Theod. Buckhurst, Overton- Water- 
Nicholas Profiet, Marlborough. vile. 

Stcph. Marshall, B.D. Finchiugfield, William Carter, London. 

Joshua Hoyle, D.D. Dublin. Peter Smith, D.D. Bark way. 

^Thomas Wilson, A.M« Oiham. John Maynard, A.M. 

Thomas Hodges, B.D. Kongiugton. William Price, Covent-Garden. 

Tho. Barley, B.D. Maningford- John Wincop, D.D. St. Martin's. 

Crncis. William Bridge, A.M. Yarmoatb. 

Francis Taylor, A.M. Yalding. Peter Sterry, London. 

Thomas Young, S(ow-market. William Mew, B.D. Esii^ton. 

Tho. Valentine, B.D. Chalfont St. Benj. Pickering, East-Hoathlj. 

Glks. John Strickland, B.D. New Sarapi. 



cburch.'^* But Mr. Baxter, who knew them much better 
than his lordship, says, " They were men of eminent learn- 
ing and godliness, ministerial abilities and fidelity. And 
the christian world, since the days of the apostles, has 
never had a synod of more excellent divines, than this 
synod, and the synod of Dort."f Many of the lords and 
commons were joined with the divines, to see that they did 
not go beyond their commission.} The assembly presented 
to me parliament the confession of faUhy the larger and 
shorter catechisms^ the directory of public toorshipy and 
their humble advice concerning church goverrnnerU. The 
^' Assembly's Annotations," as it is c(Mnmonly called, ig 
unjustly ascribed to the assembly. The parUament em« 
ployed the authors of that work, several of whom were 
members of this learned synod. The assembly first met 
July 1, 1643, in Henry the Seventh's chapel, and continued 
to meet several years. 

Soon after the meeting of the assembly, a bond of union 
was agreed upon, entitled '' A Solemn League and 
Covenant for Reformation, and Defence of Religion, the 
Honour and Happiness of the King, and the Peace and 
Safety of the three Kingdoms of £ngland, Scotland and 

Humphrey Hard wick. 
Jasper Hickes« A.M. Lawrick. 
John Bond, LL.D. Exeter. 
Henry Hall, B.D. Norwich. 
Thomas Ford, A.M. 
Tbo. Thorowgood, Massingham. 

William Goad. 

John Foxcroft, Gotham. 

John Ward. 

Richard Byfield, A.M. 

Francis Woodcock, Gaimbridft. 

J. Jackson, Cambridge. 

Peter Clark, A.M. Carnaby. 

The Commissioners for Scotland were, 
Lord Maitlahd. Samuel Rutterford. Robert Baylie. 

Alexander Henderson. George Gillespie. 

The Scribes were, 
Henry Roborough. John Wallis. Adoniram Byfield. 

* Clarendon *s Hist. vol. i. p. 416. 

i Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part i. p. 73. 

i Algernon Earl of Northumb. 
William Earl of Bedford. 
Philip Earl of Pembroke. 
William Earl of Salisbury. 
Henry Earl of Holland. 
Edward Earl of Manchester. 
William Lord Viscount Say and Sele. 
Edward Lord Viscount Conway. 
Philip Lord Wharton. 
Edward Lord Howard. 
John Selden, e^. 
Francis Rouse, esq. 
Edmund Prideaux, esq.* 
Sir Henry Tao^, senior, knt. 
John Glyn, ctq, recorder of Londoa. 

John White, esq. 

Bulstrode Whitlocke, esq. 

Humphrey Sallway, esq. 

Oliver St. John, esq. king's solicitor. 

Mr. Serjeant Wild. 

Sir Benjamin Rudyard, knt 

John Pym, esq. 

Sir John Clotworthy, knt 

John Maynard, esq. 

Sir Henry Vane, junior, knt. 

WiUiam Pierpoint, esq. 

William Wheeler, esq. 

Sir Thomas Barrington, knt 

Walter Yoang, esq. 

Sir John Evelin, knt. 


Ike Seals oommuBioiirn^ and the mmrmMj of dhiao^ m 
SC Mai|;uct*s dunA, WcalraniElcr ; and aftorwaida 
Mfniicd to be labicribcd by all poBoas above tbe age of 

In adcution to tiie committees akeady mcntionrd, the 
failianunt q^poinled eomltrv txmwntUetj in tbe di^ient 
paits of the kingdom; ana afterwards the e a m umMie e of 
mquedraOom. Thej were empoweied to cxsmine^ and 
aeqnesler, vpon snttcienA witncm, soch clogymcn as weie 
acaadaloos in their lives, ill-affscted to the pariiament, or 
fMnentets of the nnnatnrai war betwixt the long and parlia- 
SMat. linltitndes of the oonfimrmable defgj weie cited 
Ipetbre these commitiees, and such as were fimnd guilty of 
BSiorions immotality, or an avowed hostility to Ae pania* 
iMst, were depariyed of their livings. Though it cannot 
be saroosed in such times^ that no innoocnt peEKm unjustly 
snflfeied; yet, ^ many" says FuHer,^ were cast oat for their 
misdemeanoars, and some of their offences were so find, it is 
a shame to report them^ crying to justice for punishment.^f 
And^ says Mr. Baxter, ^ ui all the countries where he was 
^ acquainted, six to one at kasij if not miugf nwrey that 
^ were sequestered by the committees, were by the oaths of 
^ witnesses proved insaffident or scandalovn, or espedally 
<< guUty of drunkenness and swearing. This I knowj^' says 
he, «^ will displease the party, but I am sure H is imc*^t^ 

In the year 1644, Archbishop Laud was brought to 
by the two houses of parliament, and bein^ found guilty oi 
high treason, was beheaded on Tower-hill. He was a 
prelate <^ in]^)erious and bigotted principles, and radi and 
fiirious in his conduct, especially towaids the puritans* 
His councils were hi^h and arbitrary, tending to the ruin of 
tbe king and constitution. He obtained the ascendancf 
over his majesty^s conscience and councils.^ Thongh he 
vras no papist, he was much incHned to the popish imposi- 
tions and superstitious rites, and to meet the church of 
Rome half way. While it was Laud's <^ chief object to 
maintain the outward splendour of the church, bjr ^bulj 
increasing the number of jpompous ceremonies and scan- 

« Clarendon*! IVttt. 'vol. li. p. SS7. 

f Fuller*8 Charch Hist, b. xl. p. 207. 

1 Sylvester*! Life of Baxter, part i. p. 74. 

4 '' Some tff bis majesty*! mfDitlen drove so fast," saysW^lwpsA, ^^thalU 
was no wonder both tbe wheels and <Jbariot were broken. And it «raa oflriag 
in a great pait to the indiscreet zeal of a mitred Aea4, (mMUilas land) atlkS 
had got an ascendant over bis master's coiudenoB and coiiiicils« tiatiMtfi the 
SMSorcA^ and Merwrtktf owed aft6rwanli«lbeir fiUl/'-^ifMiidrf, p. S7» , 


daloiis umaraticiis, he midr mnj hit approaches fowinAi 
Rome^ M pcMntof doctrine.'^* Under ids primacy the 
churck of finglaiid evidently assumed a very popish 
appearance* And, according to Hume, the covul «f hUuam 
Hsdf entertaiBed hopes of rcgaininf its avthoiitf ip tiiis 
»land; a&d, in order to farwand Laud's stt ppose d good 
intjetitions^ an offer waa twice made him, in prhfd)e, of • 
cardinal's hat, which he declined accqiling. His answer 
wn, as he observes hJBBsetf, << that soDDusthing dwelt withia 
him which wottld not safifcr his compliance^ tfll Rome was 
(Dfber than it is.' V 

The London minisfcen having presented a petitioa to 
parliament for a settlemeat of the ecchasiaaticaldisciplino 
•nd ^vemmenty according to the directory of public 
worship, they had Uie thadks cxf the house; and a oom^ 
mittee was ajmointed to confer with tlie assembly , and to 
aaceitain how rar tender consciences rai^tbe borne wkh,caa^ 
sistest with the peace of the kingdom fmd the woid of Gpod4 
An ordinance soon passed to set aside the Book of CmnaMiii 
Prayer, and fo establish the directory.^ The psesbyteriuo 
now gaining the ascendancy, discoveied a strong propensi^ 
to grasp at the same arbitrary power, as tfiat under wlndh 
they had fornieiiy and fiar ya IcHig time gioaned. Tho 
parliament published two ordinances^ one against the 
preaching of unordained ministers^ the oth^ against bko* 
phenty and heresy^ both of which became the engines of 
oppression and persecution* The latter, says Mr. Neal, is 
one of the most shocking laws I have met with in restraint 
of religious liberty, and shews, that the^veming presby- 
terians would have made a terrible use of their power, had 
they been supported by the sword of the civil magistrate* 
Several ministers of puritan principles, became sufferers by 
these ordinances. Mr. Qarkson having embraced the 
sentiments of the aiitipsedobaptists, was cast into prison, and 
required to recant, for the marvellous sin of dipping. Mr. 
Leunb, Mr. D^ne, and Mr. KnoUys, all of the same denomi* 
nation, were apprehended and committed to prison. Mr; 

* May^9 Hist, of Parliaments, p. S2—23. 

f Pr^rone's Breviate of Laud, p. 18.— -Harness Hist of Eng. vol. ▼!• p« 
too.— It is ol)terT«d tliat acoart lady, daagbter of the Earl of DeTomMrs^ 
faaTing turned papist, was asked by Laod the reasons of her coDTenion. 
*' It is chiefly," said she, ** bccaase I hate to tra^l in a crowd." Ths 
meaning of this ezpreasioo behig demanded, she replied, ** I pereeive 
jo^t grace and many olhen are making baste to Rome ; and, therefbr«, 
in order to prevent my being crowdod, f have gone bdtore yoL^-^iil^. 
p. SIO. 

Wbidocke's Blaai. p. as. 
ScobcU't Colltc. ptft i. p. T6, 9f . 



KaoHys was a ftcmaids p n acmto d al flie watimiSy and sent 

prisoner toLoodon. Mr. Oalcs was tried far Us life, but 
aeqpulted. BIr. Biddle was cast into prison, whne ke 
senained seven yearsw 

The civil war harinj^ now continued serenl years^ 
introdooed dreadful conrarion and distress into ercty part 
mf the kingdom. Nnmooos were the snffiners on both 
fides. Bot the pariiament^s army fmnring ereiy irticie 
ffiomiriiant, the king himself was taken prisoner. During 
these commotions, the rami pailianient passed a deoee to 
establish a goyemmoit witboot a king and house of loids^ 
nnd so goyerned alone. They erected a high court €jt 
justice, OTon^t the king to trial, condemned him, erected 
m scaffi>ld before Whitehall, and there, before a large 
conconrse of people, struck off hb head, January 3Q, 1649. 
^ The king hsid a mistaken principle, thai kingly government 
in the state, could not stand witliout episcopal government 
in the churdi. Therefore, as the bishops flattered him by 
preaching up the soyereign ^reiogaiivej and inveighing 
4igainst me puritans as factious and disloyal : so he pro- 
tected than m their pomp and pride, and insolent {nractices 
Jigainst all the godly and sober people in the land.'** ^^ An 
immoderate desire of power j Ix^ond what the constitution 
did allow of, was the rock on which he split."f 

Sect. V- 

From the Death of Kin^ Charles I. to the passing of the 

Act of Uniformitt/^ in 1662. 

The King being taken out of the way, Cromwell pro- 
posed a Commonwealth, till he laid a foundation for his own 
advancement. The parliament drew up a form of eng ag£« 
jf ENT, to be subscribed by all persons aboye eighteen years 
of age, in these words : — ^^ I do promise to be true and 
J&ithful to the commonwealth as it is now established, 
without a king or house of lords." No man who refused 
this engagement could have the benefit of suing another at 
law, or hold any mastership in either university, or tray^ 

* Memoirs of Col. HatchUison, to), i. p. 129, ISO. 

f Wei wood's Memoirs, p. 87. — The paritan ministers o^ thepresbyterian 
denomination in London being charged with bringing the king to the blocks 
pnblisbed. a «• Vindication" of themselves, declaring the falsehood of the 
charge, and protesting their abhorrence of the fact, and their onshakeii 
loyaltfT to bis m^esty's person and just gover]UiieBt.«--(^<amy« C^nli'ra. iroL 
ii. p. 787. 


fnoreihsin a certain number of miles from his own house.* 
Therefore, Mr. Vines, Mr. Blake, and many other puritan 
ministers, for refusing to subscribe, were turned out of 
their livings. 

The terms of conformity were now less rigid than at any 
time since the commencement of the civil wars. The 
oppressive statutes of the parliament were relaxed or not 
acted upon, the covenant was laid aside, and no other civil 
qualification required of ministers, besides the engagement. 
Though the episcopal divines were forbidden to read the 
liturgy in form, they might frame their prayers as near it as 
they pleased; and upon this principle, many of tliera 
complied with the government. Numerous episcopal 
assemblies were connived at, where tlie liturgy was read, 
till they were found plotting against the government : nor 
would they have been denied an open toleration, if thej 
would have given security for (heir peaceable behaviour^ 
and not meddled with the affairs of government. f 

Cromwell and his friends, indeed, gave it out, that they 
could not understand what riglit the magistnate had to use 
compulsion in matters of religion. They thought that all 
men ought to be left to the dictates of their own consciences, 
and that the civil magistrate could not iutc^rpose in any 
religious concerns, without ensnaring hinis(^lf in the guilt 
of persecution.^ Dr. George Bates, an eminent royalist, 
and an avowed enemy to Cromwell, observes, " That the 
protector indulged the use of the common prayer in families, 
and in private conventicles ; and it cannot be denied, that 
churchmen had a great deal more favour and indulgence 
than under the parliament ; which would never have been 
interrupted, had they not insultcxl the protector, and 
forfeited their liberty by their seditious practices and 
plottings against his person and government.''^ 

December 16, 1633, Oliver Cromwell was installed Lord 
Paotector of the Commonwealth of £ngland, Scotland, 
and Ireland, when an Instrument of Government was 
adopted and subscribed. The thirty-seventh article ob- 
serves, <^ that all who profess &ith in God bv Jesus Chris^ 
shall be protected in their relieion.'^! The {Hurliament 
afterwards voted, that ail should be toleEatfdy or indafgedy 


* SyUeater*! Life of Baxter, put L p. « 
+ Neal*B Puritans, yoI. it. p. 6K< .. 
t SyWester't Life of Buter, ntt tf 
4 Neal*s Paritam, TOl. Iv. p. lOtL ■:, 
i WliiUockft't Moiu p. 9i».^0M. 


lATiied dmnes were ai^oiatcd to dimw «p te f andai^^ 
to be pretetAed to tbe home. Those who acted were On. 
Owen, Goodwin, and ChejaeU, and Messrs. MaishaU, 
Reyner, Nye, Sympson, Vines, Manton, Jacomb, and 
Baxter. ArcUrishop Ui^er was mnsijialed, bvt declined 
Ills att^idance.* 

Daring the national ccmiusions then weie mamy penoas 
dmomin^ed fifth monarchy-men, chiefly of the 
persuasimi. They were in immediate ezpectatioB of 
JesHs, and of the cmnnencement of his aknioos, ^ 
feign of a fliousand years vpon the eaiw. Thoogh ikief 
were avowedly of commonwealth principles, they were 
extremely hostile to Cromwell^s goreinment.-i' Sevend of 
them Imving discovered considerable amiity and opposilioii 
igainst the protector, were apprehended and conmntted 
to prison ; among whom were Mr. Rogers, Mr. Feake^ and 
Mr. Vavasor Powell. On account of the rigonmg laws stiB 
in force, they were kept in prison a long time^ under the 
]dea of mercy, and to save their lives. 

The protecUnr having discovered some ineonvanience 
from the approbation of ministers being left wh<dly to the 
piesbyteriaos, he contrived a middle way, by joining tiie 
TarioHs parties together, and committing the business to 
c^ertain men of approved abilities and int^rity, belonging 
to each denomination. ¥ot this purpose, an ordinance was 
passed, March 20, 1654, appointing thirty-eiglit comnus- 
ffioners to this office, commonly calira TaVERS.t Another 
mdinance was also passed, ^ for ejecting scandalous, igao* 
tant, and insufficient ministers and s^oolmasters." It 
•fainted certain lay-commissioners for every county, to 
l)e jcrined by ten or more of the best divines, as their 
assistants. They were required to call before them any 

Eublic preacher, vicar, curate, or schoolmaster, reputed to 
e iffnorant, scandalous, or insufficient.^ 
This ordinance, it must be acknowledged, bore hard 
upon some of the episcopal clergy ; amoi^ whom were Dr. 
Pordage, charged with blasjrfiemy and heresy; and Mr. 
Bushnal, charged with drunkenness, profanation of tlie 
sabbath, gaming, and disaffisction to the government. Por 
these crimes, the^ were both turned out of their livings.| 
Also, by the act for propagating the gospel in Wales, many 
ignorant and scandalous ministers were ejected, £Cnd others 

• 8yWe8ter*s Life of Baxter, part il. p. 197. 
+ Thurloe's State Papers, vol. i. p. 621, 641. 
t Scobell's Collec. part ii. p. 279. % IbW. p. 9$^. SIO-MT* 


put in their places. It is observed, that *in a short tim^, 
thexe were one hundred and fifty good preachers in the 
thirteen Welch counties, most of whom preached three or 
four times a week.* But the generality of the ejected 
clergy did not preach at ail, or were scandalous in their 
lives; and the commissioners affirm, that of the sixteen 
they turned out in Cardiganshire, only three of them were 
preachers, and those of very immoral character, f 

The protector's health, through his excessive toils and 
fatigues, began at length to decline. And having nomi- 
nate a successor, he died of a fever, September 3, 1658, 
aged fifty-nine years. Never was man mdre highly ex- 
tolled, nor more basely vilified, according as men's interests 
led their judgments. '' The royalists," says Mr. Baxter, 
^^ abhorred him as a most perfidious hjrpocrite, and the 
presbyterians thought him little better. He kept up his 
approbation of a godly life in the general, and of all that 
was good, except that which the interest of his sinful cause 
engaged him to be against. 1 perceived," our author adds, 
^' that it was his design to do good in the main, and to 
promote the gospel and the interests of goodness, more 
than any had done before him.":}: His son Richard, 
according to his father's will, succeeded him. Numerous 
addresses were sent from all parts of the country, congra- 
tulating the new protector. He was of a calm and peace- 
able temper, but unfit to be at the helm in such boisterous 
times. Richard Cromwell finding the nation involved 
in difficulties,' tamely resigned his high dignity and govern- 
ment, after enjoying it only eight months. 

The nation being tired of changes, and now in danger of 
universal anarchy, soon discovered its uneasiness. General 
Monk, with Jhis army, was called out of Scotland ; and 
upon his arrival in London, he declared in favour of the 
king. A councU of state was called ; and having agreed 
to invite home the king, the question was put, "Whether 
they should call him in upon treaty and covenant, or 
entirely confide in him?" After some debate, it was 
rtesolved to trust him absolutely. The new parliament 
assembling, they unanimously voted the king home. He 
was sent For to Holland, when Mr. Calaray, Mr. Bowles, 
Dr. Manton, and some others, were deputed by the parlia- 
ment and city to attend him. His majesty gave them such 
encouraging promises, as raised in some of them very high 

♦ Whitlocke'8 Mem. p. 618. 
+ NeaFi Puritans, vol. iv. p. 116. 
t 8yU(^r*g Life of Baxter, part i. p. 71, 98. 
VOL. I. li 


expecisiioBR. Upon the entrance of the kincv May 29, 1660^ 
as be passed through the city towards Westminster, the 
London ministers, by the hands of old Mr. Arthur Jackson, 

E resented his majesty with a richly adorned bible ; which 
e received, sayin<?9 ^^ It shall be the rule €f my govern- 
ment and my life/'* 

King Cu A RLEs 11. being now seated on the throne of his 
ancestors, the commencement of his reign was a continued 
jubilee. But from the period of his accession, he grasped 
at ajtbitrary power, aiid shewed but little incIinalioQ to 
depend upon parliaments.f ^^ The restoration," says BmBet^ 
^ brought wiUi it the throwing off the very prcfesrioos of 
virtue and piety, and entertainments and drnnkeimeaB over* 
run the three kingdoms. The king had a good wider- 
standing; and knew well the state of affiurs both at home 
and abroad* He had a softness of temper that charmed all 
who came near him, tUl they found out how little they oooU 
depend on good looks, kind words, and fair prmnises; in 
which he was liberal to an excess, because he intended 
nothing by them, but to get rid of importunities. He 
seemed to have no sense of religion. He was no aflidst, 
but disguised his popery to the lasf't 

Upon his majesty's accession, many of the puritans 
were in great hopes of favour. Besides the promises of 
men in power, they had an assurance from the king, in 
his declaration from Breda, '' That he should grant liberty 
to tender consciences, and that no man should be questi<Hied 
for a difference of opinion in matters of religion, who did 
not disturb the peace of the kingdom."^ forwards, the 
king having issued his declaration concerning ecclesiastical 
matters, dated October 25, 1660 ; and the London minister* 
having presented to him their address of thanks, his majestf 
returned them this answer: '^ Gentlemen, I will endeavour 
to give you all satisfaction, and to make you as happy a^ 
mysclf/'n All this was, indeed, most encouraging. Thefr- 
hopes were further cherished by ten of their number beii^ 
msule the klng^s chaplains, though none of them preached^ 
except Dr. f^ynolds, Dr. Spurstowe, Mr. Calamy, and Mr. 
Baxter, once each.n But all their hopes were soon blasted. 
Many hundreds of worthy ministers enjoying sequestered 
livings, were displaced soon after his majesty's return. Tht 
fellows and heads of colleges in the two universities, yAo 

« Paloier*8 Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p. 20. f Welwood's Memoirs, p. ISU 
1 Burnet's Hisf. of his Time, vol. i. p. 93. 

S Wfaitlocke's Mi-m. p. 702. g Kennet's CbroYilcle* p. 315. 

t d|rivetter*t Life of Baxter, part ii. p. SS9. 


had been ejected, were restored, and the others cast oi^t.* 
Bishops being placed in most of the sees, and the hierarchy 
restored to its former splendour, though the presbyterians 
still flattered themselves with hopes of a comprehension, 
the independents and baptists sunk in despair. 

Here was an end, says Mr. Neal, of those distracted times- 
which o>iir historians have loaded with all the infamy and 
reproach that the wit of man could invent. The puritan 
ministers have been decried as ignorant mechanics, canting 
preachen, enemies to learning, and no better than public 
robbers. The common people have been stigmatized as 
hypocrites. Their looks, their dress, and behaviour, have 
been represented in the most odious colours ; yet we may 
challenge these declaimers to produce any period since the 
lefonnation, wherein there was less open profaneness and 
impiety, and more of the spirit as well as appearance of 
leligion. Better laws, he adds, were never made against 
vice, or more rigorously executed. Drunkenness, fornica- 
tion, profane swearing, and every kind of debauchery, were 
justly deemed infamous, and universally discountenanced. 
The clergy were laborious to an excess, in preaching, pray- 
ing, catechising, and visiting the sick. The magistrates were 
exact in suppressing all kmds of games, stage-plays, and 
abuses in public houses ; and a play had not been acted 
in any theatre in England, for almost twenty years.f 

But the court and bishops were now at ease. The doc- 
trines of passive obedience and nonresistance were revived. 
And the puritans began to prepare for those persecutions 
which presently followed. - Mr. Crofton, who had been very 
zealous for the king's restoration, for having written in favour 
of the covenant, was deprived of his living, and sent close 
prisoner to the Tower, where he was not permitted to have 
pen, ink, or paper.f Mr. Parsons, a noted royalist, was 
fined ^200, and cast into prison, for nonconformity. The 
celebrated Mr. John Howe was committed to prison ; and 
multitudes were sequestered and prosecuted in the ecclesias- 
tical courts, for not wearing the surplice and observing the. 
ceremonies. These were powerful indications of the ap- 
proaching storm. 

Upon Venner's insurrection,^ Mr. Knollys and many 

♦ Kennel's Chronicle, p. 152, 153, 173, 221. 

+ Nears Puritans, vol. \y% p. 269. ' % Kcnnet's Chronicle, p. SOI. 

S Mr.k Thomas Venner, a wine-cooper, with about fifty of his admirers, 
being in expectation of a fifth universal monarchy, under the. personal 
reign oi King Jesus upon the earth, raised an insurrection in the city. But 
their mad scheme was frustrated. Many of them were killed in the contest i 
and Venner and some others were seized, tried, oondemoedy and executed. 
— JB^rH«e'.< Hist, of his Timet Tol. i. p. 160. 


other innocent persons, were dragged io Newgate, where 
they continued eighteen weeks. The rebellion of Venncr 
occasioned a royal proclamation, proliibiting all" anabap' 
iists and other sectaries from worshipping God in public, 
except at their parish churches. This unnatural edict was 
another signal for persecution. Mr. Biddle was tried at the 
public sessions, fined one hundred pounds, and cast into 
prison, where he soon after died. Mr. John James was 
seized in the pulpit, tried, condemned, and beheaded. His 
bowels were then burnt, and his body being quartered, was 
placed upon the four gates of the city of London, and his 
head first upon London bridge, then opposite his meeting- 
house in Bulstake-alley. 

In order to crush the puritans in every comer of the land^ 
and strike all nonconformists at once dumb, the famous 
'' Act of Uniformity '* was passed, requiring a perfect con- 
formity io the Book of Common Prayer, and the rites and 
ceremonies of the church. This struck the nonconformists 
with universal consternation. The unmerciful act took place 
August 24, 166^, justly denominated the black Bartho- 
liOMEw-DAY. By this act, " it is well known, that nearly 
^^ 2,500 faithful ministers of the gospel were silenced. And 
^^ it is affirmed, upon a modest calculation, that it procured 
^' the untimely death of 3,000 nonconformists, and the ruin 
^' of 60,000 families."* And for what purposif^ were these 
cruelties inflicted ? To establish an uniformity in all eccle- 
siastical matters. A charming word, indeed ! for the thing 
itself is still wanting, even among those who promoted these 
tragic scenes. But this is the closing period of the preseQt 
work. These barbarities are sufficiently delineated by our 
excellent historians.f 

• Mather's Hist, of New England, b. iii. p. 4.— " The world,'^ u^9 
Bishop Keonei, ** has reason to admire not only the wisdom, bat even the 
** moderaticm of this act, as bein^ effectoally made for ministerial confer* 
** mity alone, and leaving the people unable to complain of «i^ inifMi* 
" Hon ! r-^Kennefs Hist of Eng, vol. iii. p. 243. 

f Calamy*8 Account and Continuation, vol. iv.-*And F^Uner*! Nobcob« 
Mem. vol. iii. 



John Bale, D. D. — This laborious and celebrated 
divine was born at Cove, near Dunwicb, in Suffolk, No- 
Tember 21, 1495. His parents being in low circumstances, 
and incumbered with a large family, he was sent, at twelve 
years of age, to the monastery of Carmelites in Norwich ; 
and from thence to Jesus CoUeffe, Cambridge. He was 
educated in all the superstitions or the Romish church ; but 
afterwards he became a most zealous and distinguished 
protestant. Tlie account of this change in his sentiments is 
from his own pen, therefore we shall give it in his own 
words : — " I wandered," says he, " in utter ignorance and 
blindness of mind both there (at Norwich) and at Cam- 
bridge, having no tutor or patron ; till, the word of God 
shmine forth, the churches began to return to the pure 
fountain of true divinity. In which bright rising oi the 
New Jerusalem, being not called by any monk or priest, 
hut seriously stirred up by the illustrious the Lord Went- 
worth, as by that centurion who declared Christ to be the 
Son of God, I presently saw and acknowledged my own 
deformity ; and immediately, through the divine goodness, 
I was removed from a barren mountain, to the flowery and 
fertile %'alley of the gospel, where I found all things built, 
not on the sand^but on a solid rock. Hence I made haste • 
to deiaoe the mark of wicked antichrist, and entirely threw 
off his yoke from me, that I might Ix; partaker of tlie lot and 
liberty of the sons of God. And that I might never more 
serve so execrable abeast, I took to wife the faithful Dorothy, 
^ obedience to that divine command, Let him that cannot 
contain, marry." Bishop Nicolson, with great injustice, 
^sinuates, that a dislike of celibacy was the grand motive 
of Bale's conversion. " He was converted," says this 
^rfter, « by the procurement of Thomas Lord Wentworth; 


though, in truth, his wife Dorothy seems to hare had a great 
hand in that happy work.^'* 

Bale no sooner experienced the power of convefting 
grace, than he publicly professed his renunciation and 
abhorrence of popery. In one of his books, speaking of 
the idolatrous and superstitious worshippers in the Komish 
church, he pathetically adds : ^" Yea, 1 ask Grod mercy a 
thousand tunes; for I have been one of them myself/*f 
Having felt the power of divine truth on his own mind, he 
conferred not with flesh and blood, but began, openly and 
fervently, to preach the pure gospel of Christ, in opposition 
to the ridiculous traditions and erroneous doctrines ci the 
Romish church. This exposed him to the resentment and 

Persecution of the ruling clergy ; and for a sermon which 
e preached at Ooncaster, in which he openly declared 
against the invocation of saints, he was dragged finmi the 
pulpit io the consistory of York, to appear before Arch- 
bishop Lee, when he was cast into prison. Nor did he 
meet with more humane treatment in the south. For a 
similar offence, he experienced similar usage from Std&esly, 
bishop of London. But by the interference of the cde^ 
brated Lord Cromwell, who had the highest opinion of him, 
and was then in high favour with King Henry yilL, he was 
delivered out of the hands of his enemies. Upon the death 
of this excellent nobleman, and the publication of the Six 
Articles, with the shocking persecution which immediately 
ensued, he could find no shelter from the storm, and was 
obliged to flee for safety. He retired into Grermany, where 
he became intimate with Martin Luther and other distin- 
guished reformers, and continued with them about eight 
years. While in a state of exile, he was not idle, bat 
diligently employed in his own improvement, and in writing 
and publishing several learned books, chiefly against the 
popish superstitions.^ 

After the death of King Henry, and the accession rf 
Edward VL, Bale was invited home, and presented to the 
benefice of Bishopstoke in Hampshire. While in this 
situation, as well as when in exile, he wrote and published 
several books against the errors of popery. In the year 
1550, he published a work, entitled '^ The Acts and unr 
chaste Example of religious Votaries, gathered out of their 
own Legends and Chronicles/' Mr. Strype calls it a wAablc 

♦ Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 53«. Edit. 1778. 

+ Strype*t Parker, p. 143. 

X Fuller^s Church Hist. b. iz. p. 68.— Abel Redi? i?ut, p. 50i" »i > 

BALE. 105 

book ; and says, he designed to complete this history in 
four books, which shoidd detect the foul lives and practices 
of the monastics, both m^i and women, lie published the 
two first parts, which he dedicated to Kin^ Edward, and 
intimated that theothertwo should presently follow; but it is 
supposed they never came forth. He, at the sametime^ 
published ^^ An Apology against a rank Papist, answering 
both him and the Doctors, that neither their Vows, noryet 
their Priesthood, are of the Gospel, but of Antichrist." lliis 
was also dedicated to the king. The Apology begins thus : 
<^ A:few months ago, by chance as I sat at supper, this ques* 
tion was moved unto me, by cme who fervently loves God'd 
verity, and mightily detesteth all falsehood and hypocrisy : 
Whether the vows expressed in the xxxth chapter of Num- 
bers give any establishment to the vow of our priests now to 
live without wives of their own ?" This piece was answered 
by a certain chaplain ; and Bale published a reply. During 
the above year, he likewise published his ^^ Image of both 
Churches," being an exposition of Revelation. Also, " A 
Dialogue or Communication to be had at table between two 
Children." And " A Confessi<ni of the Sinnisr, after the 
Sacred Scripture."* By these and similar productions of 
his pen, he so exposed the delusive superstitions and vile 
practices of the Romish church, as greatly to exasperate 
the party; and Bishop Gardiner, the cruel persecutor, 
comi)lained of him to the lord protector, but most probably 
without success.f 

Durhig Bale's abode at Bishopstoke, where he lived 
retired from the worid, he waited upon the king, who was 
then at Southampton. His majesty, who had been informed 
of his death, was greatly surprised and delighted to see 
him ; and the bishopric of Ossory, in Ireland, being then 
vacant, he summoneci his privy council, and appoints him 
to that see. Upon which the lords wrote the following 
letter \o our author : 

" To our very lovinge fnende Doctour Bale. After our 
<< heartye cMimendacvons. Fbr as much as the kingcs 
<' maje^ie is minded in consideracyon of your leaminge^ 
" wysdome, and other vettuouse qualityes, to bestowe upon 
^^ yow the bishopricke of Ossorie in Irelande presently 
^' voyde, we have thought mete both to give yow knowledge 
^^ thereof, and therewitfaall to lete you understande, that 
^^ his maj^ie wolde ye made your repayre hythcr to the 

• Strype*8 Eccl. Memorials, vol. ii. p, 963. 
f Barnet*s UUt. of Refor. vol. U. p. 12. 


^ courte as soon as convaiieiitley ye may, io thende that if 
^ ye be enclined to embrace this charge, his highnesse may 
** at your comjoige give such ordre for the farther pro- 
^ cedings with yow herin, as shall be convenient. And 
^^ thus we bid yow hartely farewell. From Southampton, 
'' the 16 daye of August 1552. Your lovinge frendes, W. 
« Winchcstrc, F. Bedford, 11. SufFolke, W. Northampton, 
" T. Darcy, T. Cheine, F. Gate, W. CeciU."^ 

Bale, at first, refused the offered preferment, on account 
of his age, poverty, and ill health ; but the king not a^hnit- 
ting his excuses, he at len^h consented, and went soon after ^ 
to London, where every thing relative io his election and 
confirmation was dispatched in a few days, without any 
expense to him. He was consecrated by the Archbishop of 
Dublin, assisted by the Bishops of Kildare and Down ; and 
Hugh Groodacre, a particular friend of his, was, at the same 
time, consecrated Archbishop of Armagh. There was, 
however, some dispute about the form of consecration. Dr. 
Lockwoocl, dean of the church, desired the lord chancellor 
not to permit the form, in the Book of Common Prayer 
lately set forth by the parliament in England, to be used on 
this occasion, alledging that it would cause a tumult, and 
that it was not consented to by the parliament of Ireland. 
The lord chancellor proposed the case to the archbishop 
and the bishops, who agreed in opinion with the dean. Dr. 
Goodacre wished it might be otherwise, but was uifwilling 
to enter into any disputation about it. But our author 
positively refused l^eing consecrated according to the old 
popish form, alledging, that as England and Ireland were 
under one king, they were both bound to the observance of 
the same laws. Upon which, the lord chancdlor ordered 
the ceremony to be performed according to the new book, 
and afterwards entertained the bishops at dinner.f 

This celebrated divine having entered upon his new 
charge, did not become indolent, nor yet rise in worldly 
grandeur, hut was constantly employed in his beloved work 
of preaching the gospel, labouring to the utmost of his 
power to draw the people from popery to Christ. He spent 
a groat part of his income in the purchase of books, manu- 
scripts, and records, for the purpose of publishing certain 
learned works which he had then in contemplation. 

Upon the accession of Queen Mary, and the return of 
popery, Dr. Bale was again exposed to the resentment and 

« Biog. Brit^D. yol. i. p. $33. f Ibid. 

BALE. 105 

cruel persecution of his popish adversaries. All his 
endeavours to reform the manners of his diocese, to correct 
the lewd practices and debaucheries of the priests, to abolish 
the mass, and to establish the use of the new Book of Common 
Prayer set forth in England, were nc^ only rendered abor« 
tive by the death of King Edward, and the accession of 
Miary, but exposed him so much to the fui^y of the papists, 
that his life was frequently in the utmost danger. At one 
time in particular, they murdered five of his domestics, who 
were mailing hay in a meadow near his house; and he 
would in all probability have shared the same fate, if the 
governor of Kilkenny had not seasonably interposed bjr 
sending a troop of soldiers to his protection. This, ,how<* 
ever, served only as a defence against the present outrage. 
' It did not in the least allay the fury of his adversaries, who 
were implacably enraged against him for preaching the 
doctrines of the gospel. He could find no permanent 
security among them, and was obliged to flee for safety. He 
did not, indeed, withdraw from the storm till a^ter his books 
and otli(?r moveable articles were seized, and he had received 
certain information, that ihe ilomish priests were conspiring 
to take away his life. 

Dr. Leland's reflections are not at all favourable to the 
memory of our prelate. After calling him the violent and 
acrimonious bppugner of popery, and relating his rigid 
and uncomplying conduct at his consecration, he adds: 
^^That Bale insulted the prejudices of his flock without 
reserve, or caution. They were provoked ; and not so 
restrained, or awed by the civil power, as to dissemble their 
resentments. During the short period of his residence in 
Ireland, he lived in a continual state of fear and persecution. 
On his first preaching the reformed doctrines, his clergy 
forsook him, or opposed him ; and to such violence were 
the populace raised against him, that five of his domestics 
were slain before his fice ; and his own life saved only by 
the vigorous interposition of the civil magistrate. . These 
outrages are pathetically related ; but," he adds, " we are 
not informed what imprudencies provoked them, or what 
was the intemperate conduct which his adversaries retorted 
with such shocking barbarity."* 

"When Dr. Bale fled from the fury of his enemies, he 
went first to Dublin, where, for some time, he concealed 
himself. After^vards, a favourable opportunity offerings 

* Biog. Britan. vol. i, p. 535. 


be endeayoHred to make his escape in a small trading vessel 
haand fcnr Scotland, but was taken prisoner by the captain 
0f a Dutch man of war, who riiled him o( all hi» money^ 
apparel and effects. This ship was driven by distress c€ 
i^satfaer into St. Ives in Cornwall, where our author was 
taken up on suspicion of treason. The accusation was 
brought against him by one Walter, an Irishman, and 
pilot of the Dutch ship, in hopes of obtaining a share of 
Balers money, which was in the captain's hands. . When 
our author was brouglit to his examination before one of the 
bailiffs of the town, he desired the bailiff to ask Walter, 
^^How long he had known him? and what treason he 
bad committed ?** These interrogatories being proposed, 
Walter replied, that he had never seen him, nor ever heard 
of him, till he was brought into their ship. Then said the 
bailiff, ^^ What treason have you known by this h(Miest 
eentleman since? For I promise you he looks like an 
bonest man." " Marry," said Walter, <* he would have 
fled into Scotland. " « Why," said the bailiff, « know you 
any impediment why he should not have gone into Scotland ? 
If it be treason for a man, having business in Scotland, to go^ 
thither, it is more than I knew before." Walter was th«i* 
So confounded, that he had nothing more to say. . The 
captain and purser deposed in favour of Bale, assuring the 
baitiff that he was a very honest man, alid that Walter was 
a vile fellow, deserving no credit. This they did, lest they 
should be deprived of the money and other articles which 
they had taken from our author. 

Dr. Bale being honourably acquitted, the ship isailed, 
and, in a few days, arrived in Dover road, where he was 
again brought into danger by false accusation. One Martin, 
a Frwichman by birth, but now an English pirate, per* 
Ifuaded the Dutch captain and his crew, that Bale had been 
the principal instrument in pulling down the mass in 
England, and in keeping Dr. Gardiiftr, bishop of Win* 
Chester, a long time in the Tower ; and that he had 
poisoned the kin^. With this information the captain and 
purser went ashore, carrying with them our author^s 
episcopal seal, and two letters sent him from Cofirad Gesiier 
and Alexander Alesius, with commendati(His from Peh 
licanus, Pomeranus, Melancthon, and other celebrated 
reformers, who were desirous to become acquainted with 
the doctrines and antiquities of the English church. They 
also took from him the council's letter of his appointment 
to the bishopric <rf* Ossofy. All these things served to 

BALE. 107 

ag|§pravate the charge. The episcopal seal was construed 
to be a counterfeiting of the king's seal ; the two letters 
were heretical ; and the council's letter a conspiracy a^nst 
the queen. When the captain returned to the ship, it was 
proposed to send Bale to London ; but, after some consul- 
tation, they resolved to send two persons, with information 
to the privy council. This detennination, howev^, was 
relinquished, upon Bale's strong remonstrances to the 
captain, and offering to pay fifty pounds for his ransom, on 
hijs arrival in Holland. 

He was carried into Zealand, and lodged in the house of 
one of the owners of the ship, who treated him with great 
civility and kindness. He had only twenty-six days allowed 
him for raising the money agreed upon for his ransom, and 
could not obtain the liberiy of going aln'oad to find out his 
friends. In this state of per^exity and distress, he was 
sometimes threatened to be thrown into the common eaol, 
sometimes to be brought before the magistrates, sometunes 
to be left to the examination of the clergy, at oth^r times to 
be sent to London, or to be delivered to the queen's ambas* 
^sador at Brussels. At length his kind host interposed, and 
desired the captain to consider, how far he had exceeded the 
limits of his commission, in thus using a subject of England^ 
with which nation they were at peace. This produced the 
desired effect, and the captain was willing to take thiriy 
pounds for his ransom, as he should be aUe to pay it| and 
80 discharged him.* 

Dr. Bale having obtained his liberty, retired to Frankfort, 
where he and the other English exiles were favoured by the 
magistrates with the use of one of their churches. Having 
obtained so great a privilege, their next object was to agree 
to certain forms of worship: driven from their own 
country, and now comfortably settled in a foreign land, thejr 
thought it their doty to make certain improvements upon 
the reformation of King Edward. They entered, therefore^ 
into a mutual and friendly consultation upon the subject 
and agreed to the following things : — '^ Having perused the 
<< English liturgy, it was concluded among them. That the 
<^ answering aloud after the minister should not be used ; the 
^' litany, surplice, and many other things also omitted^ 
<^ because in the reformed churches abroad such things 
^^ would seem more than strange. It was further agreed 
^^ upon, that the minister, in the room of the English con-* 

« Biog. Britao. vol. i. p. 53S. 


*^ fession, shotild use another, both of more eflecf, and also 
^ framed according to the state and time. And the same 
^ ended, thepeopb (osing a psalm in metre in a plain tnnr^ 
^< as ^as and is accustomed in the French, Dutch, Italian, 
^< Spanish and Scottish churches : that done, the minister to 
^ pray for the assistance of God's Holy Spirit, and lopn>- 
^ ceed to the sermon. After the sermon, a general prayer 
*' for all estates, and ft>r our country of England, was 
** deyised : at the end of which prayer was joined t!ie Lmdls 
*^ prayer, and a rehearsal of the articles of belief; which 
<^ ended, the people to sing anotlier psalm as afore. Then 
*' the minister pronouncing this blessing, The peace of (Jod, 
•* &c. or some other o\' like effect, the people to depart. 
^ And as touching the ministration of the sacraments, sundry 
^^ things were also by common consent omitted, as supcnit' 
^ tious and superfluous^^* 

Our learned and pious divine undoubtedly took an active 
part in the formation of the church at. Frankfort. The pious 
exiles having comfortably settled their new congr^ation, 
entered into a friendly corre pondence with their brethren 
who h^d settled at other places. In their letter ad<1ressed 
io the exiles at Strasburgh, signed by John Bale, William . 
iWhittingham, John Fox, and fourteen others, they conclude 
by saying : " We have a church freely granted to preach 
*^ God's word purely, to minister the sacraments sincerely, 
" and to execute discipline truly. And as touching our 
*' book, we will practice it so far as God's word doth assure 
" it, and the state of this country perrait/'f They wrote 
also to tlieir brethren who had fled to o< her places, signifying 
how comfortably they were settled, and inviting them to 
Frankfort. Upon the arrival of Dr. Cox % ^^'^ ^is friends, 

♦ Tronblw of Frankeford, p. S. + Ibid. p. 20. 

X Dr. Richard Cox bad been preceptor and almoner to Kiof^ Edtfrartf, 
and dean of Oxford and Westminster, but was now fled from the persecatioQ 
of Queen Mary. He was a high ciiurchinan, a bigot to the English ceremo- 
nies, and of too imperiuns a disposition. On his retarn home, Qoeea 
Elizabeth made him Bishop of Ely, which he enjoyed to his death. He 
scrnpled for some time to ofDciate in ibe royal chapel, on i|ccoont of the 
queen^s retaining the cruci6z, with lights on the altar; and when he coii« 
tented, it was, he said, with a trembling conscience. He was violent in hit 
opposition ag-iinst the puritans, as well in his owncoantry,asat Frankfort. He 
wrote to Archbishop Parker, ('» go on vigorously in reclaiming or punishing 
them, and not be disheartend by fhe frown? of those court-favourites wha 
protectea them ; ajjsnring him, that he niii^ht expect ihe blessing of God on ~ 
his vious lahours. When the privy cniincii interposed in favour af the 
puritans, and I'nc'eavoured to skrt^en tliej. from pufiishment, he wrote a bold 
letter to the Lord Treasurer Uurieigh ; in which he warmly expostulated 
vitb the council, for meddling with the affairs of the church, which, lie 

BALE. 109 

«ha broke through f he conditions uflhe nev-fonned charch^ 
irilcrruptnl the peace of (lie consregatioi), aud, in effect, 
drove them from the city, they Hcu (o other places. Dr. 
fiiilc retired to Basil in Switzerland, when- he rcRiniiiod until 
llie death of Qurcn Mary. Tlie church nt UiikiI was also 
exercised witli contentions, of whicii our author, in a letter 
tooncof his friends, gives a very di'))lur:iblL- account, severely 
censuriiig those who were of a cnnleiilidus spirit.* 

Thougli we have already mcntioin^ Dr. Bale as an 
author, it will be proper to renew the subject. He pub- 
lislied a celebrated work, coiitainiHg the lives of the most 
eminent writers of Great Britain. It caiue out at three 
dificreiit limes. He first pubiislied his '* Suminariuin 
illustrium majons Brytannia; Scrtptorum," Wcsel, 1619. 
This was addressed to King Edward, and contained only fize 
cfiiluries of writers. Afli-rwards he a.lded fimr more, and 
made several additions and corrections through llie whole 
vwk. The book llius enlarged, was entitled *' Scriptorura 
iHustrium majoris Brytannis, guam nunc Angliam et 
Scotiam vacant, Catalogus; a Japhtto per S(il8 annoi 
usque ad annum hunc Uumlni 1557," &c. It was com- 
plfled and nrinted at Basil, while the author was in a state 
of exile. The writers, whose lives are confaiiied in thia 
nlebiatetl work, are those of (iroat Britain, including 
Kiigland and Scotland. The work cmninences from Japhet, 
one of the sons of Noah, and is csirried down through a 
wries of 5618 years, to die year of our Lord 1357. It is 
collected from a great variety of aulhors: as, Barosus, 
Genuatlius, Bedc, Honorius, Boston of Bury,Frumentarius, 
t^^rave, Bostius, Burellus, Trilbeioius, Gesncr, and our 
STTEt antiquary John Inland. It con.sists of rune centuries, 
<^(iDipn8ing the antiquity, origin, annals, places, successes, 
^ndtliemobtrcmarkable actions, say ings, and writings crf'each 
Uithor, ia the whole cf which a due regard is had to chro> 
"tiogf; and mtli this particular view, " That the acliont 
of the nprobate as well as the elect ministers of the church 
■By hutorically aud aptly correspond with the mystcriei 
•l^ribed in the Rcvelutiou, tlie stars, aiigtU, horses, truia- 
P^'s, thunderiogs, heads, liorns, mountains, vials, and 
plagues, through every age of the same church." There are 

"'■',(10(111 to biltfiioibe determination of 

'UIkhI Kieii loidihipt 10 keep wilbin their «'- — ^ 

*(*aiiMBppull« lb«4tufen, if Ihpy ronKnu^d lo in.^. ...... ... u.^..^.. ...n. 

Il ,>*W rt>» ID ihim.^-~fr*Ui jttkti^t OioB. 1-a. t. p. 161.— jBjs{. £Htas> 
^^■rk. f. SOU. s». 


mffatSxa to many of the articles; also an accoant of 
sach actions of the contemporary popes as are (Muitted by 
fbeir flatteiers, Carsnlanus, Platina, and the like ; together 
with the actions of the monks, particularly those rf the 
SMndicant order, who, he pretends, are meant by the locmii 
in Revebiion ix. 3, 7. To the appendixes b added a per« 
petnal socoession both of the holy lathers and the antidirisls 
of the dinrch, with instances from the histories <rf* Taiions 
nations and countries ; in order to expose their adulteries, 
debaucheries, strifes, seditions, sects, deceits, poisoni^s, 
murdeiB, treasons, and innumerable impostures. The 
book is dedicated to Otho Henry, Prince Pdatine of the 
Bhine, Duke of both Bavarias, and Elector of the Roman 
Empire; dated from Basil in September, 1557. Our 
learned divine was, therefore, laboriously emj^oyed whil« 
in a fixeign land. 

In the month of February, 1559, he published a new 
edition of this celebrated work, with the addition of Jive 
more centuries, making in all fourteen; to which is pre- 
fixed an account of the writers before the deluge and the 
Inrth of Christ, with a description of En^and firom Faulus 
Jovius, George Lilly, John Leiand, Andrew Atthamerus, 
and others. This impression is dedicated to Count Zkradin 
and Dr. P^ul ScaJechius of Lika.* 

On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Dr. Bale returned 
to England, but not io his bishopric in Ireland. The queen, 
during her minority, and while exercised with troubles 
under her sister Mary, shewed 4be highest respect for him^ 
and even honoured him by sending him a book which she 
had translated into French. It was too manifest, however, 
that she afterwards drew her affections from him: but 
whether this was on account of the puritanical principles 
which he imbibed while abroad, or from some other cause, 
we do not undertake to determine. During the few yeai9' 
that he lived under her majesty's government, he contented 
himself with a prebend in the church of Canterbury, where 
he continued the rest of his days, still revising to accept of 
his bishopric. " One may wonder," says Fuller, '* that 
being so learned a man, who had done and suffered so much 
for religion, higher promotion was not forced upon him ; 
seeing about the beginning of Queen Elizabetn's teign, 
Irishoprics went about begging able men to receive them, f 

It ought to be recollected, that many of the pious-! 

• Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 633, 534. , 
f Fulier'i Worthies, part Hi. p. 61. 

BALE. Ill 

icforniers, while in a stdte of exile^ and living _ 

foreign protestanis, were led to examine more minutely the 
^rand principles of the reformation ; and they acted upon 
Chose principles, as we have already observed, while dwelUn^ 
in a toreign land. Nor did they forget their principleis.on. 
their return to their native country. Notwithstanding ibeU 
want of success, they constantly endeavoured, as the time* 
would permit, to obtain a more pure reformation of tJwf 
English church. This was the case with Dr. Bale, and: 
was undoubtedly the reason of his refusing to accept kist 
former preferment. Though it does not appear thai; ke' 
gave his reasons for this refusal ; yet it b evident, says our 
author, that, while he was a zealous opposer of the Itomisk' 
superstitions, he was a leading person among the bob* 
conformists, and was against the use of the J^^ish. rite» 
and ceremonies: he opposed the divine institution cf 
bishqps, and was a zealous advocate for the discipline ot 
the foreign reformed churdies. It was a settled principle 
with him, that the government of the church by bislu^psi 
did not exist till the beginning of the seventh century. 
These are bis own words : — '^ In the year 607, the church^ 
'^ began to be ruled by the policy and government of 
^' bishops, which government was especially devised and 
^' invented by the monks."* From the above facts, Dr* 
Bale, with great justice, stands first on the list of one 
puritan wortliies. He was summoned to assist in the con* 
secration of Archbishop Parker, but refused to attend, nm 
doubt on account of his puritanical principles.f He died 
at Canterbury in the month <^ November, 1563, aged slxty«^ 
eight years ; and his remains were interred in the cathedral 
at that placet Several of our historians are greatly mis- 
laken in both the time and place of his death.^ 

The character of no man has been more variously repre* 
sented than that of our author, 2» will appear from the 
different testimonies concerning him. Bishop Montague 
censures him for his unjustifiable freedom in speaking and 
writing; yet he thinks him of credit and weight in many 
things. Valerius Andreas calls him an impious wretch and 
a wicked apostate ; but at the same time allows him his merit* 
as a writer* Vossius charges him with disingenuity in his 
accounts of ancient writers. But of all the authors, who' 
have censured Bale, no one has fiillea upon him with 

♦ MS. Chronology, Vol. i. p. 49. (2.) + Strype'i Pitrker, p. 54. 

t Biog. Britao. vol. i. p. 534. 

S Luptoa't Modern Di?iiiei, p. 201«— FoUcr*f WortUet, part Ui. p. 61. 


ffXxAfSt severity than his follower John Pits. The foHowing 
are some of those inyenomeil arrows which he has shot at 
him : — " This writer," says he, " did not so much enlarge 
Leland's catalogue, as corrupt *it in a monstrous manner. 
For he has stuffed it full of lies and calumnies, and spoiled 
Leland^s work, by his own barbarous style. He says many 
things worthy, indeed, of the mind and mouth of an 
lieretic, but absolutely void of ail civility and moral honesty, 
some things plainly unworthy of a christian ear. — If we 
except his slanders against men, and his blasphemies against 
God, the poor wretch has nothing of his own, which 
deserves our notice. — 1 hoped to have found at least 
some gem .of antiquity in that dunghill : but more unlucky 
than Esop's cock, I was disappointed in my expectation.'* 
He brands him with the name of Baal^ and calls him an 
apostate Carmelite monk, and a married priest. Such are 
the foul accusations brought against our divine, by this 
bigotted papist. Wharton charges Bale with paying very 
little regard to truth, provided he could increase the number 
of enemies to the Romish church ; and adds, that, for the 
most part, he settled the chronology of the English writers 
with his eyes shut. Bishop Nicolson says : " The ground- 
plot of his famous work was borrowed from Leland ; and 
the chief of his own superstructure is malicious and bitter 
invectives against the papists."* 

It will be proper on the contrary to observe, that Gesncr 
denominates mle " a writer of the greatest diligence ;" and 
Bishop Godwin gives him the character of a laborioas 
inquirer into the British antiquities. Dr. Lawrence 
Humphrey s«iys, that Vergerius, Platina, and Luther, have 
discovered many errors and frauds of the papists ; but that 
Bale hatli detected tliem all. Valentine Henry Vogler says, 
*< it will be less matter of wonder, that Bale inveighs with 
so much asperity against the power of the pope, when it 
is considered that England was more grievously oppressed, 
by the tyranny of the holy see, than any other kingdom. 
Thougli he rendered himself so odious to the papists, his 
very enemies pould not help praising his Catalogue of 
English writers. "f 

It is generally allowed that Bale's sufferings from the 
popish party, is some apology for his severe treatment of 
them: lie wrote with all the warmth of one who had 
escaped the flames. Granger observes, tha,t his intemperate 

• Bios. Britan. irol. i. p. 535. f Ibid. p. 5M. 

BALE. 113 

seal often carries him beyond the bounds of decency and 
candour, in his accounts of the papists. Anthony Wood 
styles hiin << the foul-mouthed Bale ;"• but, the above writer 
adds, some of his foul language translated into English^ 
would appear to be of the same import with many express 
sions used Dy that writer himself.f Perhaps some allowance 
ought to be made not only for his resentment of what he had 
suffered, but for the age in which he lived* It would bo 
doing hun ^reat injustice, to form our ideas of him from the 
popish authors, many of whdm were exceedingly exaspe- 
rated against him, on account of the vehemence with 
which & had attacked the errors and superstitions of the 
papal see. 

Dr. Bale's writings are prohibited by the church of Rome, 
among those of the first class of heretical books. The 
Index ExpurgaJtoriusy published at Madrid in 1667, calls 
him a most impudent and scurrilous writer against the see 
of Rome, Hie Mass, the Eucharist, and one tiiat is per- 
petually breathing out poison; for which, it forbids the 
reading of his works for ever. % His writings were numerous^ 
a list of which, according to the subjects, is given below : 
the exact titles cannot now be ascertained. 

His Works, while he was a papist — 1. A Bundle of Things worth 
knowing.— 2. The Writers from Elias.— d. The Writers from Berthold. 
•—4. Additions to Trithemins. — 5. German Collections. — 6. French 
Collections. — 7. English Collections^ — 8. Divers Writings of divers 
learned Men. — 9. A Catalogue of Generals. — 10. The Spiritaal War. 
—11. The Castle of Peace.— 12. Sermons for Children.— 13. To th« 
Synod of Hull.>^14. An Answer to certain Questions. — 15. Addition 
to Palaonydorus. — 16. The History of Patronage. — 17. The Story of 
Simon the Englishman. — 18. The Story of Francus Senensis. — 19. 
The Story of St Brocard.-^20. A Commentary on Mantuan's Preface 
to his Fasti. 

He wrote the following after he renounced popery : — 1. The Heliades 
of the English.— 2. Notes on the three Tomes of Walden.— 3. On his 
Bundle of Tares.— 4. On Polydore de Rerum Inventionibus. — 6. On 
Textor's Officina. — 6. On Capg^ave's Catalogue. — 7. On Barnes's 
Lives of the Popes. — 8. The Acts of the Popes of Rome. — 9. A 
TVan^ation of Thorp's Examination.— 10. The Life of John Baptist 
—11. Of John Baptises Preaching.^— 12. Of Christ's Temptotion.— 

♦ Wood's Athene, vol. I. p. 60. 

f Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 139, 140. 

1 Biog. Brltan. vol. i. p. 535. 

S The title of this piece is, *« A Comedy, or Interlude, of Johaa 
Baptyst'ff Preachynge in the Wildemetse ; opening the Crafts of Hypo- 
cry tet,» and is printed in the *« Harleian Miscellany." •* There was a 
time," sayi Mr. Granger, ** when the lamentable comedies of Bale were 
acted with applaose. He tells ns, in the account of bis vocation to the 
Ibisbopric of Oiiory, that his comedy of John Baptlit'i Preaching, aid bis 




la Two CoaHics of OraTs BaptisB aad TciytaitioBK.^14, A 
CoaMdT of Christ at twrlvc T«an okL— 15c A Concdj of the Birii^ 
of LaanttLr— la A Comcdj of the High Priesfs CoioKiL— 17. A 
Come6j of SimoB the Leper. — 16. A CoiiiedT of the LotA Sfniu^ 
Mid the Wadriojer of the DiMriples Feet— '19l Two CoMoim (or 
nUher Trmgedia) of Christ's Passioii.— 30. Two CoMcdics of Chikllii 
Borial 9UMt Resonrectkm.— 21 A Poem of God's PMbbcs.— 22. 
Against those that perrcrt God's Word.— 23. Of the CornmtiB|r of 
God's Lawsw— 21. Against Carpers and Tradocers.— 25. A UttSaee 
fii King JohiL— 28. Of King Henry's two Mairiages^27. OflNi|iih 
Sects.— 28. Of Popbh Treacheries.— 20. Of Thoaaa Bockctfia Ibn 
postures. — 30. The Image of Lotc— 31. Pamachins's Tn^dka, 
trandatcd into English^ — 32. Christian Sonnets. — 33. A CoBUMBtaiy 
OB 8t John's Apocaljpse. — 34. A Loeopletation of the 
36. Wickfifle'sWar with thePapists^-^6. Sir JohnOiddistle^s' 
— 37. An ApologjT for Barnes. — 38. A Delence of Grey against I 
—30. John Lamtiert's Confession. — 40. Anne Askew's MartjidMBi^ — 
41. Of Luther's Decease. — 12. The Bishops Alcoran.— 43^ The Mam 
of Sin. — 14. The BIrstery of Iniquity.— 45. Against Anti-Christa, or 
False Christs.— 46. Against BaaPs Priests, or Baahunites.— 47. Agatesl 
the Clergy's Single Iife^-4a A Dimtch of Popish Vows aad Pkirnt- 
hood.— 40. The Acts of English Votaries, in two «||tfta^-^60L Of 
Heretics indeed.-^!. Against the Popish Mass^-d2. TheDmkaiA 
Mass. — 63. Against Popish Persuasions. — 64. Against Bonnet's Ar- 
ticles.— M. Certain Dialogues.— 66. To Eli»beth the Kimf s Daaghter. 
— 67. Against Customary Swearing.^— 66. OnMantnanof Death . fiOL 
A IVeek before God.— 60. Of his Calling to a Bishopric«-^L Of 
Leland's Journal, or an Abridgement of Leiand, with AdditioBs. — 
62. A Tramslation of Sebald Ueyden's Apology against Salve Regina. 
— ^. A Translation of Gardiner's OratioB of true Obedience, awl 
Bonner's Epistle before it, with a Preface to it. Notes on it, nd as 
Epilogue to the Reader. — But hb most capital work waa his lives 
of the Writers, already noticed. — ^Bale's CoUcctanoi is pi ea en re d 
among the Cottcmcan Manuscripts, and now deposited in the British 

John Pitllaik, B. D. — ^This zealous reformer was bom 
in Yorkshire, in tl^ year 1517, and educated first in New 
college, then in Christ^s college, Oxford. He was a fiunoii^ 
preacher, and a celebrated reformer, in the days of King Ed^ 
ward y 1 • He became rector of St. Peter's, Comhill, London, 
in the year 155S, but suffered deprivation in 1555.f Upoi 
the commencement of Queen Mary's bloody persecotiODj 
he did not immediately flee, but endured the storm fcMrsome 

Traj^edy of God's Promises, were acted by younji; men at the 

of Kilkenny, upon a Sunday. Surely this tragedy most be as eztraordiBAry 
a composition, in its kind, as bis comedies.*' — Oranger^$ B^* BkL 
"tol. i. p. 139, 

• This work is entitled *< The Yocacyon of Joban Bale to tbeBUapriC 
ef Ossorie in Irelande, his persecutions in the same, and finall DeljTCimace.^ 

t Newcourt's Repert. Eccl. vol. i. p. 98. 


time* Having no prospect of enjoying his public ministrjr^ 
and being deeply concerned for his persecuted countrymen, 
he continued to labour in private as he found an cm* 
pcHTtunity. He preached and administered the Lonrs 
supper, about a year, to the protestant congregation, which 
assembled in private places, in and alx>ut the city of 

The persecution of the protestants becoming, at length, 
extremdy hot, and Mr. Pullain finding himself most pro- 
bably in danger of the fire, he fled into a foreign land, and 
became an exile at Geneva ; where he became a member of 
the £nflish congregation, and abode during the remainder 
<^ the bloody queen's reign. The news of the queen's 
death, and of the accession of Queen Elizabeth, gladdened 
the hearts of all the worthy exiles. On this occasion, Mr. 
Pullain united with his brethren at Geneva, in their letter of 
eoogratulation, addressed to their fellow-exiles at Arrau, 
Basu, Strasburffh, Frankfort, and other places.f Upon the 
jheception of the joyful news, he immediately prepared to 
leturn home; and was no sooner arrived in his native 
country, than he resumed his zealous ministerial labours. 
But he had not continued long in his beloved work, before 
he received a sudden check. For the new queen having 
issued her royal proclamation prohibiting all preaching, tiU 
all the afiairs of the church were finally settled, this worthy 
servant of Christ was taken into custody at Colchester, and 
sent prisoner up to London. His crime was that of preach- 
ing when prohibited by the queen ; but our historian does 
not say what further prosecution he underwent.^ 

Towards the close of the year 1559, Mr. Pullain became 
lector of Capford in Essex, which he kept to his death.^ 
About the same time, he was made Archdeacon of Col- 
chester. He sat in the famous convocation of 156S, and 
subscribed the articles of religion. n He was an avowed 
enemy to all popery and superstition ; and, therefore, was 
much grieved at the imperfect state in which the reformation 
rested, and the severe proceedings of the prelates which 
immediately followed. He was ever anxious to have the 
church pursed of all its corruptions and antichristian cere- 
monles^ and for its discipline and government, as well as its 

* Fox*s Hfuriyn, vol. liL p. SSS.— Sti^pe't Asnalf, vol. i. p. SSt. 

f TroableiatFrankeford9p.l60— les. 

^ Strype^i Aonali, vol. i. p. 44. 

^ Newcourt't Repert. Eccl. vol. ii. p. 199. 

i Strjrpe't Aanali , vol. i. p. S89. 


doctrine, id be regulated by the word of God alone. These 
things made so deep an impression upon his mind, as 
brought a complaint upon his body, of which he died in the 
month of July, 1565, aged forty-eight years. He was a 
truly pious man, a constant preacher, a learned divine, a 
thorough puritan, and an admired English and Ijatin poet* 
He published '' A Tract against the Arians," and several 
translations of the works of other learned men* 

John Hardtman, D. D. — ^He was educated at Cam- 
'^bridge, where he took his de^ees ; and was made preacher 
at St. Martin's church. Ironmonger-lane, London, in the 
reign of Henry VHI., when he came forwards op^y and 
boldly in the cause of the reformation. He pi^eached 
publicly, ^^ That confession to priests, was confusion ; that 
the ceremonies of the church being the superstitious inveo^ 
tions of men, ought to be abhoired ; that to esteem any 
internal virtue in the sacrament, was mischievous and rdb- 
bing God of his gl6ry; and that faith in Christ, without 
any other sacrament, was sufficient for justification ;" fojf 
which, in the year 1541, he was presented and most pro- 
bably deprived. -f The Oxford historian, with his usual 
bitterness against the puritans, says, that he ran with the 
mutable times of Henry VllL, £dward VI., Queen Maty, 
and Queen Elizabeth. However, the above account of his 
suiTering persecution for the avowal of his principles, shews 
that this account is not altogether correct. Though it does 
not appear whether he ever changed his sentiments, it is 
certain that upon the accession of Elizabeth, he was still a ^ 
zealous protestant, and still desirous to carry forwards the 
reformation. In the year 1560, the queen appointed him 
one of the twelve prebendaries of Westminster ; and about 
the same time, he became famous for his puritanical princi'- 
ples, and distinguished himself in the cause of the lefpnna* 
tion. He was not, indeed, like too many of the cleig^^'who 
rested in the reformation of King Edward, or even in. that 
which fell short of it ; but laboured to carry on the work to 
perfection. He wished, with the rest of. the jpuritanicai 
reformers, to have the church thoroughly purged of all the 
remnant^ of antichrist. But his zeal for nonconformi^ 
presently . deposed him to the resentment and persecutioa of 
the ruling prelates ; and in the year 1567| he was siinul&L0lle4 

* MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 1S6. (6.) 
f Fox*s Martyrs, yol. ii. p. 450. 



before the bigh commission, and deprived « of his benefice^. 
He is charged with breaking down the altars, and defacing 
the ancient utensils and ornaments belonging to the church 
of Westminster ;* but with what degree of justice we art 
unable to ascertain. 

Miles Coyerdale, D. D. — This celebrated puritan was 
born in Yorkshire, in the year 1486, and educated in the 
university of Cambridge. Being brought up in the popish 
religion, he became an Augustine monk at the place of his 
education, where Dr. Barnes was prior, who was afterwards 
burnt for pretended heresy. He took his doctor's degree at 
Tubingen, in Germany, and was incorporated in the same 
at Cambridge. At an early period in the reign of Henry VUI., 
he cast off the shackles of popery, and became a zealous and 
an avowed protestant. When the king quarrelled with the 

Eope, and renounced the authority of Rome, he is said to 
ave been one of the first who preached the gospel in its 
purity, and wholly devoted himselfto promote the reformed 
I'eligion.f In the year 1538, he preached at Bumsted in 
^ssex, when he declared openly against the popish mass, 
flic worship of images, and auricular confession. He main- 
tained that contrition for sin, betwixt God and a man's own 
conscience, was sufficient of itself, without any confession to 
a priest. His zealous and faithful labours at this place were 
not in vain : It is preserved on authentic record, that he 
was the honoured instrument of turning one Thomas Topley^ 
afterwards a martyr, i'rom the superstitions and errors of 
popery, to the true protestant faith.^ 

Coverdale having espoused the same opinions as Dr. 
Barnes, and finding himself in danger of the fire, fled, not 
long after the above period, beyond sea, and lived for some 
time in Holland, where he chiefly applied himself, to the 
«tudy and traijslation of the holy scriptures.^ In the year 
IdSQy the famous Mr. William Tindal having finished his« 
translaticm of the Pentateuch, wished to have it printed at 
Hamburgh ; but in crossing the sea, the ship was wrecked^ 
when he lost all his money and papers : and so had to begiii 
iim work afresh. Upon his arrival at Hamburgh, his friend 
Cbverdate^ who was waitii^ for him, assisted him in writing 


* Wood's Athene Oxen. Vol. i. p. 692. 

f Clark's Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 3. 

i Fox's Martyrs, vol. ii. p. 291, 

§ Lewis's Hist, of Translations, p. 23. £dit 1731. 


a new translation.* In the year 1535, (some bj mistake say 
1533,) Tindal and Coverdale trandated and published the 
whole Bible, the first that was ever printed in the English 
lan^ua^e. It was printed at Hamburgh, by Grafton and 
Whitchurch, when Mr. John Rogers, afterwards the proto* 
martyr, corrected the press. This first £nglish translation 
was called Matthew's Bible, a fictitious name, and was 
dedicated, by Coverdale to King Henry.f The form of 
dedication is preserved by Mr. Strype \X in which our reve- 
rend author expressed himself in the following manner : 

" Unto the moost victorious pry nee and our moost gra- 
*^ cyous soveryffnc lorde Kynge Henry eyghth, kynge rf 
<< Englande and of Fraunce, lorde of Irelande, &c. defisn- 
<< dour of the fayth ; and under God the chefe and suppreme 
<< heade of the church of £nglande. The ryght and just 
<^ administracyon of the lawes that God gave unto Moses and 
^^ Josua : tlie testimonye of faythfulness that Grod gave to 
^< David : the plenteous abundaunce of wysdome that God 
** gave unto Solomon : the luckjr and prosperous age with 
<< the multiplicacyon of sede which God gave to Abraham 
** and Sara his wyfe, be given unto you, moost gracyous 
<^ prynce, with your dearest just wyfe and moost vertuous 
<^ pryncesse Queue Jane. Amen. 

^^ Your graces humble subjecte and daylye oratour, 

" Myles Coverdale." 

^ In this dedication he tells his majesty, that the blind 
bishop of Rome no more knew what he did when he gave 
this title, Defender of ike Faith j than the Jewish bishop 
Caiaphas when he taught, that it was better to put Christ to 
death, than that all the people should perish : that the pope 
gave him this title, only because his highness su&red hm 
bishops to bum God^s word, and to persecute the lovers and 
ministers of it ; whereas, he openly declared, that by the 
righteous administotion of his majesty, the faith ought to be 
80 defended, that Grod's word, the mother of faith, should 
have its free course through all Christendom,^ but especially 
in these realms : and that his majesty should, indeed, defend 
ibe faith; yea, even the true faiUi of CAm/, not dreani%iiol 
• fables, not heresy, not papistical inventions, but the uncor* 
rupt faith of God's most holy wcn-d, to set forth which) his 
highness, with bi$ most honourable council, applied all %tmj^ 
and endeavour, 

• Foi'i Martyrs, n4. ii, p. SOS, f IWd. p. 434. 

I Aniiali, to], U. Appcn. p. 48. 


He next observes to his majesty, that as the word of God 
is the only truth that'^riveth away all error, and discorereih 
all juggling and deceit ; therefore, is the Balaam of Rome 
so loath to have the scriptures known in the mother->tongue, 
lest by kings and princes becoming acquainted with them, 
they should again claim and challenge their due authority, 
^vhich hath been talsely usurped for many years : and lest 
the people, being taught by the word oi God, should 
renounce their feigned obedience to him and his disguised 
apostles, and observe the true obedience commanded by 
God's own mouth, and not embrace his painted religion. 

As to the present translation, Coverdale observes here, and 
in his epistle to the reader, that it was neither his labour nor 
desire to have this work put into his hand, but that being 
imtantly required to undertake it, and the Holy Gho^ 
moving other men to be at the cost thereof, he was the more 
bold to take it in hand. He considered how great pity it 
was, that the English should want such a translation so long, 
and called to his remembrance the adversity of those, who 
were not only ^endowed with right knowledge, but would, 
with all their hearts, have performed that wnich they had 
begun, if no impediment had been in the way. Therefore, 
as he was desired, he took the more upon him, as he said, X<f 
set forth this special translation^ not as a reprover or despiser 
of other mens' labours, but lowly and faithfully following 
his interpreters, and tliat under correction* Of these, he 
said, he made use of Jive different ones, whp. had translated 
the scriptures, not only into 'Latin, but also into Dutch. 
He made this declaration, that he had i^'ither wrested nor 
altered so much as one word, for the mai^ntenance of any 
manner of sect, but had with a clear conscience, purely and 
faithfully translated out of the foregoing interpreters, having 
(aa\j the manifest scriptures before nis eyes. 

Thb translation was divide^ into svx tomes or parts, and 
Cover^e prefixed to every book the contents of the several 
chapters, and not to the particular chapters, which wris done 
afterwards. It is adorned throughout with wooden cuts, 
and in the margin are scripture reierences. In the last pagp 
it is said, " Prynted in the yeare of our Lorde m.d.^xv. 
and fynished the fourth day of October." This Bible was 
ffeprinted in 1550, and agadn in 1553.* 

In the yemr 1537, the Bible was published a second time 
^ Engli^ ^titled <«. The Bible, which is all the Holy 

« Uwii'i Hist* tf Translatioot, p. 23*-25. 


Scripture, in which are contayned the Olde and Newe 
Testament, truelye and purelye translated into English.'* 
The translators were Tindal and Cove^dale. John Kogerft 
is said to have had a share in it ; but this appears incor- 
rect. From the ^end of the Chronicles to the end of the 
Apocrypha was CoverdaleX &nd the rest was Tindal*s. 
This was called " The Great Bible,"* but it did not come 
forth till after Tindal's death.f 

The New Testament was afterwards printed in Latin 
and English in quarto, with the following title : ^^ The 
Newe Testament both in Latinc and Englishe eche corre- 
spondent to the other after the vulgare Text onnmunely 
called St. Jerome's. Faithfully translated by Johan Holly- 
bushe anno m.ccccc.xxxvih." This was Coverdale's 
translation, which he gave Holly bushe leave to print. It 
was dedicated '' To the moost noble, moost gracious, and 
^' our moost dradde soveraigne lord Kynge Heney the 
^' eyght, kynge of England and of Fraunce, defender of 
^^ Chrises triie fayth, and under God the chefe and supreme 
^< heade of the church of Englande, Irelande, &c.'* In the 
dedication, he tells his majesty, << that oon of the chidfest 
causes why he did now with moost humble obedience dedi- 
jcate and offre thys translation of the New Testament unto 
his moost royall majesty, was his highnesse's so lovingly 
and favourably taking his infancy and rudeness in dedi- 
cating the whole Bible in Englysh to his most noble 

This translation, as Coverdale says, was smistraUy 
printed and ne^li^enth/ corrected. He, therefore, the next 
year, 1539, publishe<r another edition in Svo., which he 
dedicated " To the right honourable Lorde Cromwdl lorde 
<« prevye scale, vicegerait to the kynge's hyghnesse concer- 
** nynge all his juriSiccion ecclesiasticall within the readme 
« of Englande."t 

In the year 1538, Lord Cromwell procured letters firom 

• Lefvis's Hist, of Translationg, p. 26. — Strype*8 Cranmer, p. 88. 

f Wniiam Tindal, deservedly styled ** The AposUe of Englaojd,*' was 
, the first who translated the New Testament into English* from the orifioal 
Greek. This translation was printed at Antwerp, in 1526 ; wfaep Bishop 
Tonstal and Sir Thomas Moore parehased aU the impression, and brniit 
them at Paul's cross. The sale of this impressSon enabled the tfWMlator tc 
print a larger, and more correet edition. Ti;idal was burnt for.i^i liewtic 
at Wilford, near Brussels, in 1530v crying at the stake, '* Lord, open the 
King of England's eyes."— Fo jr*« if ar<^s, ?ol, 41. p. 80t-^d06^Slf3fM'« 
Cirattfiter, p. 81. 

t Lewis's Hist, of Tmnslatioiis^ P* 87, 28« 


Henry YIII. to the King of France, soliciting his license and 
allowance for printing the English Bible in Vie university (^ 
Paris, since it could he done there to much greater advantagci 
than in England. The King of France granting the privilege, 
the work was inunediately undertaken ; and as Doverdale was 
a person eminently qualified for the office, he was appointed 
to superintend the press. He also compared the former 
translations with the original Hebrew and Greek, making 
the requisite alterations and amendments. When the work 
was nearly completed, the printer was convened before the 
tribunal of the Inquisition, and charged with heresy. 
Coverdale and others were sent for; but, aware of tne 
approaching storm, they fled for their lives, and Iclft their 
Bibles behind them, to the number of two thou^d five 
hundred. Thus, he narrowly escaped the rack, Che fir^ 
or some equally cruel torture. 

As the heretical translator could not be found, the Bibles 
were all seized, and committed to the care of one Lieutenant 
Criminal, to be burnt at Paris ; but instead of casting the 
whole of them to the flames, he, through covetousness, sold 
four great fats full of them to an haberdasher, as waste 
paper, of whom they were afterwards purchased. All the 
rest were publicly burnt at Paris. Afterwards Lord Cronn 
well • went himself to Paris, when he procured the printing- 
press, and brought the servants of the printer to London, 
where the remaining part of the Bible was printed, though 
not without much opposition from the bishops.f 

The first publication of the Bible in English roused the 
malice and dl-will of the bigotted prelates. Their anger 
and jealousy being awakened, they laid their complaints 
before the king; who, in compliance with their suggestions^ 
ordered all the copies to be called in, and promised them, a 
new translation. And when the translation in 1537, called 
Coverdale's translation, came forth, the bishops told Henry, 

* Thomas Lord CromweU was the son of a blacksmith at Putney, and 
some time served as a soldfer in Italy, under the Duke of Bourbon. He 
was afterwards secretary to Cardinal Wolsey ; and recommended himself 
to Henry VIII. by discovering that the clergy were privately absolved 
from their oath to him, and iworo anew to the pope. This discovery 
famished the king with a pretence for the suppression of monasteries, in 
which Cromwell was a principal instmment. The king, whose merclct 
were croel, rabed him to a most envied pitch of honour and preferment, a 
Uttle before his fall. He first amused him with an agreeable prospect, and 
then poshed him down a precipice. Cromwell, as vicegerent, had the 
prtccdeace of all great officers of state; but lost his head July 88, 1540.*- 
QrmtgwU Biog, HitU vol. i. p. 86. 

f Foz*s Martyrs, vol. if. p. 434, 435,— Lewis's Hist, of Trans, p. S9. 


that there were many faults in it. His majesty asked them 
whether it contained any heresies ; and when the bishops 
said they had found none, the king replied, '' Then in the 
name of God let it go abroad among the people.'** 

Coverdale's immense labours in publishing the various 
translations of the scriptures, exposed him to the wrath o£ 
the English bishops, by whom he was most severely perse- 
cuted wr his pains. 1 he an^ry prelates hunted him from 
place to place, which obligea nim to flee from the storm, 
and continue many years in a foreign land. While in a 
state of exile, he printed the Bible, and sent it to be sold in 
England, by whjch means be obtained a comfortable 
support. This, however, could not lonff be concealed from 
the jealous eye of the tiishop of Lon(h>n ; who no sooner 
found what Ooverdale wa^ doing, than he inquired where 
the Bibles were sold, and bought them all up : supposing 
by this means he should be able to suppress their circulation. 
But God so ordered it, contrary to the prelate's expectations, 
that the merchant of whom the Bibles were purchased, sent 
the money to Coverdale ; whereby he was enabled to print 
more, and send them over to England. f This, indeed, 
roused the fury of the angry prelates, who, by their out- 
stretched arms, reached him even in Holland; and to escape 
their potent malice, he was* obliged to retire into Grermany. 
He settled under the palsgrave of the Rhiene, where he found 
much favour. Here, upon his first settlement, he taught 
school for a subsistence. But havinff afterwards learned the 
Dutch language, the Prince Elector nlatine conferred upon 
him the benefice of Burghsaber, where his faithful ministry 
and holy life were made a blessing to the people. During 
his contmuance i^ this situation, he was maintained partly 
by his benefice, and partly by Lord Cromwell, his oberaJ 
and worthy benefactor.t 

Upon the accession of Edward VI. the tyrannical cruelties 
of King Henry began immediately to relax; the prison 

* Strype*s Craomer, p. 444.— Bornet's Hist. Abridged, toI. iii. p. 31. 

t Clark's Lives, p. 3. 

X Coverdale wai almoner to Qaeen Katbarine Pbrr, the last wife of 
Henry VIll., and a great friend to the reformation. In the month of 
September 1548, he officiated at her Aineral, and preached a sermon on the 
occasion; in which he declared, *^That there shulde none there tbhike^ 
*' saye, or spread abrode, that theofferioge which was there don anyc^ tbini^ 
*' to proffyth the deade, bat for the poore oalye ; and also the lights which 
f* wiere carried and strode abowto the corps, were for the boonoar of Ihe 
t* person, and for none other intente nor porpoie ; and so wente Ihroaghe 
** with his 8ermonde,and made a godlye prayer,**^* — BiagrtiphUi BriUm* 
TO), iv. p. 310, 311. Edit. 1778. 


^oors were set open ; and those who had been driven into « 
state of exile, returned home. Among the last, was Dr. 
Miles Coyerdale. Not long after his return, he became 
chaplain to Lord Russel, in his expedition to suppress the 
insurrection in Devonshire. For his excellent labours and 
behaviour *on this occasion, he was highly extolled by the 
famous Peter Martyr.* In the year 1551, he, though m 
married man, was made Bishop of Exeter, being promoted 
^^ on account of his extraordinary knowledge m divinity, 
and his ' unblemished character." His consecration was 
performed at Lambeth, by Archbishop Cranmer.f The 
li^owing is King Edward^s letter patent nominating him to 
the bishopric : 

<< The king to all to whom the presents shall come 
<^ greeting. W hereas the bishopric of £xon is without a 
^< bishop, and is destitute of a nt pastor, by the free resign 
<^ nation of John late bishop of that place, and doth by 
^' right belong to our collation and donation. We willing 
^^ to collate another fit person to the bishopric aforesaic^ 
<< and judging our well*beloved Miles Coveraale, professor 
<^ of divinity, for his signal learning in the scriptures, and 
<^ for his most approved manners, wherewith he is endowed, 
<^ to be a fit man for the place and office aforesaid. Know 
<^ ye, therefore, that we of our special grace, and certain 
^^ knowledge, and mere motion, have conferred, given, and 
<^ granted, and by these presents do confer, ^ive, and grant, 
^' to the aforesaid Miles Coverdale, the said bishopric ct 
^' Exeter : and we translate the same Miles to the bishopric 
<^ of £xon,and we nominate, ordain, and constitute by these 
^' presents, the same Miles, Bishop of ExOn, and of Exeter 
^^ diocese ; to have and to hold, execute and enjoy the said 
^^ bishopric of Exon to the same Miles, during his natural 
« life.**t 

The diocese of Exeter, on account of the late insurrection, 
and the prevalence of popery, was in a most lamentable 
state ; and some wise, courageous, and excellent preacher, 
was extremely necessary for that situation. Therefore 
Coverdale was judged a most fit person to be invested with 
the above charge. Archbishop Craumer had the highest 
opinion of him ; was intimately acquainted with him ; and 
was ever ready to do him acts of kindness.^ Though 

• Bamet'tHUt Abridged, vol. iii. p. 148. 

f €lark*i Livct, p. S.— Bornet't Hiit. of Rcfor. toI. ii. p. 166. 

t H«iiUey*t Prelates' Uturpationi, p. 182. 

^ Stripe*! Cfinmer, p. S96, 267. 


Coverdale had submitted to wear the habits, in the late 
reign, he now, with many other celebrated divines, laid 
them aside.* 

At this early period, there were many persons in the 
kingdom, who, besides the papists, were nonconformable to 
the established church. They refused to have their children 
baptized, and differed in some points of doctrine from the 
national creed. These, out of reproach, were denominated 
anabaptists. Also, there were many others who administered 
ihe sacraments in other maimer than as prescribed by the 
Book of Common Prayer, set forth by public authority, 
therefore to prevent these persons from propagating their 
opinions, and to bring them to conformity, a conunission 
was issued to thirty-one persons, empowering them to 
correct and punish these nonconformists. Among those in 
ihe commission were Cranmer, Latimer, Parker, and Cover- 
dale ; but it do^ not appear whether any of the noncon- 
formists were prosecuted by them.f Coverdale being ever 
celebrated for peace and moderation, would undoubtedly 
disapprove of all such measures. 

This excellent divine, while he was Bishop of Exeter, 
conducted himself in a manner worthy of his high office. 
Like a true primitive bishop, he was a constant preacher, 
and much given to hospitality. He was sober and tempe- 
rate in all things, holy and blameless, friendly to good 
men, liberal to the poor, courteous to all, void of pride, 
clothed with humility, abhorring covetousness and every 
scene of vice. His house was a little church, in which 
was exercised all virtue and godliness. He suffered no 
one to abide imder his roof, who could not give some satis- 
factory account of his faith and hope, and whose life did 
iiot correspond with his profession. He was not, however^ 
without'fais enemies. Because he was a constant ana faithful 
preacher of the gospel, an avowed enemy to all supersti- 
lion and popery, and a most upright worthy man, hit 
adversaries sougM to have him disgraced : sometimes by 
secret backbiting; sometimes by open raillery; and some- 
times by felse accusation. Indeed, their mauce is said tcr 
have been carried to so ^eat a length, that they endea- 
voured at last to poison him.; but through the good proyL^ 
^ence of God, their snares were brdken, and he was 
delivered out of their hands.t 

Coverdale having continued in the episcopal office 

• Ncal's Poritans, vol. i. p. 6B. . 

f Strype's Parker, p. 27. $ dirk's Lifef, p. 4. 


betwixt two and three years, it pleased God to remove^ 
by death, the excellent King Edward. Ujpon the accession 
q( his sister Mary, the face of religion was soon changed ; 
great numbers of the most worthy preachers in the kingdom 
were immediately silenced ; and this good bishop, together 
with many others, was cast into prison.* During the cmH 
fiuement of Coverdale and the other protestant bishops^ 
they drew up and subscribed their confession of faitiif« 
This confession, with the names of those who subscribed 
it, is still preserved, but too long for our insertion.f The 
malice of the papists desLped Coverdale for the fire-; 
but the Lord most wonderfully preserved and deliverdl 
him* During his imprisonment, the King of Denmark^ 
with whom he had become acquainted when he was in 
Cfermany^ became his honoured friend, warmly espoused 
his cause, and wrote several letters to Queen Mary, earnestlj 
soliciting his release.^ By the king's continued irapcM^ 
tunity, jei as a very great favour, he was permitted to go 
into banishment. Burnet, by mistake, calls him a Dane; 
and observes, that on this account some allowance waft 
made for him, and a pa^port was granted him, with two of 
his. servants, to go to Denmark.^ He retired first to his 
kind friend, the King of Denmark; then to Wezel im 
.Westphalia; and afterwards he went into Germany, to hiii 
worthy patron the Elector of the Uhiene, by whom he waft 
cordially received, and restored to his former benefice of 
Burghsaber.l Here he continued a zealous and laboriooft 
preacher, and a careful shepherd over the flock of Chris^ 
all tHe remaining days of Queen Mary. 

Coverdale and several of his brethren, during their exil^ 
published a new translation of the Bible, commonly called 
the Genera Bible. The translators of this Bible were 
Coverdale, Goodman, Gilby, Whittingham, Sampson^ 
Cole, Knox, Bodliegh, and PuUain, all celebrated puritans. 
They first publishra the New Testament in 1557. Thift 
was Uie first that was ever printed with numerical verses. 
The whole Bible, with marginal notes, was printed in 

* The two archbiihops, Cranmer and Holgate, with the bishops, Ridlej^ 
Poinet, Scory, Coverdale, Taylor, Harvey, Bird, Bosh, Hooper, JParrer^ 
aod Barlowy and twelve thoosand clergymen, were all silenced at ihit 
time, and many of them were cast into prison. — Bum$ft HUt, of R$f§n 
Tol. ii. p. S76. 

f Fox's Martyrs, vol. iih p. 15, 93, 83. 

i These letters are still preaerved.^/Mtf. p« UO^Ul. 

( Hist, of Refor. vol. iii. p. 8S9. 

I TroaUcs at T/ankaford, p. US. 


1560, and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. The translators 
■ay, ^^ They were employed in the work night atid day, 
with fear and trembling; and they protest from their dm^ 
sciences, and call God to witness, that in every point and 
word, they have faithfully rendered the iexi^ to the best of 
their knowledge." But the marginal notes giving some 
.<^ience, it was not suffered to be printed in England till 
after the death of Archbishop Parker ; when it was printed 
in 1576, and soon passed through twenty or thirty editions.* 
This translation of the Bible has been lately puUished^ 
under the title of '^ The Reformers' Bible." 

During the rage of persecution in the reign of Queea 
Mary, every effort was made for the suppression of the 
refcHrmation, and the re-establishment of popery. The 
frauds, and impositions, and superstitions of the latter 
being ashamed of an examination, the people were not 
allowed to read the writings of protestants. Therefore, in 
the year 1555, her majesty issued her royal proclamation 
for suppressing the books of the reformers. Among the 
works enumerated in this proclamation, were those of 
Luther, Calvin, Latimer,^Hooper, Cranmer, and CoverdaIe.f 

Soon after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Dr. Cover* 
dale again returned to his native country. His bishoprie 
was reserved for him, and he was repeatedly ureed to 
accept it; but on account of the popish habite and c^ne^ 
monies rained in the church, he modestlv refused. He 
assisted in the consecration of Archbishop Parker, in 'Lam- 
beth chapel, December 17, 1559. The ceremony was 
performed in a plain manner, by the imposition of hands 
and prayer. Coverdale, on this occasion, wore only a plain 
black gown; and because he cokild not with a gf^od con- 
science come lip to the terms of conformity, he was 
lieglected, and for some time had no preferment.^ He had 
the plague in the year 1563, but afterwards recovered. He 
was commonly called Father Coverdale. But on account 
of the neglect with which he was treated, and the reproach 
which it brought upon the ruling prelates, Grindal; bishop 
of London, said, ^^ Surely it is not well that he, who was in 
Christ before any of us^ should be now in his ase without 
stay of living. I cannot hereiii excuse us bishops. Grindal 
therefore in the above year, gave him the living of St« 

• Strype's Parker, p. 205, 206.— NeaPi Puritani, to], ii. p. 88. 
f Foi's Martyrs, irol. iii. p. 886. . 

t Strype's Parker, p. 58— 60.— Annals, Tol. i. p. 366.— Neal's Puritans, 
▼ol. i. p. 165. 


Magnus, at the Bridge-foot. But he being old and poor, 
petitioned Secretary Cecil and others, to be released from 
paying the first fruits, amounting to upwards of sixty 
pounds, adding, ^' If poor old ]mles might be thus pro- 
vided for, he should think this enough and as good as a 
feast." This favour was granted.* 

Coverdale continued in the undisturbed exercise of his 
ministry a little more than two years ;f but not coming up 
to the terms of conformity, he was driven from his flocl^ 
and obliged to rdinquish bis benefice.^ Though he was 
laden with old age and infirmities, he did not relmquish his 
beloved work. He still continued preaching as he round an 
opportunity, without the habits ; and multitudes flocked to 
h^r him. They used to send to his house on a Saturday, 
inquiring where he was to preach on the following sabbam, 
and were sure to follow him. This, however, giving offence 
to the ruling prelates, the good old man was, at lengthy 
obliged to tell his friends, that he durst . not acny more 
inform them of his preaching, through fi^r of omnding 
his superiors.^ He, nevertheless, continued preaching as 
long as he was able ; and died a most comfortable and 
bappy death, January SO, 1568, aged eighty->one years* 
He was a man of most exemplary piety, an indefatigable 
student, a great scholar, a celebrated preacher, a pea^able 
nonconformist, and much admired and followed by the 
puritans; but the Act of Uniformity brought down his 

grey hairs with sorrow to the grave. His remains were 
onourably interred in the chancel of St. Barthdomew's 
church, behind the Exchange, London ; when vast crowds 
of people attended the funeral procession. A monumental 
inscription was afterwards erected to his memory, of whick 
the following is a translation :1 

In Memory 
of the most reverend Father, 

Miles Coverdale, 

who died, aged eighty years. 

This J omb 

contains the mortal Remains of Coverdale, 

who having finished his labours, 

now lies at rest. 

He was once the most faithful 

and worthy Bishop of Exeter, 

a man remarkable for the uprightness of his life* 

• Strype^s Grindal, p. 91.— Parker, p. 148, 149.— Annab, val. L p. Mt« 
f Newee«rt*s Repert. Ecd. vol. i. p. S98. 

X Strype*8 Parker, p. 149. S ^^^ ^ * Regbtcr, p. 85. 

i Stow's Survey of London, b. ii. p. 129. 


IIo lived to exceed the age of eighty ycara^ 

having several timcn 

hccn unjuHtly iicnt into baniiihmnnt ; 

and afier being toKMcd about, and 

exposed to the various 

hardships of life, 

the Earth kindly received him into 

her bosom. 

' His Works.— 1. The Christen Rule or State of all the Worlde from 
the highest to the lowest: and how every Man shulde lyve to please 
God in hU CaUynge, 1647.--2. The Christen State of Matrimoinre, 
wherein Husbands and Wyfcs maye lorue to keepe House together 
with Love, i64T. — 3. A Christen Exhortation to customable Swearers. 
What a ryght and lawfullOthe is: when, and before whom it ougfate 
to be, 1547.-- 4. The Manor of sayenge Grace, or gyvyng Thankes 
to God, after the Doctrine of Uolv Kcrypture, 1647.'— 6. llie oM 
IPayth: an evident Probaciou out of the Uoly Scrypture, tlmt Christen 
Fayth (which is the r^ghte, true, oldo, and undoubted FaytlO hath 
ondnred sins the beghiyng of the Worlde, 1647. — 6. A faythnil and 
tme Prognostication upon the year m.cccc.xlix. and pcrpetualy 
after to the Worlde's Endc, gathered out of the Propheeiei tod 
Scryptures of God, by the Experience and Practice of bvs Workes, 
Tery comfortable for ail Christen Hertes. — 7, A 8[>iritual AInuuiacke, 
wherein every Christen Man and Woman may sec what thev oucfate 
daylye to do, or leave undone. — 8. A Confutation of John staodish. 
*— 9. A Discourse on the fiolv Sacraments. — 10. A Concordanoo io 
the New Testament. — 11. A Christian Catechism. — 13. Several Trail- 
•lations from Bullinger, Luther, and others. — ^The verition of the 
Psalms in the Book of Common Prayer, is taken irom Coverdalc*s 
Bible.* ^ 

William 1'urner, M. D. — This diKtinguislied person 
y/92m bom at Mor|)etli in Nortlniinberlaiid, and educated in 
the university of Canibridge, where he became famous for 
his knowled/pe in philoNopby, pliysic, and divinity. He 
ivas a moht learned and pious nonconformist, an avowed 
enemy to all the al)orninationM of po]K'ry, and a most 
zealous ])romotcr of the reformation. Beholding the de» 
plorablc ignorance of the people, and the great scarcity of 
useful preachers in every pirt of the kingdom, he renounced 
all thoughts of pn;fermi*iit, though he liud the most flatteriiy 
prospects, and became a zealous and consteot praachCTy !■ 
cities, towns, and villa^re* *■«»" 
country. As he could i 
to the (ceremonies reaui 
(generously empioyea 
without ordination. 1 

« CliurtoD*! 


labours for some tiine, he at length settled at Oxford, where 
he oijoyed the adyantage of learned men and books. There 
he continued preaching, not without hopes of gaining 
learned mai to espouse the reformation, till he was ^st into 
prison ; and after close confinement for a conaderaMe time* 
lie was banished from tlie country. Such was the etkci d 
bigotry and popish crudty ! 

During his banishment, he travelled into Italy ; and at 
Ferrara/being much admired for his great learning, he was 
created doctmt of phy»c. Tow^uds the dose of the rei^ 
of Henry YIII. he lived at Cologne and oth^ {daces in 
Gennany. In the reign of Edwara VI. he returned home^ 
what he was greatly esteoned among our pious and learned 
lefonners. Upon his return he was made prebendary of 
York, canon of Windsor, and dean of Wells, and incor- 
porated doctor of physic at Oxford. Havmg obtained a 
Ucense to preach, he renewed his former ministerial exer* 
cises ; and, at the same time, practised physic among the 
nobility and gentry, and was chosen both chaplain* and 
physician to the Duke of Somerset, lord protector. Upon 
the accession of Queen Mary, and the commencement <^ 
her bloody persecution, he fled from the storm, and retired 
first into Germany, then to Rome, and afterwards settled, 
with others of his fellow exiles, at Basil in Switzerland.f 
Upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth, he returned a 
second time to his native country, when he was restored to 
his deanery, being highly esteemed both as a physician and 
divine, but especially on account of his numerous learned 


He was author of a work, entitled << A New Herbal,'* 
the first original work on the subject in the English lan- 
guage, and.afterwards the foundation of Gerard's celebrated 
work on the same subject.^ It is said, the first publisher of 
an original Herbal in our tongue. Dr. William Turner, 
informs us, that botany, or the knowledge of simpling, was 
fidlen into such neglect, that in King Henry's reign, he 
f(>und Qot a physician in the university of Cambridge, who 
could inform him of the Greek, Latin, or English names ot 
any plants he produced, as he gathered them to compile 

* Strype/s ibip^s, toI. i. p. 196. 
* + Bishop Ridley, durioj^ his imprisonment, writing to Grindal, then an 
exile at ^ranlLfort, made die nioBt affectionate and honourable mention of 
Tamer, Lever, Sampson, and other worthy eziles.-^F»x's Jfarfjfrt, voL 
iii. p. S74. 

X Wood's AthensB Ozon. toI. i. p. 190, 121. 

^ Strype's Cranmcr, p« 874. 

YOL. J« K . 


his first Latin skel^n of his HeifaaL The learned Dr. 
John Kaius, enumerating the celebrated men ifrho have 
written . on this subject, asks, << And ifrho shall forget the 
most i¥orthy Dr. William Turner? whose learned acts I 
leave to the witty commendations, and immortal praise, of 
Conradus Gesnerus. Yet his book of herbs will always 
grow green, and never wither, as Icniff as Dioscorides is had 
m mind among us mortal wits.'** Hfe wrote with great leal 
and strength of argument against the superstitions and emus 
ol popery. It is observed, that in his book entitled -<< The 
Hunting of the Romish Fox," he has << unanswerably' 
proved, that those who labour to advance and bring id 
the canon law, labour to advance and usher in the pope."f 

September 10, 1559, Dr. Turner preached the seimoo st 
Paul s cross ; and, as he was a person universally beloved, 
and a most popidar preacher, his audience, ccmsistiii^ 91 
courtiers, citizens, and people from the country, was im- 
cmnmonly large4 He was a decided nonccmfonnist^ and 
refused subscription and the habits. Mr. Strype observes,, 
that in the year 1565, he enjoined a ccHnmon adulteier to 
do open penance in the priesVs squcare capy and thus du- 
covered his contempt of the clerical garments. For this 
flagrant crime, Arcnbishop Parker complained of him ta 
Secretary Cecil. And, as our historian adds, he used to 
call the bishops, white caates and tippet genUemem 
He also contemned their office, by asking, << Who gave 
them more authority over me, than I over them, either to 
forbid me preaching, or to deprive me, unless the^ have 
received it from their holy father the pope ?" Tms was 
certainly bold language for those times of severity. But 
without attempting to vindicate the claim here expressed, 
or inquiring from whom their authority was derived, their 
lordships ventured to exercise this authority upon Dr. 
Turner, and caused him, with many of his brethren, to feel 
the weight of their outstretched arms. For imon his 
refusal to wear the surplice, and use the Book of Common 
Prayer, he was sequestered and deprived, with nearly forty. 
other London ministers.^ 

It has been generally, but improperly supposed, says Mi. 
Middleton, that Mr. Cfartwright was the first noted dissisnter 
from the etsablished church. Dr. Turner, dean of Wells, 

« Biog. Britan. vol. iii. p. 2, 6. Edit. 1T78. 
+ Huntley's Prelates, p. 39. 

fStrype's Aonals, toI. i. p. 1S6. 
Strype'8 Parker, p. 15L— Ncars Hist, of New Eof. ToL i..p, M.. 


says he, about the year 1563, seems to have been the first, 
or one of the first, after the church of England was settled, 
who opposed both its episcopacy and cerembnies, and made 
some disturbance about them. This Turner, adds the pious 
but mistaken author, was a very intemperate and indiscreet 
man, as appears from an anecdote recorded of him, wherein 
be manifested his rude treatment of a bishop,' whom he had 
invited to dine with him.* 

That Dr. Turner was opposed to the episcopacy and cere- 
monies of the church, was never dotibted ; but that he was a 
disturber of the peace^ was never proved. And whether lie 
was a very intemperate and indiscreet man, will best appear 
from the anecdote itself, whi^h was the following : the doctor 
baving invited a bishop to dine with him, and having a 
very sagacious dog, was desirous to put a joke upon hia 
lordship. Therefore, while they were at dinner, he callei 
his dog, and told him that the bishop perspired very much.. 
The dog then immediately flew upon his lordship, snatched 
off his cornered cap, and ran with it to his master.f 
, This celebrated divine having spent his life in active and 
vigorous endeavours to promote the reformation of the 
church, and the wdfare of the state ; and having suffered 
imprisonment and banishment from the hands of the papists, 
and deprivation from his fellow protestants, he died full ot 
years, July 7, 1568. His remains were interred in the 
chancel of St. Olave's church, Hart-street, London, where 
a monumental inscription was erected to his memory, of 
which the following is a translation :{ 

In Memory 

of that famousy learned and holy man^ 

William Turner, Dean of Wells^ 

a most skilful Physician and Diyine^ 

in which professions 

he sirred the Church and the Commonwealthi 

with the greatest diligence and success, 

for thirty years. 

Against the implacable enemies of both, 

but especially against the Roman Antichrist^ 

he fought bravely 

I as a good Soldier of Jesus Christ. 

When worn out with a^e and labours, 

he laid down his body 

in hope of a blessed resurrection. 

• Middltton's Biographia Erangelica, Tol. ii. p. S86. Edit. 1T80* 
f Strype't Parker, p. Ifi2. 

^ Ward's Gresham Profetsbn, p. ISO. — Ad imperfect account of this 
iaicription is giTcn in Stow's ** Sarrey of Lofldon," b. ii. p. 89. 


Jane Turner erected this nonmneiit 

to the Memory 

of her beloved and pious hnsbaiid. 

By the power of Ctuist 

they both oyercame the world and the flesh, 

and now they triumph for ever. 

Turner, an honour to the healing art. 
And in religion he was truly great ; 

«ut envious death has snatched him from our eyes; 
ft suffer loss, but Turner gains the prise. 
He died July 7, IdOa. 

The Oxford historian, with an evident design to blacken 
hift memory, says, he was conceited of his own worth, hot- 
headed, a busy body, and much addicted to the opini<ms of 
Luther, always refusing the use of the ceremonies.* FuDer 
denominates' nim a most excellent Latinist, Grecian, (»ator, 
and poet, and a most learned and zealous protestant.f Mr. 
Strype styles him an eminent preacher, and says, he was 
greatly befriended by Sir John Cheke and Sir WiDiam 
Cecil.t He had a son called Peter, who became dodiMr of 
physic, a member of parliament in 1584, and a most 
zealous man in the cause of religion and his country. He 
died May S7, 1614, when* his remains were interred in the 
chancel of the above church. Dr. William Turner was a 
celebrated writer, especially against the papists. 

His Works. — 1. The HuntiBg of the Romish Fox, whieh mom 
than seven years hath been hid among Uie Bishws of £DgluMl» after 
that the King's Highness had commanded him (Tomer) to be dii?en 
out of the Realm, 1543. — % Avium prsecipaurum, quarum apad 
Plinnm & Aristotelum mentio est, brevis & succincta historia, 1544.—* 
3. The Rescuing of the Romish Fox ; otherwise called the Exami- 
nation of the Hunter, devised by Stephen Gardiner, Doctor and 
Defender of the Pope's Canon Law, and his ungodly Ceremonies, 
1545.-4. The Hunting the Romish Wolf, 154 . . — 5. A Dialogue, 
wherein is contained the Examination of the Masse, and of that kind 
of Priesthood which is ordained to say Masse, 1549. — 6. A new 
Herbal, wherein are contained the names of Herbs in Greek, Lytin, 
English, Dutch, French, and in the Apothecaries and H^rbaries, 
with their properties, 1551. — 7. A Preservative, or Triacle against 
the Poyson of Pelagius, 1551. — 8. A new Book of Spiritual Physick 
for divers Diseases of theNobilitie and Gentlemen of England^ 1655. 
— ^. The Hunting of the Fox and the Wolf, because they did make 
Havock of the Sheep of Jesus Christ,ld5 . . — 10. A Book of the Natures 
and Properties, as well of the Bathes of England, as of other Balhes 
in Germany and Italy, 1562.— 11. A Treatise of the Bath at Barth in 
England, 1562.— 12. Of the Nature of aU Waters, 156^—13. Tto 

• Wood's Atbeaae, vol. i. p. ISO. f Worthies, part ii. p. 

X Strype's Cranmer, p. 274. 


Nature of Wines commonly nsed in England, with a ConfatatioB 
of them that hold, that Rhenish and other small Wines ought not 
to be drunken, either of them that have the Stone, the Rume, or 
other Diseases, 1568.— 14. The Nature and Virtue of Triacle, 1568. 
— 15. The rare Treasure of English Baths, 1587. — 16. Arguments 
against the Popish Ceremonies.* — He translated into English, ** A 
Comparison between the Old Learning and the New,^ 1538. — ^And 
^< The Palsgraves Catechism,'' 1572. 

Robert Hawkins. — This zealous puritan was beneficed 
in London, but endured many troubles for nonconformity. 
In the year 1566, conformity to the habits and ceremonies 
bein^ enforced tvith great rigour, especially in Londcm and 
its vicinity, and many of the noncontbrmable ministers being 
silenced, and their friends treated with great severityj they 
came at length to a determination to form themselves into a 
separate congregation; and they assembled together pri« 
vately, in various places in the city, as they found oppor- 
tunity. It is observed from Mr. Strype, tiiat the refi^rs 
of the orders of the church, who by this time were conunonly 
called puritans^ were now grown into two Actions. The 
one was of a more quiet and peaceable demeanour, who 
indeed would not use the habits, nor subscribe to the 
ceremonies, as kneeling at the sacrament, the cross in 
baptism, the ring in marriage ; but held the communion of 
the church, and willingly and devoutly Joined in the 
common pmyer. There was another sort, who disliked the 
whole constitution of the church, charging it with many 
gross remainders of popery, and that it was still fiill of 
antichristian corruptions, and not to be tolerated. These 
separated themselves into priva^ assemblies, meeting to- 
gether not in churches, but in private houses, where they had 
ministers of their own. They rejected wholly the Book of 
Common Prayer, and used a book of prayers framed at 
Geneva for the congregation of English exiles lately sojourn- 
ing there. This lx>ok had been revised and allowed by 
Galvin and the rest of the Geneva divines. At these private 
assemblies, they had not only prayers and sermons, but the 
liord^s supper likewise sometimes administered. This gave 
great offence to the queen, who issued her letters to the 
ecclesiastical commissioners, to this effect : ^^ That they 
should move these nonconformists by gentle means to 
conformity, or else for their first punishment to lose their 

• The author has seen a MS. copy of this work, bat U not certoia whether 
it was CTer pubUsbed. 


fVfedom of tbe city, and aftarwardi to miflfcr ivbat fthoutd 

Mr. Hawkini was a leading person among these sera* 
faUsis, and an active and a zealous preacher. Heveral oUier 
ministers were nieml)ers <rf' the congregation, flaring Icrnt 
their NSMetnblies for som(^ time more privntely, to dude the 
notice of the l)ishop's oiric(*r», they at ImatU ventured to 
come forth more puolicly ; aftd iluni; 10. Iml^ihcv agreed to 
have a sermon and the fjord's supper at l<luttil>ers-hall. which 
thi'y hired for tlie day^ as some one gave it out, utid<rr pre- 
tence of a wedding. I lere tlie sheriffs of Loti(h)fi discovered 
them, and broke up tlieir meeting, wlicn about one hundred 
were asM*mbh;d togeiker. Most of them were taken into 
custody, and sent to thr Compter. Th(i»e were the first 
puritfins who aceountinl it unlawful to hold communion 
with the church of England, and who totally s(*parated from 
it. They did not separate, however, till after their ministers 
were silenaed ; and they appear to have been the first wlio 
were cast into prison, in the reign of Quecm Elizabeth, for 
not coming io their pnrish churches, and for holding con- 
.ventiekss. Thev des<*rved more humane treatment, especially 
when it is recollected, that they only imitated the worthy 
proU'stimts a few years h<^ore, in the time of Que<?n Mary; 
who, to the tf reat tiazard oi' their lives, assembled in private 

5 laces ; anuscmie of them were, indeed, the same persons, 
'hey were harassed and persecuted, while the papists con- 
tinues! unmolesteil.f 

The day utter their imprisonment in the Compter, Mr. 
Hawkins, and Messrs. William White, Thomas llowUnd. 
John Hmith, William Nixson, James Ireland, and Kicharcl 
Morecraft. were brought M^fore Bishop Grmchil, Dean Good- 
man. Arclide^icon Watts, the; lord mavor, and other com« 
missioners. The bishop charged them with absenting 
thems<;lves from the parish churches, and with setting up 
•eparate asseml)lies for prayer, preaching, and ailminbtering 
the sacrament, fie told them, that by ttiese proceeding!, 
they condemned the church of England, which was well 
reformed according to the word of OcnI, and those martyrs 
who shed their blcMid for it.t ^1*0 this charge, Mr. Hawkins 
ret)lied in the name of the rest, as follows; and would have 
•aid more, but was interrupti^I. 

Hawkins. We condemn them not. We only stand to 
tbe truth of ( Jod's word. 

• BloKniplik BriUin. vol. Iv. p. 94St. Edit. 1747. 

i MS. iUmaif kft| p. SIS. } Psrli of a Rfglilsri p. 99, f4« 


Bishop. Have you Aot the gospel truly meached, and 
the sacraments duly ministered, and good order preserved; 
though we differ from other churches in indifferent cere- 
monies, which the prince has power to command for the 
sake of order? What say you, Smith, as you seem the 

Smith. Indeed, my lord, we thank God for reformation ; 
and that is the thing we desire, according to God's word. 

White. I beseech you, let me answer. 

Bishop. Nay, White, hold your peace. You shall be 
heard anon. 

Nixson. I beseech you, let me answer a word or two. 

Bishop. Nixson, you are a busy fellow. I know your 
words. You are full of talk. I know from whence you 

Hawkins. I would be glad to answer. 
' Bishop. Smith, you shall answer. 

Smith. So long, indeed, as we might have the word 
freely preached, and the sacraments administered without 
the use of idolatrous gear^ we never assembled in private 
houses. But when all our preachers, who could not subscribe 
to your apparel and your laws, were displaced ; so that 
we could not hear any of them in the church for the space 
of seven or eight weeks, excepting father Coverdale, who at 
length durst not make known unto us where he preached ; 
and then we were troubled in your courts from day to day, 
for not coming to our parish churches; we considered 
among ourselves what we should do. We remembered that 
there was a congr^;atioA of us in this city, in the days of 
Queen Mary ; and a congregation at Geneva, which used 
a book and order of preaching, ministering the sacraments 
and discipline, most agreeable to the word of God. This 
book is allowed by the godly and learned Mr. Calvin, and 
the other preachers at Geneva, which book and order we 
now hold. And if you can, by the word of God, reprove 
this book, or any tlung that we h(dd, we will yield to you, 
and do open penance at Paul's cross ; but if not, we will, by 
the ^tace of God, stand to it. 

Bishop. This is no answer. 

Smith. Would you have me go bsick from better to 
worse ? I would as soon go to mass as to some Churches, 
and particularly to my own parish church ; for the minister 
is a v^ papist. 

Dean. He counteth the service and reformation in the 
days of King Edward, as evil as the mass. 


Bisbop. Beeanle he knoweth one that is evil, he findeth 
fault i¥ith all. You may go to other places. 

White. If it were tried, there would be found a ^eat 
company of papists in this city, whom you allow to be 
ministers, and thrust out the godly. 

Bishop. Can you accuse any of them of false dpctri|ie ? 

Nixson. Yes, 1 can accuse one of false doctrine, who is 
even now in this house. Let him come forth, and answer to 
the doctrine which he preached upon John x.« 

Dean. You would take away the authority of the prince, 
and the liberty of christians. 

Bishop. Yes, and you suffer justly. 

Hawkins. It does not belong to the prince, nor to the 
liberty of christians, to use and defend that which apper-^ 
taineth to papistry apd idolatry, as appears from Deutero* 
nomy vii. and other parts of scripture. 

Dean. When do you hear us maintain such things in 
our preaching ? 

fiawkms. Though you do not defend them in your 
preaching, you do it by your deeds, and your laws. V ou 
t>reach Oirist to be a prophet and priest, but not to be a 
king ; nor will you suffer him to reign in his church ahncy 
by the sceptre of his word ; but the pope^s canon laWy and 
the zmU of theprince^ must be preferred before the word and 
ordinance of God. 

Dean. You speak irreverently of the prince, before the 
magistrates. You were not required to speak, and there-* 
fore might hold your peace. 

Hawkins. You will suffer us U> make our defence, seeing 
you persecute us. 

Bishop. What is so preferred ? 

Nixson. Your laws, your copes, and your sur^dices ; 
because you will suffer none to preach, except they wear 
them, and subscribe. 

Bishop. No ! what say you of Sampson and Lever, and 
others ? Do not they preach ? 

White. Though they preach, you have deprived and 
forbidden them ; and though you suffer them, the law stands 
in force against them. But . for what cause you will not 
suffer others, whom you cannot reprove by the word of 
God, I know not. 

* This was one Bedall, then present, who immediately Iteld dowa bb 
lieady bat said nothing. The bishop and otber commissionerSy at the lame 
time, looked upon one another, as if they knew not what to do, bilt pra-» 
eeeded no further.— Porfe of a Register, p. 2d. 


Bishop. They will nci preach among yoa. 

White. Your doings are the cause. 

Hawkins. And they will not join with you. One cf 
them told me, << he had rather be torn in a hundred pieces, 
than communicate with you.'^ We neither hold nor allow 
any thing that is not contained in the word of God. But if 
you think we do not hold the truth, shew unto us, and we 
will renounce it. 

Smith. And if you cannot, we pray you, let us not be 
thus used. 

Dean. You are not obedient to the authority of the prince. 

White. Yes, we are. For we resist not, but suffer 
whatsoever authority is pleased to lay upon us. 

Bishop. Thieves likewise suflfer, when the laws are laid 
upon them. 

White. What a comparison is this ! They suffer for evil 
doing, and you punish us for serving Grod according to his 

Nixson. The prince, as well as ourselves, must be ruled 
by the word of God : as we read, 1 Kings xiL, that the king 
should teach only the word of God. 

Bishop. What! should the king teach the word of 
God ? Lie not. 

Nixson. It means that both king and people should obey 
the word of God. 

Bishop. It is indeed true, that princes must obey the 
word of God only. But obedience consisteth of three 
points. — 1. That which God commandeth may not be left 
undone. — 2, That which God forbiddeth may not be done. 
— 3. That which God hath neither commanded nor for- 
bidden, and consisteth in things indiffererd : such things 
princes have authority to appoint and command. 

Prisoners. Prove that. Where find you that ? 

Bishop. I have talked with many persons, and yet I 
never saw any behave themselves so irreverently befors 
ma^strates. <s 

W hite. I beseech you, let me speak a word or two. 

Bishop. White, stay a little. You shall speak anon. 

Hawkins. Kings have their rule and commandment, 
Deut. xvii., not to decline from the word of God, to the 
right hand or the left, notwithstanding your distinction. 

Smith. How can you prove those things to be indifftrenif 
which are abofninable. 

Bishop. You mean our caps and tippets, which, you 
say, came from Rome. 


Ireland. They belong to the papists^ therefore throw 
(hem to them. 

Watts. Yoa would have us use nothing that the papists 
used* Then should we use no churches, seeing the papists 
vsed them. 

Hawkins. Churches are necessary to keep our bodies 
firom the rain ; but copes and surplices are superstitious and 

White. Christ did cast the buyers and sellers, and their 
wares, out of the temple, yet was not the temple overthrown. 

Bishop. Things not forbidden of God, may be-used for 
the sake of order and obedience. This is according to the 
judgment of the learned Bullinger, We, therefore, desire 
you to be conformable. 

Smith. What if I can shew you Bullinger against Bul- 
linger, in this thing ? 

Sishc^. I think you cannot. Smith. 

Smith. Yes, that I can. 

Bishop. Though we differ from other reformed churches, 
in rites and ceremonies^ we agree with them in the substance 
rf doctrine, 

Hawkins. Yes, but we should follow the truth in all 
things. Christ saith, ^' Go ye, therefore, and teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you.^^ But you have 
brought the gospel and its ordinances into bondage to the 
ceremonies ot* antichrist ; and you defend idolatry and 
papistry. You have mingled your own inventions with 
every ordinance of Christ. How do you address godfathers 
and godmothers in baptism ? 

Watts. Oh \ a wise reason. 

Bishop. How say you of the church at Geneva ? They com- 
municate with wafer cakes, which you are so much against. 

Nixson. Yes, but they do not compel any to receive it 
so and in no other way. 

Bishop. Yes, in their parish churches. 

White. The English congregation, while! residing tber^ 
did minister the sacrament with loaf bread. 

Bishop. Because they were of another language. 

White. It is good to follow the best example. But w^ 
must follow them only as they follow Christ. 

Dean. All the learned men in Europe are against you. 

Watts. You will believe no man. 

Smith. Yes, we reverence the learned at Geneva^ aad 


in all other places. Yet we build not ourfdth and retigioai 
upon them. 

Bishop. Will you be judged by the learned niGeaev2ii 
They are against you. 

Hawkins. We will be judged by the word of God, whicli 
shall judge us all at the last day, and is, therefore, sufficient 
to judge us now. But how can they be against us, seeing 
they know not of our doings ? 

Bishop. Here is a letter from Geneva; and they are 
against you and your doings, in going from us. They 
tremble at your cause. 

Hawkins. The place is a^inst you. For they tremble 
at your case, and the case of the prince ; because, by your 
severities, you drive us to a separation against our wills. 

Bishop. Then you enter into judgment against us. 

Hawkins. No; we judge not. But we know the letter 
well enough; for we have it in our houses. It maketh 
nothing against us. 

Bishop. We grant it doth not. Yet they account the 
apparel, in its own nature, indifferent^ and not impious and 
wicked ; and, therefore, counsel preachers not to give up 
their functions, or leave their flocks, for these things. 

Hawkins. But it is said, in the same letter, <^ that 
ministers should give up their ministry, rather than be 
compelled to subscribe unto the allowance of such things.^' 

Nixson. Let us answer to your first question. 

Bishop. Say on, Nixson. 

Nixson. We do not refuse you for preaching the word 
of God ; but because you have tied the ceremonies of anti- 
christ to your ministry, and set them before it, seeing no 
man may preach or minister the sacraments without them. 
Before you used this compulsion, all was quiet. 

Bishop. So you are against things indifferent, which for 
the sake of order and obedience may be borne with. 

Mayor. Well, good people, I wish you would wisely 
consider these things, and be obedient to the queen^s good 
laws ; that you may live quietly, and have liberty. 1 am 
sorry that you are troubled ; but I am an officer under my 
prince, and therefore blame not me. The queen hath not 
established these garments and other things, for the sake of 
any holiness in them, only for civil order and comeliness ; 
and because she would have ministers known from oth^ 
men, as aldermen are known by their tippets, judges by 
their red gowns, and noblemen's servants bv their liveries. 
Therefore, you will do well to take heed and obey. 


Hawkins. Philip Metancthon, upon Komaiis xiy. bafb 
these words : ^^ When the opinion of holiness^ or mcrft, or 
necessUyj is put to things indifferent, they darken the light 
of the gospel, and ought always to be taken away.** 

Bishop. These things are not commanded as necessary 
is the church. 

Hawkins. You have made them necessary^ and thai 
many a poor man doth feel. 

tfixson. As you say, my lord, that the alderman is 
known by his tippet, even as by this apparel were the mass- 
priests known from other men. 

Dean. What a great matter you make of it ! 

Hawkins. The apostle Paul would not be like the &lse 
apostles in any such things ; therefore the apostle is i^^ainsl 

Bishop. There were ^ood men and good martyrs, who^ 
in the days of King Edward^ did wear these things. Do 
you condenm them ? 

Nixson. We condemn them not. We would go for- 
ward to perfection. The best of them who maintained the 
habits, did recant at their death : as did Dr. Ridley, bishop 
of London, and Dr. Taylor. Ridley did acknowledge his 
fault to Hooper, and when they would have put the apparel 
upon him, he said it was abominable and too fond for a vice 
in a play.» 

Bishop. Do you find that in the Book of Martyrs ? 

Hawkins. It may be shewed from the book of the 
*^ Monuments of the Church," that many who were burned 
in the time of Queen Mary, died for standing against popery^ 
as we do now. 

Bishop. I have said mass. I am sorry for it. 

Ireland. But you go still like one of the mass-priests. 

Bishop. You saw me wear a cope or surplice in St. 
Paul's. I had rather minister without them, only for the 
sake of order and obedience to my prince. 

Nixson. Your garm^ts, as they are now used, are 

Bishop. Where do you find them forbidden in scripture? 

Nixson. Where is the mass forbidden in the scriptures ? 

Bishop. The mass is forbidden in scripture thus : — It was 
thought meritorious. It took away free justification. It 

* What is here observed relative to the worthy reformers, is abundandy 
ronfirmed by the concurrent testimony of our historiaos. Fox*i AeU mii 
Monuments of Martyrs, vol. iii. p. 143, 168, 17S, 487.— fie^fi*« JSfffl. #/ 
M^for, part i. p. 93.— PHncs'f CAr^ii. Hitt. Tol. i. p. 817. 


was made an idol : and idolatry is forbiddeii in the 

Hawkins. By the same argument, I will prove your 
garments to be forbidden in the scriptures. In Psalm 
cxxxviii. it is said, that ^' God hath magnified his wcvd 
above all his name.'^ And 2 Cor. x. it is said, ^ The 
weapons of our warfaie are not carnal, but mighty throu^ 
God to the pulling down of strong holds ; casting down 
imaginations, and every high thinff that exalteth itsdf 
against the knowledge of God, and bringeth into captivity 
every thought to the obedience of Christ.'^ But you have 
brought the word c^ God into captivity to the pope^s gar^ 
menis and his canon law. Therefore they are forbidden in 
the scriptures. *< And," says Christ, " thai which is highly 
esteemra amongst^men, is abomination in the sight of God. 
Luke xvi. 

White. Reprove what we hold, and prove what you 
would have us to observe, by the.scriptures, and we will 
yield to you. But if you cannot do this, why do you 
persecute us. 

Bishop. You are not obedient to the prince. 

Dean. Doth not St. Peter say, '^ Be obedient unto every 
ordinance of man ?^* 

White. Yes, so far as their ordinances are according to 
flic will of God. 

Nixson. It hath always been the practice <^ pcqpish 
bishops, when they could not defend their cause by scrip- 
ture, to make the mayor and aldermen their servants and 
butchers, to execute punishment. But you, my lord, seeing 
you have heard and seen our cause, will taike good adver« 
tisement concerning the same. 

Mayor. How irreverently you speak bef<Me my lords 
and us, in making such a comparison ! 

Bishop. Have we not a godly prince ? Or, is she evil ? 

White. What the answer to that question is, the fruits 
do shew. 

Bowland. Yes, the servants of God are persecuted 
under her. 

Bishop. Mark this, my lord. 

Hawkins. The prophet may answer this question. 
^< Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge, who eat 
up my pec^le as they eat bread ?^' 

Dean. Do we hold any heresy ? Do we deny any aiticte 
of £iith ? Do we maintain purgatory or pilgrimage i No ; 


we hold the lefomiatioD that was promoted in the days of 
Kin^ Edward. 

White. Yoabuildmocbuponlhe time of King Edward. 
And thoogh it was the best time of reformation, all was 
confined to one prescript order of service^ patched together 
out cf the popidi matiins, eren-song, and mass-book ; and 
no dicipline, according to the word of God, nuglit be 
brought iato the church. 

Nixsoo. Yet they never made a law, that none dioald 
preach, nor administer the sacraments, wUhout the garmeBls,- 
as you haye done. 

Hawkins. It can never be proved, that the ceremonies of 
antichrist, and the pope's canon law, are clean to christians. 
For the apostle saith, there is no fellowship between Christ 
and Belial, and light and darkness. 

Dean. All the learned are against you. 

White. I delivered a book to Justice Harris, containing 
the order which we hold.. Reprove the same by the wina 
of God, and we will renounce it altogether. 

Bishop. We cannot reprove it. But to gather yoursdves 
together disorderly, and to trouble the quid; of the reahn, 
against the wHl of the prince, we like not. 

White. We bold nothing that is not warranted by the 
word of God. 

Hawkins. That which we do, we do in obedience io the 
command of Grod. '' Now, I beseech you, brethren, mark. 
them which cause divisions and offences, contrary to the 
doctrine which ye have learned, and Arotif them.*' 

Dean. Yes ; but what you hold is disorderly, and against 
the authority of the prince. 

Hawkins. That which is according to the word of God 
iff truth, whoever holds it ; uidess you make the truth of 
God subject to the authority of the prince. It were better, 
for us never to have been born, than to suffer the word ai 
God to be defaced by the pleasure of princes. 

Bishop. All the learned are against you. Will you be 
tried hy them ? 

White. We will be tried by the word of God, by whidv 
we shall all be judged at the last day. 

Dean. But who will you have to be judge of the word c£ 

Hawkins. That was the cavil of the papists, in the time 

of Queeii Mary. I have myself heard them say, when the 

> truth was defended by the word of God^ <^ Who shall jndga 


of the word of God? The ckfhoiic church must be 

White. We will be tried by the best reformed churches/ 
The church of Scotland hath the word truly preached^ 
the sacraments truly ministered^ and discipline according to 
the word of Grod : these are the marks by which a Uti0 
church is known. £ 

Dean. We have a gracious prince. f 

Prisoners. May Grod presei-ve her majesty and council. 

White. That which God commandeth, ought to be done ; 
and that which God forbiddeth, ought not to be done« 

Bishop. Yes; and so say I. 

White. It is manifest that what God commandeth to be 
done, is left undone ; and what God forbiddeth, is done by 
authority. God says, '' Six days shalt thou labour, and do 
all that thou hast to do : but the seventh day is the sabbath 
of the Lord thy God." But the law of the prince s^th, 
'' Thou shalt not labour six days, but shalt keep the popish 
holy-days." — Christ commandeth discipline to be used in 
his church. Matt, xviii. , and it was practised by the apostles : 
but in the church of £ngland, that is set aside, and none 
used but the popish discipline. And Christ saith, ^< If any 
man shall add unto those things which he has revealed, Grod^ 
shall add unto him the plagues that are written in his book : 
and if any man shall take away from the words of his 
book, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, 
and out of the holy city." Rev. xxii. How will you avoid 
this ? 

Bishop. Why, is it not well to hear a good sermon or two 
on the holy-days ? 

White. We are not against that. But what shall we do 
when the sermons are ended ? If we do any work, we tutcr 
commanded to appear in your coutts. 

fiishop. You may be well employed in serving God. 

White. So we- are, when we are at our work^ as Grod 

Dean. Then you would have no sermons, nor prayers, all 
the week. 

White. I think he is no christian who does not pray and 
serve God every day in the week. 

Nixson. You can suffer bear-baiting, bowling, and other 
games, both on the sabbath and your holy-days, without 
any trouble for it. 

Dean. Then you would have no ho]y-days, because the 
papists have used them ? 


White. We ought to do what God commandcth* 

Dean. Then you must not use the Lord's prayer, because 
the papists used it; and many other prayers, because the 
papists used thenu You would have nothing but the word 
of God. Are all the psalms which you sing the word of 

White. Is every word delivered in a good sermoD the 
word of God ? 

Dean. No. 

White. But every word and thing ogreewg with the word 
of Grod, is as the word of God. 

Bishop. There hath been no heretic, but he hath chal* 
leiLsed the word of God to defend himself. 

White. What is that to us ? If you know any heresy that 
we hold, charge us with it. 

Bishop. Holy-days may be well used. 

Hawkins. Bishop Hooper, in his Commentary upon the 
Conunandments, saith^ '' that holy-days are the Ic^yea c^ 

In the conclusion, the prisoners not yielding to the cmi-* 
fonnity required, were sent to Bridewell, where they, with 
their brethren, and several women, were kept in confine* 
ment two years. During this period, the famous Mr. Thomas 
Lever hsul a conference with them, and, by their demre,^ 
wrote them a letter to comfort and encourage them under 
their present trials, giving his opinion of mose things for 
which they suffered. In this letter, dated December 5, 
1568, he declares, that by the grace of God, he was d^ter- 
■lined never to wear the square cap and surplice^ nor kneel 
at the communion, because it was a symbolizing with popery. 
Yet he would npt condemn those who should observe these 
things.f The celebrated Mr. John Knox wrote, also, a most 
affectionate and faithful letter to certain prisoneis confined 
for nonconformity ; urging them to hear the ministers who 
preached sound doctrine, though they conformed to the 
habits and ceremonies of the church. This letter, written 
about the same time, was most probably addressed to the 
same persons 4 

. The patience and constancy of Mr. Hawkins and the rest 
of the prisoners, being at length sufficiently tried, an wder 
at the motion of Bishop Grindal, was sent from the lords of 
the council to release them. Therefore, in the month of 
April, 1569, after admonition to behave themselves bettor 

• ♦ ParteofaRegister,p. 24— 37. 
t MS. Rcgiiier, p. 18, 19. t Ibid. p. 20, 21. 


in fiittiie, tment^'faur meny and $eoen womeny iveie dis« 
charged.* Bishop Afaddox insinuates that these peisons were 
guilty of dddoyakjf; and adds, <^ that it was no wonder thqr 
^ were not more respectfid to the queen, since their whote 

* The names of the men were, Robert Hawkim, John Smith, John 
Roper, Jamct Ireland, William Nizson, Walter Hinkesman, Thomas Bow- 
land, George Waddy, William Turner, John Nash, James Adderton, Thomas 
Lidford, Richard Lancton, ' Alexander Laey, John Leonard, Robort Tod, 
Roger Hawksworth, Robert Sparrow, Richard King, Christoplier Colemai^ 
John 9fn|on« John Bolton, Robert Gates, and William White, f Several 
•f them ImuI been beneficed ministen In the church, the rest were religions 
and worthy laymen, bnt all snfferen in the same cause. Among the bitter 
was Mr. WlUiam White, a substantial dtisen of London, whom FnUer» 
liy mistake, calls a minister. He was oftentimes fined and tossed f/om one 
prison to another, contranr to law and justice, only for nat going to his 
own parisl^ church. Having l^een examined before the Bishop of London, 
be wrote his lordship a most bold and excellent letter, now before me, 
dated December 19, 1569 ; in Uie conclusion of which, he subscribes himself, 
^ Yours in the Lord to command, WiUUun Whiie^ who joineth with yon 
** In every speck of truth, bpit utterly detestetli whole antichrist, head, 
** bod^, and tail, never to join with you, or any, in the least joint thereof; 
** nor in any ordinance of man, contrary to the word of God*" { An abstract 
of this letter is preserved l>y Mr. Neal. ^ 

Januarv 18, 1573, Mr. White appeared before the commissioners, who 
treated him neither as men, nor as christians. He was examined in the 
presence of the Lord Cliief Justice, the Master of the Rolls, the Master of 
the Requests, the Dean of Westminster, the Sheriff of London, the Clerk of 
the Peace, and Mr. Gerard. Some others having been dispatched, Mr. 
White was brought forth, whom his lordship accosted as follows:^- 

L.C.J. Who Uthis? 

White. White, if it please your honour. 

L« C. J. White ! as black as the devil. 

White. Not so, my lord, one of God's children. 

h* C.J. By whom were you released f 

White. By the commissioners, I suppose. 

Mh C. J.. That is well^ Indeed, If we shaU commit, and others set at liberty f 

White. They did no more than they might do. 

L. C. J. By which of the commissioners were you delivered ? 

White. I know not. There were the hands of four or Hvt commissioners 
lit to the warrant. 

1j.C.J* But who were they ? 

White. I suppose Sir Walter ■ and my Lord Mayor were two of 


Master of Requests. How were yon delivered ? 

White. Upon sureties. 

M^ Reqnestt. How long is It since you were delivered ? 

White.. Since the birth-day of our Lord. 

L.C.J. 9ow often, during this time, have you been at your parish 

White. I cool^ not go to any chnrch, being myself, with sureties, bound 
to be a tme |irisoner in my own house. 

JU^^Cf J*:.CM| 1 yon were glad of that. 

White. Not so, my lord i for If I had been at liberty, I would ka?e 
fri^neated the place of public pttachinf and prayer. 

f Strype's Grindal, p. 186. t ^9* Rcf'^^^^ P* Sl^-^S. 

S Hist of Puritans, vol. I. p. 8S0. 

yoL.1, t 


^^' scheme of chuircli goyemment appears to be ddcolated for 
*^ the overthrow of monarchy."* We are at a loss to say 
inrhcther this calnmny discoyers greater ignorance or bigotry. 
The twofold charge is asserted without the least shadow of 

Gerart). IVhen were yon bound to appear ? 

White. At any time, I snppo^, wlien I should be called. *- 

Gerard. Tou ^re now called i you mutt then answer* 
' White. 1 acknowledge it, and am here to answer. 

L. C. J. Why will you not come to yddr parish church ? 

White. My lord, I did use to frequent my parish church befbre wj 
troubles, and procured several godly men to preach there, as well as otber 
places of preacbii^ and prayer ; and since my troubles, I have not fk«* 
^nented any priTate assemblies, but, as I have had liberty, liave gone to 
ny parish church. Therefore, they who have presented roe, have done it 
out of malice { for if any of the things can be proTcd against me, or that 
I hold all things common, your lordship may dismiss me from hence to the 

Gerard. You have not usually frequented your own church. 

Wliite. I i^llow I have more used other places, where I was better edified* 
' Gerard. Then your presentation is in part true. 

White. Not so, if it please you f for I am presented for not coning at 
nit to my parish church. 

Gerard. Will you then cobie to prayers when there sermon ? 

White. I crave the liberty of a subject. But if I do not publicly 
frequent both preaching, prayer, and the sacraments, deal with me ae» 

Master of the Rolls. You must answer Jres or no. 

White. You know my mind, how that I would avoid those things which 
are a grief to me, an offence to otiiers, and disturb the quiet state of the 

l>eau. You disobey the queen's laws* 

W hite. Not so, if it please you; 

Dean. What fault do ^^'ou find in the common prayer ? 

White. Let them answer to whom it. appertains; for being -in prison 
almost a whole year about these matters, I was indicted upini a statute 
relating to that book ; and before I came to liberty, almost outlawedt as 
your worship Mr. Gerard knoweth. ^ « 

M. Requests. What scripture have you to ground your conscicBee upon 
againstihese garments } 

White. The «f hole scrii)tures are for destroying idolatry,- and every thiiy 
belonging unto it. 

M. Requests. These things never served to idolatry. 

White. Shough ! they are the same as those which heretofore were ased 
for that purpose. 

M. Requests. Where are they forbiddeq in scripture F- 

Wbite. In Deuteronomy and other places, the Israelites are commaaded, 
not only to destroy the altars, groves, and images, with all thereto 
belonging, but also to abolish the very nimus. And God by 'Isalali'com- 
niandeth us not to pollute ourselves with the garments of (be image, iNit tt 
cast them away as a menstruous cUntt, • 

M. Rolls. These are no part of idolatry, but are commanded by theprfaee 
for civil order; and if you will not be Offered you shew'ybursdfdisobedlkBt 
to the laws. . ' . r 7 

White. I would not willingly disobey ^any law,' only. I wovM-flttM 
those things which are not warranted by the word of God* 

« Maddox's Yindicati^nf p* 810. . 

I > • - 


evidence, excepting . what might arise in hi? lorddbip^ 
episcopal imagination. Mr. Hawkins and ^veral others 
bad been beneficed roinistears in London, but were now. 
silenced and persecuted for nonconformity. The rest were 

M. Reqnesfe. Toa disobey the queen's laws ; for these thin^ are com 
■landed by act of parliament. 

Dean. Nay, you disobey God ; for God commandetb yon to obejr 
your prince. Therefore in disobeying her In these things, yon disobey 

White. I do not avoid those things of contempt, but of consoienee. In 
all other things I am all obedient subject. 

L. C. J. The queen's majesty was overseen not to make ihee of her council, 
to make laws and orders for 'religion. 

White. Not so, my lord. I am'to obey laws vrairanted by God's vrord. 

L. C. J. Do the queen's laws command any thing against God's word I 

White. I do not say so, my lord. 
. L. C. J. Yes, marry, you do ; and there I will hold yon. 
, White. Only God and his laws are absolutely perfect. AU men and 
their la'w6 may err. 

L. C. J. This is one of Shaw's darlings. I tell thee what, I will not say 
any thing of affection, for I know thee not, saving by this occasion ; thoa 
iut the wickedest, and most contemptuous person, that has come bejfore me, 
yince I sat in this commission- 

' .White. Not so, my Lord ; my conscience doth witness'otberwise. 
. Si, Requests. What if the queen should command to wear a grey frizo 
gown, would you then come to church ? 

White. That were more tolerable, than that God's ministers should 
wear the habit of his enemies. 

L. C. J. How if she should command them to wear a fool's coat and a 
cock's comb ? 

White. That were unseemly, my lord, for God's ministers. 

Dean. Tou will not be obedient to the queen's commands. 

White. I am, and will be, obedient. 

M.Hequests. Yes, you say so. But how are you obedient, when you 
will not do what she commandetb ? 

White. I would only avoid those things that have no warrant in the 
word of God, that are neither decent nor edifying, but flatly the contrary, 
and condemned by the foreign reformed churches. 

M. Requests. Do the church and pews edify ? And because the papists 
used the^, will you, therefore, cast them away ? 

White. The church ^nd pews, and such things, are both necessary and 

Gerard. White, you were released, thinking you would be conformable, 
but you are worse than ever. 

White. Not so, if it please you. 

L. C. J. He would have no laws. 

White. If there were no laws, I wonld live like a christian, and do no 
wrong, though I received wrong. 

L.^C• J. Thou art a rebel. 

White. Not so, my lord ; a true subject. 

L. C. J. Yea, I swear by God, thou art a very rebel ; for thon wonldst 
<}raw thy sword, and lift np thy hand against thy prince, if time served. 
. White. My lord,' I thank God, my heart standeth right towardi God and 
ttj prince; and God wlU not coadieitiD, though yottr honour hath s« 

. L.C.J. Take hi» away. 


worthjr, religious persons, but ^ptrat sufferen in the same 
cause. These proceedings agauist zealous protestants, of 
pious and sober lives, excited the compassion of all iinpre- 
ludiced beholders, and brou^t many over to their interesis* 
It was, indeed, a great grief to the prdates, to see peisoos 

White. T woald speak m word, which I urn sare win ofend, and yet I 
miist speak it. I heard the name of God takea in vaia. If I had dmt U^ 
it had been a greater offence than that which I itaad here for* 

Gerard. White, White, yon do not behave Tonrself weU. 

White. I pray your wonhip, ihew ne wiiereiay aad I wiU beg yair 
pardon and amend it. 

L. C. J. I may swear in a matter of charity. 

White. There is no such occasion now. 

Gerard. White, yon do mnch misuse yonrself. 

White. If I do, I am sorry for it 

M. Requests. There is none here but pitieth thee. 

White. If it be so, I praise God for it. But becaase it is lald, that alay 
last being before yon, I denied the sapremacy of my prince, I desire 
your honours and worships, with all that be preseat, to bear wttHen, thM 
I acknowledge her majesty the chief governor, next under ChriiC, overall 
persons and causes witnin her dominions, and to this I wiU sabeeribe» I 
acknowledge the Book of Articles, and the Book of Commoa Prayer, as tut 
as they agree with the word of God. I acknowledge the snbstaiiee of Ike 
doctrine and sacraments of the church to be sound and sineere i and lo I do 
of rites and orders, as fiur as they agree with the word of God* 

Dean. Are not all things in the Articles and the Book of Coamoi 
Prayer, taken out of the word of God ? 

White. Though they were y yet bdng done bv man, I may not give them 
the same warrant as the writings of the Holy Ghost. 

Dean. You will not then allow of sermons. 

White. We are commanded to search the scriptures, aad to try the 
spirits; therefore, we must allow of lermoDs as they agree wiu the 

L. C. J. Take him away* 

White. I would to the Lord Jesus, that my two years' Impritonmeat 
might be a means of having these matters fairly decided by the word of 
God, and the judgment of other reformed churches. 

L. C. J. You shall be committed, I warrant you. 

White. Pray, my lord, let me have justice. I am uiyustly proeecaled* 
I desire a copy of my presentment. 

L. C. J. You shall nave your head from your shoulders. Rave him t» 
the Gatehouse. 

White. I pray you to commit me to some prison in London, that I amy 
be near my house. 

L. C. J. No, sir, you shall go thither. 

White. I have paid fines and fees in other prisons ;. send me aot where I 
must pay them again. 

L. C. J. Yes, marry shall you. That is your glory. 

M. Requests. It will cost yon twenty pavnd$, X warrant yen, before yea 
come out. 

White. God*s will be done. 

The good man was then carried to the Gatehoose t bat low leag he 
remained in a state of confinement, we are not able to lean. TbeM l^cif 
proceedings, instead of crushing, grMUy promoted the caase ofpttiitaiiiilK 
The sword of persecution was always found a bad argameat to eoayyice 
men of understanding and conscience.— JfS. £iflff»r, p. 17^170. 


gmn^ off bom the first establishment of the protestant 
leligion. concluding the service book to be unlawful, and 
the ecclesiastical state antichristian ; and labouring to set 
up another kind of church government and discij^e. But 
who drove them to these extxemities i Why were not a 
few /amendments made in the liturgy, by which ccHiscientious 
persons might have been made easy; or, even liberty 
given them to worship Grod in their own way ? How fiir 
these proceedings were justifiable by the laws of Ood, or 
consistent with that universal rule of conduct given by 
Jesus Christ, fVhaisoever ye would that men should do to 
you^ do ye even so to them^ is left with the impartial reader 
to determine. 

. Andrew Kingsmill, LL.B* — ^This excellent parson 
was bom at Sidmanton in Hampshire, in the year 1538, 
educated in Corpus Christi college, Oxford, and elected 
fellow of All Souls college in the same university, in 1558. 
He studied the civil law, in the knowledge of which he 
made considerable proficiency. But while he was thus 
employed, he did not forget to i^eek first the kingdom of 
God and his righteousness. He discovered the warmest 
desires for a knowledge of the mysteries of the gospel, and 
for the attainment of which, he paid the closest application. 
He would receive nothing for truth, till he found the testi- 
mony of scripture for its support. By a constant and dose 
attention to the word of God, its sacred pages became 
familiar to him ; and, indeed, he so addicted himself to 
search and recite the holy scriptures, that he could readily 
repeat by heart, and in the Greek language, the whole of 
the epistles to the Romans and Galatians, the first epistle of 
John, and many other parts of the sacred volume.* r 

Mr. Kingsmill did not so much esteem the preferment 
and profit, to which he might easUy have attained by the 
profession of the, law, as the com&rtable assurance and 
blessed hope of eternal life, and to be useful in preaching 
the ffospel to hi$> fellow creatur^. He, therefore, relin* 
quished the law, entered the sacred function, and became 
an admired preacher in t^ university of Oxford. For 
some^time after the accession of Qiieen Elizabeth, there 
were only three preachers in this university. Dr. Humphrey, 
Dr» Sampson, and Mr. Kingsmill, all puritans. But upon 

» W(K>d*8 AtheMi Ozon. vol. i. p. 182^ , 


the rifforoiis imposition of confonnity. Dr. Sampflon 
alreamr deprived of his deanery, Mr. Kin^mill withdrew 
from the storm. He was averse to ail seventy in the impo- 
sition of habits and ceremonies ; and bein^ fixed in his 
nonconformity, he wrote a long letter to Archbishop Ptoker, 
against urging a conformity to the papists in habits, cere- 
monies, and other things equally superetitious.* 

Upon Mr. Kingsmill's departure from the kingdom, he 
resolved to take up his abode ^mong the best reformed 
churches, both for doctrine and discipline, that he conid 
meet with in a foreign land. During the first three years, 
he settled at Geneva, where he was highly esteraied by 
persons eminent for learning and piety. Afterwards, he 
removed to Lausanne, where he died in the month of Sep- 
tember, 1569, aged thirty-one years. Though he was a 
zealous puritan, and an avowed nonconformist, seeing he 
was a man of such great worth, and universally bdoved, 
Wood found himself obliged to give him an exceltoit 
cliaracter. Accordingly, he says he was too good for this 
world, and left behind him a most excellent pattern of 
piety, devotion, and every other amiable virtue.+ 

His WoRKS.-^l. A View of Man's Estate, wherein the great 
Mercy of God in Man's free Justification is shewed,^ 1574. — 2, An 
excellent and comfortable Treatise for all such as are in any manner 
of way either troubled in Mind or afflicted in Body, 1578. — 3. Godly 
Advice touching Marriage, 1580. — 4. A godly and learned Exhorta* 
tion to bear patiently ail Afflictions of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. — 
5. A Conference between a godly learned Christian and an 
afflicted Conscience, concerning a CoiUIict had with Satan^-^T. A* 
Sennon on John iii. 16. 

Christopher Coleman was a zealous puritan, and <me 
of the preachers to the congregation of separatists in Lon« 
don. In the year 1567, he was apprehenaed, with the rest 
of his brethren, at Plumbers-hall, and cast into prison, 
where he remained a long time. This heavy sentence was 
inflicted upon him, for separating from the established 
church, and holding private meetings for divine worships 
when he could not in conscience conform to the church of 
England.^ Having at length obtained his release, he wrole 
a letter, in the year 1569, to Secretary Cecil, earnestly 
urging him to employ his interest to promote a furfb^ 

• Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 126.— Strype's Parker, p. 167. 
+ Atbenae Oxon. ▼ol. i. p. 126. 
^ See Art. Robert Hawkins. 


reformation of the church. He is denominated fitm thi# 
letter a ibaji of good intentions, but of little learning.* Mr; 
Coleman and his . brethren, Messrs. -^nson^ Button, and 
Hallingham, are said to have been more.ardently zealousitf 
the cause of the reformation than any others.; sihd it- is 
observed, that thev condemned the discipline of the 'church; 
the calling of the bishops, and the public liturgy ^ as savour- 
ing too much of the church of Rome; that they wouht 
allow of nothing in the public worship erf* God, besides 
what was expressly laid down in the holy scriptures; and 
that though the queen had commanded them to-he laid by 
the heels^ it is incredible how the number of their followers 
increased in all parts of the kingdom.f 

William Axton was a truly pious man, a steady non- 
conformist, and a leame<} divine. He was some years rector 
of Moreton Corbet in Shrc^hire;t where Sir Uobeirt 
Corbet, who was his great and worthy friend, protected him 
for some time from the severities of the prelates.^ Though 
under the wing of so excellent a patron, he found protec- 
tion only for a season, and was brought into trouble for 
nonconformity. About the year 1570, he was cited befori^ 
Dr. Bentham, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, when he 
underwent several examinations for refusing the apparel^ 
the cross in baptism, and kneeling at the sacrament. IJpoii 
his appearance, he debated these points with the bishop and 
his officers, with great freedom and courage. These ex- 
aminations, now before me, though at considerable length, 
are here presented to the curious reader. Mr. Axton being 
brought before his ecclesiastical judges, the bishop thus 
addresed him : 

Bishop. Though we allow you, Mr. Axton* to assign 
your reasons, you shall not be unanswered. Therefore set 
forth your reasons, and we will consider than« 

Axton. If there be any odds in the disputation, it is on 
your side. For you are many, and I am but one, imd have 
no equal judge or moderator ; but I am content to set down 
my reasons, and leaye them to God and your own con- 

« Strype*s Aonals, vol. t. p. 568—670. 

+ Hey[in*8 Hist, of Pres. p. 257, 258. 

X Mr, Neal, by mistake, says Leicestershire. — Hist, of PuritanSy ▼o!. t, 
p. 228. 

^ Sir Robert was a constant friend to the persecuted npnqonformists, an4 
often sheltered them from the tyrannical oppressions of tlie bishops.— ^Jf5. 
Ckronfflogy^ loh ii. p. 373. (14.) /^ .. • .: 



ici€noes.«-As the priesthood of Christ or of AA10119 aad 
even their very ^rments, were most honourable : so the 
priesthood of antichrist, and even the veiy gannents^ as the 
cope and surpUoe, is most detestable. 

B. Then you will condemn as unlawful, whatsoever the 
papists used in their idolatrous service. 

A. Some things have been abused by idolaters and vet 
are necessmry and profitable in the service of Grod. Other 
things they have abused, which are neither necessary nor 
profitable. The former are to be retained, and the latter to 
oe refused. The surplice hath been used by the priests of 
antichrist, and hath no necessary nor profitable use in the ser- 
vice of God, any more than any other thin^ used in idolatroiiS 
worship ; therefore the surplice ought not to be used. 

B. The surplice hath a necessary use. 

A. If it have, you sin ^n omitting it at any time. In 
this ^ou condenm the reformed chimshes abroad, for ex* 
dudini^ a thing so necessary. 

B. It is necessary , because the prince hath commanded it 

A. Indeed, it is so necessarily commanded, that without 
the use of it, a minister must not preach, nor administer the 
sacraments, however great are his learning, his gifts, and his 
godliness. This is a most wicked necessity. 

B. But it is comely in the church of God. 

A. What comeliness is it for the minister of Christ, to 
wear the rags of antichrist ? If this be comely, ihesk the 
velvet and golden copes, for the same reason, are more 
comely. But this is not the comeliness of the gospeL 

B. Vou are not a judge whether the surplice be comely. 

A. The apostle saith to all christians, <^ Try the spirits, 
whether they be of God." Is it then unlawfid for a chris- 
tian, and a minister of Christ, to judge of a caremony of 
inan*s invention ? The reformed churches have jud^ea the 
surplice to be uncomely for the ministers of Christ. Luth^, 
Calvin, Beza, Peter Martyr, and many others, have.disal'^ 
lowed the iise of it. And most learhed men now in Eng- 
land, who use the surpUce, wish with aU their hearts, it 
were taken away. Yea, I think this is your opinion also. 
Ridley said ^' it was more fit for a player on the stage, than 
for a minister of God in his church." 

B. We will not allow that the surplice is the garment of 

A. That which was consecrated by antichrist, and con- 
stantly worn by the priests of antichnst, in their idolatroiia 
service, was one of the garments of antichrist. Suttibie 


•iiiplice was conflecrated by antiGlirist, and constatifljr urom 
hv the priests ci anticlirist in their idolatrous sertioe. 
Therefore, the surplice is a garment of antichrist. 
^ B. But this surplice which we use, was never used bjr 
idolatrous priests. 

A. Then you confess that their surplices may not be used 
by us. Yet in many churches in England, the massing 
surplices and copes have been used, and are still used; 
which, by your own confession, are accursed and abomin- 
aUe. But when we speak of the surplice, we do not meaa 
this or that surplice, but surplices in general. 

Barker. How do you prove that ? 

A. When the king of Judah came to Damascus, and 
there saw a brazen altar, he sent the pattern of it to 
Jerusalem, commanding the high priest to make one like 
unto it, and set it up in' the temple of God. This was as 
great a sin, as if he had set up the very same altar whidi he 
saw at Damascus ; therefore, though we have not the very 
same surplice, we have one made like unto it, even as like 
that at Damascus as it can be made. 

B. Then we will have it made shorter or longer than 
theirs, or wider or narrower.* 

A. That is a poor shift. You know, that nearly all the 
surplices in England are like the papists' surplices. 

B. I have a cup like the papists' calice, and is it unlaw- 
ful for me to use it? 

A. Your cup is not used in the service of Grod, nor is it 
convenient for that purpose. But supposing it were both 
convenient and useful in the supper of the I^rd, it cannot 
be compared with the surplice, which is neither convenient 
IKNT useful. 

B. We have appointed the surplice for another end, than 
the papists did. 

A. ifou cannot appoint it to any eood end. According 
lo what you now plead, you may bring into the church 

* The profound reasoning of the reverend prelate, reminds ns of an 
anecdote we have met with concerning a pious minister, who, in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, was urged by his ordinary to wear the surplice ; but 
who, in addition to other reasons, alleged, that the surplice offered him to 
' put on, was the very $ame surplice as the mass-priest had used. The bishop 
admitted the excuse, and commanded another to be made ; and when it was 
taken to the church, the minister took it up, and thus addressed the people 
present: — *< Good people," said he, '' the bishop himself confessed, that 
the former mtuHng surplice was not to be worn by a minister of the 
Igotpel ; but judge yon if this be as like that, as one eye is like another ? 
Iiet this, therefore, go after the others" and so he cast it away.-^^m«s* 
FHih Suii^ part li. p. 435. 


of God, nearly all the trash of popery, tlieir candles^ theif 
torches, their banners, their oil in baptism, and nearly all 
other things pertaining to antichrist. - 

B. Yes; and why not^ if it please tlie prince, seeing 
they are things in their own nature indifferent. 

A. I beseech you in the Lord, mind what you say. ShaU 
we again bring tapers into the church of God, and oil into 
the sacrament of baptism ? 

B. Yes ; and why not ? Is not oil one of the sacraments 
in the churcli of God? Why do you speak so contemptu* 
ously of oil ? 

A. It is no contempt to exclude oil, milk, salt, or any 
such thing, from the sacrament. > And why do you call oil 
a sacrament, seeing it is neither a sacraijuent, nor any sign 
of a sacrament ? 

B. Tiiou^h it be no sacrament now, it was in the time 
of the apostles. 

A. To speak properly, it never was a saerament, the 
nature and use of which is to remember and seal imto us 
the mercies of God in Christ Jesus. 

B. This is talk. You do not allege the scriptures. 

A. You cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup 
of devils ; and ye cannot partake of the table of the L<M'a, 
and the table of devils. Meats, drinks, and apparel, are all 
of the same nature ; therefore, being consecrated to idolatry^ 
they are condemned. So it is said, " Ye shall also defile 
the covering of the graven images of silver, and the oma* 
ment of the molten image of gold : Thou shalt cast them 
away as a menstruous cloti^ ; thou shalt say unto it, get thee 
hence. And whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, 
do all to the glory of God." But the surplice, and the 
wearing of it, is not for the glory of God, therefore not to 
be worn. 

B. The surplice is for the glory of God. 

A. That which promotes the glory of the papists, does 
not promote the glory of God; but the wearing of the 
surplice promotes the glory and triumph of the papists, 
and, therefore, not to be worn. 

B. I deny your argument. 

A. It is a syllogism. 

B. You are full of your syllogisms. 

A. Our reason is the gift of G^, and the right use rf il 
is to find out the truth. 

B. But a syllogism may be fids^. Let us proceed to 
your second argument. 

AXTON. 155 

A. I will allege^ one reason moi;e. We ought to be 
leithout offence to the -Jew, to the Gentile, and lo the 
church of God. But our wearing the surplice is an offence 
to the Jew, and the Gentile, (meaning the papists) and the 
church of God. Therefore we ought not to wear the 

B. How will you be an offence to the papists by wearing 
the surplice? 

A. By offence, the apostle does not mean to grieve^ but 
to be an occasion to another to sin. But if 1 wear the 
surplice, I shall be an occasion or encoliragement to the 
papists to sin. Therefore I may not wear it. 

B. How will you be an offence to the church of God? 
You perhaps may be to three or four ; but you must regard 
the greater part. 

A. I should be an offence to the greater part^ and the 
lesser part, and all the church of God. 

B. How do you prove that ? 

A. I should be an offence to the lesser part, being those 
who are effectually called, because their souls are exceed- 
ingly grieved with those who do wear it. And to the greater 
part, being such as are beginning to dislike popery, and 
follow true religion; who, by wearing it, would be ready 
to give up their zeal, and return to popery. 

B. You must teach them to hate popery, though yoit 
wear the surplice. 

A. If I teach them one thing, and I myself do the contrary, 
how will they believe me ? Yon know most people look 
more at our doings, than our doctrine. — Hitherto I have given 
ray reasons against wearing the surplice ; if you have any 
reasons to shew why I should wear it, let me hear a few of 
the best. 

Barker. That which doth not offend in its institution, 
matter, form, or use, is not to be refused. But the surplice 
doth not offend in its institution, matter, form, or use. 
Therefore it may not be refused. 

A. Your reasoning is not good. You must first prove 
that the surplice has not been abused, and is not offensive, 
then will you conclude better. 

Walton. If nothing may be used in the church, that has 
been abused to idolatry, then the pulpits, and even the 
churches, of the papists, may not be used. 

A. This, in effect, hath been already answered. ' Prove 
that the surplice is as useful as the pulpit and the church, 
and you will do something. 


CbanoeBor. Then you deny that tbe prince hatb any 
BOtbority to command things indifferent. 

A. I ou have said more than I have done all day. Your 
imjiist charge is contrary to what I have said. I wonder 
yon can charge me so falsely to my face. 

B. You run to your former distinction. 

A. It is not my distinction, but Tertutlian's ; and it h 
fbal distinction which you will never be able to condemiK 
I trust I have now cofifirmed the truth, and shewed sufficient 
jeason why I may not wear the surplice^ there being no 
reason why I should. 

B. No, indeed ! your reasons are no reasons^ 

A. They are such as have not yet been answered, and I 
am persuaded, will not be an9wered. I am not afraid that 
ail these things should be made known, that the learned 
jDiay judge. 

C. Yes, you would hare them in print, would you 

. A» I thought of no si|ch thing". But, as a witness for the 
fruth, I am not ashamed that uiese things should undergo 
ibe e:lamiuation of the learned and the ^xlly.* 

The second conference was about the use and signifiea-^ 
iiott of the cross in baptism. Upon Mr. Axton's appearance 
before the bishop and others^ being required to deliyer his 
fopinion, he spcke as follows : 

A. Nothing may be added to the institution of Christ: 
as, / biroe received of the Lord^ that which also I delivered 
rnito you. But the cross in baptism is an addition to the 
instituticm of Christ. Therefwe the cross in baptism is 

B. Tbe necessary parts of H:^ sacrainent are to be 
retained ; but whether the water be poured upon the child^s 
forehead, or it be marked with a cross, being cerem<Miial, is 
kit to the determination of the church. 

A. If you produce as good warrant from the word, for 
the crossing of the child, as I can for the washing of i^ 
then I will grant that the church has authority so to deter* 
mine. But such warrant cannot be produced. Besides, we 
have just reason to leave out the cross, because papists abuse 
it to superstition and idolatry, and in itself it is entirely 

C. Do you then say it is a sin to make any cross ? 

A. It is no sin in the carp^iter, the masoo^ or tbe mathe- 

AXION. 157 

matician, making GfOfises, any more than itis i|i kia making 
tines and angles. 

& You would take away the liberty of the charch^ to 
establish or alter these things* 

A. The church is the spouse^ and hath no authority to 
introduce any tkiag tkat will dishonour Jesus Christy hek 
true huiband. 

B. Hath not flie cburch Hberty to use the fonC^ or the 
bason, or both ? 

A, The church may use that which is necessary, to hold 
the water for baptism, as becometh the institution at Christ* - 

B. But I can shew yon that matters of greater importance 
were altered by tlie apostles themselves* 

A. What are they? 

& That they mighl not baptiie in the name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost* 

A. Do you mean that the apostles did not always baptize 
in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ? 

B. Yes ; and I can shew you that they did not always 
use that form of words. — ^< For,^^ it is said, '^ as yet the 
Holy Ghost was come upon none of them, only they were 
baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And he conn 
inanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord.'* » 

A. Because they were baptized in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, does that prove they were not baptized in the name of 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ? How can yon 
firom this, charge the apostles with altering the institution of 
their Master; mey baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus ; 
dier^re, you say, they did not baptize in the name a£' tho 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Because one part irf* 
the action is mentioned, does that prove they did not 
attend to the other parts ? 

€?. You may not take such advantage of my lord* 

B. I did not say, that the apostles aid not baptize in the 
name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; but 
that it was probable they did not. 

A Yes, you said you could shew this; and you have 
not shewn it to be certain, or even probable* 
. B* The cross, you say, is no part of baptism: only aa 
additicm to the sacrament* What say you then of the sig^ 
iiifi<ation of th6 cross I 

A. To use such signs, tokens, or instructions in tbe service 
of God, which are only the inventions of men, is the fancy of 
papists* And they draw us not unto the spiritual service of 
Cbd^ but from it* 


' B. But the cross is used as a token only, that Vfe shoaUl 
not be ashamed of the cross of Christ. 
' W. And is it not lawful to be taught not to be ashamed 
of Christ ? 

A. Yes; but we may not teach by mdawftil means. 
Where doth the word of God warrant us, that making a 
cross, signifies that we should not be ashamed of Christ? 

W. W ould you then take all symbolical signs out of the 
church of Grod ? 

R The church hath authority to ordain all symbolical ' 
signs, that are useful in the church. Therefore the church 
liath authority to ordain the cross in baptism. 

A. This is only begging the question. You are as far 
from the mark as ever. 

' B. Is not the cross a symbolical dgn, that is useful in the 

church of Grod ? 

: A. That is the point in dispute, and yet remains to be 


B. What scriptures have you against the cross ? 

A. In the second conunandmen^ we are forbidden to use 
in the service of God, ^' The likeness of any thii^." But 
the cross in baptism is the likeness of sometMng : Therefore 
the cross in baptism is forbidden, and may not be used. 

C. May we not then make the likeness of any thing ? 

A. The commandment meaneth, that we should make no 
likeness of any thing for a religious purpose. W^ may 
not make the likeness of any thing in heaven or earth, for 
a religious purpose. But the cross in baptism is the lik^iess 
of something in heaven or earth, and appointed for a 
leligious purpose. Therefore we may not make the cross 
in baptism. The making of the cross, because for a reli- 
gious purpose, is here forbidden. 

Barker«^ The cross in baptism is not forbidden in the^rsl 

. A. I did not ^ay it was. It is sufficient that it is for* 
bidden in the second. 
' Barker. But the same thing is meant in them both. . 

A. You confound the first and second ccmunaodmenft^ 
and, like the papists, make them to be the sam^. I must 
say, this is great ignorance. 

Barker. I am not so ignorant as you suppose. 
• A. Your own words do betray you. 

B. You are too captious. He shall reason you out diU 
Barker. The making of the cross in baptism is not forbiddcQ 

in all the prophets ; and, therefore, not in the commaadmenL 



" A. You had better first prove, that the cross is not 
forbidden in all the prophets. Your reasoning is not 

C. If Grod have bestowed better gifts upon you, than 
upon otbo^ you must thank him for it ; but not contemn 
other mcns^ gil^ 

A. God forbid that I should contenm the gifts of God 
in any man. 
. B. What say you about kneeling at the communion ? 

A. Jesus Chri^ and his apostles received the communion 
sitting, and why niay we not imitate them ? 

Barker. Jesus Christ, with his apostles, celebrated, tlie 
communion sitting, because he had immediately before, 
celebrated the passover sitting. , 

A. After the celebration of the passover, Christ arose 
and washed the feet of his disciples. Then it is said,* he 
did again sit down to celebrate the communion; which 
shews, that he preferred domg it riUing^ rather than in any 
other posture.* 

B. Mr. Axton, I have other questions to propose to you. 
What think you of the calling of bishops, or of my 
mlling } 

A. I am not ignorant of the danger I may fall into, by 
answering your question. Yet I am not compelled to 
answer it, not being acctised of any crime. 

B. Yes, I may compel you to answer upon your oath. 

A. But I. may choose whether I will answer you upon 
my oath. 

B. I may urge you with your own speeches, which you 
delivered the last time you were before me. 

A. What I then spoke to the glory of God, that will I 
also speak now. 

• The learned Beza, in his letter to Bislinp Orlndal, said, " If you have 
Kjected the doctrine of transubstautiation, and the practice o£adoriiif the 
htefty'wby do yon tymbolise with popery, and seem 'to hold both by 
kneeling at the sacrament ? Kneeling had never been thought of, had it 
liot been for transubstantiation/* Grindal replied, that though the sacra- 
inei^ was to be received kneeling, yet the rubric accompanied tbfe tervice 
PMoky and informed the people, that no adohition of the eleiieott was 
intended. ** O ! I understand you," said Beza, '* there was a certaia 
great lord^ who repaired his house, and, having finished it, left before his 
^e, a great stone, for which he had noMcasioD. This stoiie caased many 
people io the dark to stumble and. fipll. Complaint was load* tQ his 
lordship, and many a humble petition was presented, prayiikK for the 
femoval of the stotoe ; but he remained long obstidate. At lengtli^^tf conde- 
ocended to order a lanthorn to be hung over it. My lord, saM one, if yo« 
would be pleased to rid yourself of fiirther solieitnlion, and. to quiet all 
parties, order the stone and the candle to be both removed ."-^i^^^jason's 
CUudCf vol.ii. p. 77. 


B. You then said^ that every minister of God is a 
bishop, and to be a bishop is only to be a minister of Grod. 
Yon said also, that no bishop in England had autbcnity to 

A. I said sOy indeed ; and proved what I said by tho 
vroidofGod. lamnotboundtobriiu^mysdfintodax^er; 
but because I am persuaded it will advance God's glory, I 
will speak, be the consequence what it will. I trust in Ihe 
Hoi V Spirit, that I shall be willing to die in defence of the 

B. Then what say you of my calling ? 

A. You are not lawfully called to be a bishop, according 
to the word o£ God. 

B. I tiiought so : But why ? 

A. For three reascms, — 1. Because you were not ordained 
by the consent of the ddership. 

B. But I had the hands of thsee or four bishops. 

^ A. ThatismittheehiershipSt.Paulspeaksof,lTimi 
IV. 14. 

B. By what eUenhip were you ordained ? Was it not 
by a bishop? 

A. I had, indeed, the laying on of the hands of one of 
the bishops of England, bat that was the least part of mj 

B. W hat calling had you more i 

^ A. I having exercised and expounded the W(»d several 
times in an orderly assembly of ten miidsters, they joined in 
praver ; and being required to speak their consciences, tbqr 
dedbied ujpon the trial they had c^ me, that they were per- 
suaded I might become a profitable labourer in the house of 
God. After this I received the laying on of the hand of 
the bishop. 

B. But you had not the laying on of the hands of those 

A. No: I had the substance, but wanted the acddcnt; 
and in this, I beseech the Lord to be merciful unto me. 
For the laying cm of hands, as it is the word^ so it is 
agreeable to we mighty action of ordaining the minisltts 
of God. 

A. Then your ordination, is imperfect as well as mine. 

A. Mine is imperfect for want of the accident ; the Loid 
be merciful to me for it. And yours is imperfect for want 
of the substance. 

B. What is your seccmd reason ? • 
A. Because you are not ordained bishop over any cftejbdtf 

^ay, you«<ie net a pttator to any oqe eongi^^atum, cm- 
tni^y to 1 Pet V. 2. and Acts xiv. 93., << Feed tbe flock." 
Ffem wbicfa i\ jb maufe^ (iiere should be a bishop and ddesi 
in every congregation. 

0, Wlf9it li a conffTeilfatioa ? 

A. Npt a whole &oc!pae^ bcA such a number oi people m 
ttrdhparily assonUe in oaa place, to bear tie word of God . 

6. Whaiif you had a parish six or seven miJes lon^, vhel^ 

muQ^ (f#uld not come to Wr y ott ouoe in a quarter of a year } 
A. I would not be pastor afsuch a flock. 

. ])• What is your thifd leeeoa ? 

JL. Because you are not choscaa by the people. Acts xiv. fiffc 
^ CHow caiw you to be parson of Moretoa Corbet? 

A. I am no parson, 

C Ar^ you thfn vicar7 

A. No : I amao vicar. I abhor those names as anti«> 
christian. . I tm p^tor of the congregation there. 

C. Are you neukher parson nor vicar ? How hold you the 

A. I receive those temporal things of the people^ because^ 
being their pastor, I minister to thi^ spiritual things. 

C. If you be neither parson nor vicar, you muiA receive 

A. Do you mean in good faith what you say ? 

C. Yea, if you will be neither parson nor vicar, there is 
good cause why another should. 

B. You must understand, that all livings in thie^diurcli 
are given to ministers aft parsons axid vicars, and not as 
pastors and ministers. 

A. I am sure the names of parsons and vicars were not 
given by Jesus Christ, but by antichrist. 
. B. How were you chosen p«stor ? 

A. By the free election of the peojde, acccNrding to tb^ 
WfQtd of God. 

B. Why, did not the patron place you there ? 

A. The patron allowed the peojde the free choice of their 
minister ; and after I had preach^ about six wedks by way 
of plrishattoo, I was chosm by one consent of them all, and 
a sermon was preached by one of my brethren, s^ttiilglbrth 
the mutual duties of pastor and pe<^Ie. 

B. . May the bishops of Enffloni ordain ministers? . 

A. You ought not to do it m the manner you do, without 
Hm eonaent of the eldership, without sufficient proof of tfaeir 
qualifications, and without ordaining them to some parti* 
colar congregation. 

VOL. I. M 


" C. How do you like my lord's book of articte. ."-'*' 

A. Some of the articl^ approach near to the institntiOB 
of the apofi^fcles, but the best of them appear to be very little 

B. I admit none to the ministiy but those who hate a 
recommendation from some nobleman or gentlentiaiK 

A. You had need beware of breaking the insHtiitioit of 
Grod. This door being opened, will Minit thi^ea aiid 
robbers. The I^rd ffive joa a soimd conscience to kscf 
hirelings out of the church of God. 

R Wel^ Mr. Axton, you must yield in some tbingi (o 
me, and I will yield in some things to you. I will nol 
trouble you about the cross in baptism, if you willsoinetimflt 
wear the surplice. 

A. I cannot consent to wear the surplice : it is agaiut 
tny conscience. I trust, by the help of Grod, I diall never 
put on that sleeve which is the mark of the beast. 
' B. Will you leave your flock for the surplice ? 

A. Nay : Will you persecute me from my flock for thk 
surplice ? I love my flock in Jesus Christ, and had radier 
have my right arm cut off* than be removed from than, 

B. Well, I will not deprive you at this time. 

A. I beseech you consider what you do in removing ms 
from my flock, sedng I am not come in at the window^ nor 
by simony, but accoraii^ to the institution of Jesus Christ* 

The second day^s conference concluded as above, whsft 
Mr. Axton was tak^i away, the bishop requiring his fiitoie 
attendance. Accordingly, upon liis appearance at the tinM 
appointed, he underwent a third examination conoemiw 
the use of instrumental music in the public wordiip of Gm^ 
and obedience to the queen's laws, with some other Uungs* 
Being questioned about the use of organs in public wonhip^ 
he replied as follows : 

A. They are Jewish, and not to be used in christiai 

liy Bickley. Did not David command organs and qrrabds 
to be used? 

A. That command was ceremonial, and is abrogated. 

Bickley. You will then abrogate singing in thegdnifdl^ 
because David and the Jews sung. 4 

A. Piping with instruments is abcdished. 
- Bickley. How do you prove that ? ... 

'- A. Because our joy in public worship nrast be 

• MS. R«giiter> p. S7<-6a. 

:iXTON. m 

Mpiniatl thAitibat of the Jews ; and it i$ said, that in tb#- 
twie of the gospel^ att shall sing praises unto G^. 
fiickley. The organs aie usra before the prince. 

A. That does not prove them to be lawful. 

BkUey. The organs aie used befcnre the prince, and 
therefore they are lawful. The argnment is ^ood. 
. A. Do you then reason, that the cross m churches is 
lawful, beoiuse it used to stand before the prince ? 
4 Bickl^. As it stood before the prince^ it might hayo 
been lawfully used. 

i: A* From what you say, tKpers, and lights, and nearly all 
the trash of popery, may still be lawfully used. 
% Bickl^. If you had the cross on which Christ died, 
Would you say it was of no use ? 

t A. ^iier the crucifixion nf Christ, as well as before, the 
eross on which he died was the same as any other piece of 

B. . But, in refusing the surplice, you are disloyal to the 
-queen, and shew your contempt of her laws. 

- . A. In charging me with disloyalty, you do me great 
injury; and especially when you call me and my breuiren 
traitors, and say, that we are more troublesome subjects than 

B. I say the same stilL The papists are afraid to. stir ; 
but vou are presumptuous, and disquiet the state more than 
ipapists. * 

A. .If I, or any others who fear Grod^ speak the truth, 
^oth this disquiet the state ? The papists for twelre yeaJrs 
have been plotting treason against the queen and the go^iel, 
yet this doth not grieve you. But I protest in the presence 
of Grod and you all, that I am a true and foithful subject 
to her majesty. I pmy daily, both in public and private^ 
jfor her safety, for her long and prosperous reign, and for the 
^overthrow of all her enemies, especially the papists. I do 
profess myself an enemy to her enemies, and a friend to her 
mends. If, therefore, you have any conscience, cease to 
charge me with disloyalty to my prince. 

B^ Seeing you refuse to wear the surplice, which her 
majesty hath commanded, you do in effect deny her to be 
supreme covemess in all causes ecclesiastical and temporal. 

A. I & so far admit her majesty's supremacy, that if 
there be any error among the govemors of the church, she 
littpower to reform it : but I do not admit her to be an 
(tcdenastical elder, or church governor. 

B. Yes, but ibe>is^ and hath full power and authority all 


Hanaer '#f ways. Indeed, she dotk not adminiitor tfce nat^ 
ments and preach, bat letTeth those things im us. But if 
she were a man, as she is a woman, why might «lus not 
preach the word, as wdl as ourselves ? 

A. Might she preach the word of God, if she wema Min? 
Then she might also administer the sacraments. 

B. That does not follow. For you know Faid praacked^ 
but did not baptize. 

A. I^ul conftisseth that he did bapliie, thougli bt was 
sent especially to preach. 

B. Did not Bioses teock the people, and yet ht was a 
civil governor. 

A. The calling of Moses was extraordinary. Reawnber 
the king of Judah, how he would have sacrificed, in the 
temple of God. Take heed how you confound those oftces 
which God hath distinguished. 

B. You see how he runneth. 

Btckiey. He speaketb very confidently and rasUy. 

B. This is his arrogant spirit. ^ 

' Sale. Why should you refuse the surplice^ seekig the 
^queen hath commanded it ? 

Btckiey. The queen hath authority to conunaad ail diags 

A. If those things be decent, tend to edtficataony and 
promote God's glory ; but the surplice does none of tbeie. 

Bickley. Has not the church liberty to command thi 
surplice to be used, as well as any other garment i 

A. No: because the surplice hath been abused, and isjtiH 
abused, by the papists, in their Superstition and idolatry. 

Bickley. I deny your reasons. 

Ai I prove what I said thus: God will not allow his 
church to borrow ceremonies, from idolators, or to imitate 
^f hem in their ceremonies, as is evident from Easekifd xliiL 
But the papists are idolators. Therefore, God will not 
allolr us to borrow our ceremonies, as garments and olhci^ 
things^ fiom the papists. 

.Bickley. How do you prove that out of Evekiel ?• ' 

A. i prove it thus : The Egyptian priests used to dmve 
their heads; but God commanded hw priests shoidd tidt 
shave. The Egyptian priests used to drink wine : tat ^od 
commanded his priests, that when they cyd mcrifio^ diev 
•hbald noil drink wine. AAd the ^^ptian piieits Wow 
linen ^rments before the people t Inrt God camifismisfl 
&at his priests should not sanctify ttie people wUk ^Mr 


B. Gh)d cimimanded the (!cmtrai7< Doyonnotinikmbct 
^the garments of Aaron i 

A. I do remember thenll^ Bat if jou irotild trear the 
garments of Aaron, you must attend to tbc other ceremctaiot 
<of Aaron's priesthood. 

B. Shew your place in EssekieL There is no such placd. 
You are deceived. 

A. I will thank you for a Bible* 

B. You should have brouglit your own books with you. 
You see, I liave brought my books. 

A. And have you not a Bible among them i I pray you 
let me have a Bible. 

fi. Let him have the Hebrew Bible. 

A. I pray you, let me have the Hebrew Bible* 

Bickley. Then let us hear you read the place. 

A. The place is this : '^ And when they go forth into tha 
outer court, even into the outer court of the people, they shall 
put off their garments wherein they ministered, and lay them 
in the holy chambers, and they shall put on other garments; 
and they shall not sanctify the people with tjieir garment '*« 

Here the dispute broke off. And notwithstanding all hit 
entreaties and supplications, though the bishoflf acknow- 
ledged him to be a divine of ffood learning, a strong 
memory, and well qualified for the pulpit, the good man 
wot deprived of his living, and driven to seek nis bread 

■ • 

. • MS. Register, p. 50-*66. * 

f Bishop Ueotham complied with popery in tbc reiga of Henry YilLv 
lint afterwards repented. Upon the accession of Queen Mary, befog per* 
petnal fellow of Magdalen coHege, Oxford, he wai required to coiinect th% 
junior fcbolan for their abtencf from (he popish worship, but reAisHy 
laying, ** He bad indeed but too much repented of bis compliance with th# 
popi^ religiota already ; and be esteemed it unjust to punish that in otber|^ 
which he hita«elf would willingly aud knowingly do.'' He was mie of (lie 
pceachcrt to the protestant congregation wbtch assembled in private placcfl^ 
daring this ^oeen's reign ; and it is said, **^ that by bis eacooragement aA4 
coiHtant preaching, the protestants did not only stand to their former prin^ 
clple, bot wtore resolved to soffer whatever cotild be laid upon them, rathlef 
tfmu forfeit a good coBscience.'* He witnessed the suflferingi of many nf 
the partyrs |. and not withstanding the cruel proclanuitioo,^' that no maa 
phoald ci(ber pray for or speak to them, or once say God bless them," Ben^ 
flmm seeing the Hre set to some of thetor, turned his eyes to the people, an4 
Mdy** Wa know tbey are the peoplcdf Gdd; and therefore We cannot 
ahnosa ^l arisb them well, and say Oo4 tirtngtktn tht/n:'* and so he boldly 
ciic^ ont« ** Almighty' God» for Christ's sake, strengthen them V], upon. 
vMtfer t^ thto people witb one accord, cried, Amgn^ Amen; the noive. ol 
4iaidi jrai ipt'^rtat^froB the vast «roWd of- people, that tlie oflleert kHf# ' 
90t'^k&m to la&w, ar agaiast wh^ to bring their atcusations, ^Dtbam 
^ofiid ha^ dooe well to have remembered these things when he became'a 
loid blihop, aad aiwnecalMr «f liii'Mlowjr(»lntant»,-^4<«fnvM« MrHgH* 


in ft fbrngn land. Bat, surely, such prooecdingr ymx^ 
unworthy of a protestant prelate, and too obvious ao iinita« 
lion of the popish severities.^ Do we find any inch pro- 
ceedings in the first ages of the church of Christ ? ^ 1 am. 
•are," says the learned Dr. Stillingfleet, << it is contrary to 
the primitive; practice, and the moderation then usea, to 
auspend or deprive men of their ministerial fuiictioaa, ftr 
not ccmsenting to habits, gestures, and the like/' 


Thomas Becon.— This celebrated divine was bora in 
Suffolk, and educated in the university of Cambridge* 
He afterwards became chaplain to Archbishop Cranmery 
and a zealous advocate for the reformation, even from its 
very commencement in the reign of King Henry YIIL Ho 
endured many troubles from the persecuting prelates ; and in 
the year 1544, was apprehended, with Mr. Robert Wisdoroe^ 
another excellent reformer, by the crud Bishop Bonner, 
when he was obliged to make a public recantation at PteoFa 
cross, and bum his books.f Having obtained his rekaseu ho 
travdled for future safety towards Uie north, and settled at 
Alsop in the Dale, in the Peak of Derbyshire, where ho 
tauffht school for his subsistence. At this place, Mr. Alabp, 
a pious gentleman, and an avowed friend to the reformatioii^ 
stewed him much civility, and afforded him seasondUe 

The severity of the times not sufiering the zealous inid 
fiuHiful servants of the Lord to abide loi^ in any one phoe^ 
Mr. Becon was obliged to move into l^affordshire^ wheie 
he was kindly entertained in the house of Mr. John Old, ft 
man eminently distinguished for charity and piety^. luv 
Wisdome, mentioned above, was also entertained with him. 
Mr. Becon, in his treatise, entitled << The Jewel of Joy,^ 
published in the reign of King Edward, gives this character 
of Mr. Old : ^^ He wais to me and Wisdome, as Jason was 
io Paul and Silas : he received us joyfidly into his houses 
imd liberallv, for the Lord's sake, ministered to our neoes^ 
sities. And as he began, so did he continue a right heaij^ 
friend, and dearly loving brother, so long as we lemaioed 
in the country.} Here, as in his former sitnaticm, lie 
educated chilcuren in good literature and sound chrikiirt 
doctrine, continuing, at thesametime^ in a close appIicatioB 
to his studies. Afterwards, he removed into Leioestenhitei 

• CoBfbnnlies Pita, p. 14. Sdlt. 1681. From ** iMoicwi.'* -> 

f Fox's Mart jn, ?ol, it. p. 46. t StrypCt OnuMMri p. 1T« 017k 


where he was for some time hospitBbly entertained by* tlift 
Marquit of Dorset. Here he contracted a familiar apqnaint-: 
ance with Mr. John Ayimer, afterwards the famous bishop. 
ctf* London, whom he calls . his countryman.* He neiU. 
fiemoyed into Warwickshire, where he still occupied the* 
4^ce of tutor to gentlemens' sons. Upon this last remova]^' 
to his ereat joy, he met with his eld friend, the famous 
Hugh Latimer; who, about twenty years before, while they 
were at Cambridge, had been instrumental in bringing him 
to the knowledge of the gospel. 

During the reign of Henry VHL the city of Canterbury 
was more hostile to the reformation than most other places ; 
theretiH'e, upon the accession of Kins £dward. Archbishop; 
Cranmer placed in that city six of we most distinguished 
preachers ibr learning and piety ; among whom was Mr. 
fiecon. The others were Nicholas Ridley, afterwards bishc^^ 
of London and martyr, Lancelot Ridley, Richard Turner^ 
llichard Beasely, and John Joseph. The ministry of thesa 
^earned divines proved a great blessing to the place, and, bjr. 
their labours, many persons were brought to embrace tm. 
gpspel.f Also, during tiie reign of flie above excellent 
prince, Mr. Becon^ justly denommated a worthy and reve- 
mid divine, became chaplain to the protector Somerset, and 
was made professor of divinity in the university of Oxford^ * 
where he gained much reputation.^ But upon the accession 
<^ Queen Mary, he was apprehended in London, with Mr» 
Yeron and Mr. John Bradford, and committed*to the Tower. 
ffere he remained above seven months in close coi^nement^ 
meeting with most cruel usage; and having been made 
rector of St Stephen, WalbrodL, London, in 1547, he waa 
deprived of both his office and benefit.^ 

It was, indeed, nearly miraculous that this zealous 
^reformer escaped the fire. While many of his br^thickk 
and even those committed with him to the Tower, sufi^nea 
at the stake, a kind providence constantly watched oitt 
him, and atl^gth delivered him from the rage of all Ui 
enemies. During the reign of King Henry and formed 
uaift of Queen S^Ury, Mr. Secon, to conceal himself from 
^16 malicious foes, who narrowly watched for his life, went 
by the name of Theodore Bazil, and in the prcx^lamation <|f 
theking, in 1546, as well as that of the quem, in 1555, he 

• 8(rype*t Aylner, p. 7. 

f Strype't CramDer, p. 151, 49S. 

t CharUMi*t life of NoweU, p. 81.— Lnsion's DUiBCt, p. S81^ 

{ Strjrpe's Cnumier, p. 48S.— Newcswrt Repert. ficd. ? ol. I. p. Ml . 


is specified by thait name.* At imgthj havirij; been drilnefl 
from one situation to another, and finding no place of safttjr 
in his own country, he fled into a for^ffn land,Bnd becMne 
an exile in Germany. Daring his abo£ on the ccmtinenl, lie 
wrote an excellent lettoir to his godly brethren at h<M^ ; * in 
vMch, besides declaring the cause of those calamities no# 
eoine upon England, he earnestly directed them to the m&rqf 
and faithfoiness of God, for a redress of all their grievaneefc 
This J^ter. was nead in the priMite religious meetings of bii 
pergiecuted countrymen, to their great ^iiication and benefit- 
He wrote, also, an epistle' to the popish priests, wherein he 
made a just and an important difference betwixt the LbtdM 
supper, andthe popish mass, denominating the latter a wwM 

. Mr. Becon .remained in exile till the accession of Qneett 
£li2abeth, when he returned to his native country, and 
became a most faithful and zealous labourer in the yinejaid 
of Christ. Having obtained distinguished reputation, he 
was soon preferred to several ecclesiastical benefices. He 
is said to hate been designed for one of the chief prefenfmite 
aben vacant.^ In the year 1560^ he became rector of BudU 
land in HertfcHrdshire, but most probably did riot hold it 
long. About the same time^he was preferred td a prebend 
in the church « of Canterbuty; and in 1563, he became 
lector of St. Dionis Back-church, London. This' last he 
held to his death.^ I 

In the year 1564, when conformity was rigorously inh 
posed upon the London clergy, Mr. Becon, with many of 
his puritan brethren, was cited before Archbishop Parker at 
Lambeth, and refusing to subscribe, he was immediately 
sequestered and deprived ; though it is said, he afteFwardU 
complied, and was preferred.) It does not, however, appear 
what preferment he obtained. During the same year, M 
levisea and republished most of -his numerous and excelleirt 
writings in three volumes folio, dedicating than to all tM 
bishops and archbishops of the realm. The clergy were in 
geiieral at this time ih a state of deplorable ignorance. Mi^; 
oecon was deeply affected With their situation, and extremdy 
anidbus tiTrenOer them' all the assistance in his power. 
Therefore, in the -year 1566, he published a book, entitled 
^^ A-new Postil, containing mMfMrt godly aiid learned Betmdti^ 


♦ MS..Chronology, vol. i.p.221. (3 |3.) ' • 

^' Strype's Craniner, p. S57, 358. ' t Cftorton's Life ilf ITowcNy p. 4a 
S Strype's Parker, p. 73, Ise.^-Newcosrt's Rcpeit. Beet, v»h k #.M>> 
SUL I Strype'ft CMndiO, p. 06. ..._..' 

BECON* 10 

to be mid in the Church throughout the Year • lately set 
forth unto, the great Profit, not only of all Curates an4 
Spiritual Ministers, but also of all Godly and Faithful 
Headers." Mr. Slrype stiks him a famed preacher ami 
writer, and the book a very nsefiil work, containing honesty 
plain sermons upon the gospels, for all the Sundays in th<( 
year, to be read by the curates of congr^ations. The pre^ 
face, dated from Canterbury, July 16, 1566, is addressed 
^' to his fellow labourers in the Lord's harvest, the ministers 
luid preachers of God's most holy word ;" in which he 
earnestly exhorts them to the discharge of their important 
duties. To this Postil he added two prayers, one at somd 
laigth, the other shorter, either of which was to be said 
before sermon, according to the minister's discretion : also 
a third prayer, to be repeated after sermon. These prayers 
tod sermons were drawn up for the use of ministers who 
were not able to compose prayers and sermons, and for the 
further instruction of the people in sound and wholesome 
doctrine.* Bishop Parkhurst published verses in commen- 
dation of Mr. Becon and his excellent writings.+ Durine 
the above year, he preached the sermon at Paul's cross ; and 
such was his great fame, and such'his favour among persons 
frf* distinction, that the lord mayor for that year presented a 
petition to Archbishop Parker, entreating his grace tQ 
prevail upon him to preach one of the sermons at the Spittle 
the following Easter.^ 

Our historians are divided in their opinion concerning 
the time of Mr. Becon's death. Newcourt observes that he 
died previous to September S6, 1567 ; and Lupton says he 
died in 1570.^ He was a divine of great learning and piety^ 
a constant preacher, a great sufferer in the cause of (Jhrist* 
and an avowed enemy to pluralities, nonresidence, and all 
the relics of popery,! being ever zealous for the reformation 
of the church, lie was a man of a peaceable spirit, always 
adverse to the imposition of ceremonies, and an avowed non- 
conformist, both in principle and practice. Mr. Strype 
justly denominates him fiunous for his great learning, his 
fircMQuent preaching, his excellent writings, and manifold 
suffering in the reigns of King Henry, King Edward, 
Queen Mary^ and Queen Elisabeth.iE One Mr. Thomas 

• SCrype*8 Parker, p. 228. f Lopton*i Modern Divines, p. SSS. 

± 8irype*8 Craoner, p. ^, 

f Repert. Bed. ^ol. i. p. 3S0.— Hist, ttf DlTines, p. S99^ 

I MS. CbroDblDfy» voU i^. 48. 

1 JNiype'r Ctmner, p. AfSir^J^ktry p. lik?. 


Becmi was of St. John's college, Cambridge, public oratop 
aiid proctor in the university, and an actire kadinv nuui,^ 
most probably in the cause of nonconformity, by which he 
is saia to have incurred the displeasure of the chancellor^ 
formerly his patron and great admirer* This was undoubU 
ediy the same person.* He was author of numerous books, 
many of which were designed to expose the superstiticms 
and errors of popery, and to encourage his fellow Christiana 
under persecution; and his labour of love was sic^ally 
useful. He wrote against the superstitious practice of 
bowing at the name of Jesus, as dia several other puritans 
after him. According to Mr. Luf^n, the following appears 
to be the most correct list of his numerous leamecf writings 
that can now be obtained : 

His Works. — 1. News from Heaven. — 2. A Banquet of ChristTs 
Birth. — 3. A Quadrng^esimal Feast. — 4. A Method of Praying. — 5. A 
Bundle or Posey of Flowers.-— 6. Ad Invective against SwcHsiingw-^ 
7. DisciidiDe fur a Christian Soldier. — 8. David's Harp. — 0. The 
Governinent of Virtue. — 10. A short Catechism. — 11. A Bfiok of 
Matrimony.— 12. A Christian** New-Year's Gift.— 13. A Jewel of 
Mirth. — 14. Principles of the Christian Religion. — 15. A Treatise df 
FastiufT.— 16. The Castle of Comfort.— 17. The SonPs Solace.^m: 
The Towerof theFaithfuL— 19. The Christian Koifbt— 90. HonifiM 
ajrainst Whoredom. — ^21. The Flowers of Prayers. — 72. A sweet Bqje 
of Prayers.— 33. The Sick Man's Medicine.— 24. A Dialucae of 
Chrisfs Nativity. — 25. An Invective against Idolatry. — 26. An EpistlQ 
to the diiitressed Servants of God. — 27. A Supplication to God m the 
Restoration of his Word. — ^28. The Rising of the Popish Ma8s.f — 39& 
Common-places of Scripture. — 30. A Comparison hetwixt the LmnPi 
Supper and the Papal Mtms, — 31. Articles of Religion eonimed bgr 
tlie Authority of the Fathers. — 32. The monstrous Wagei of the 
Roman Priests. — 33. Romish Relics. — 34. The Difference betwixt 
Ck>d*s W^ord and Human Inventions. — 35. Acts of Christ and Antl- 
ehrist, with their Laves and Doctrine. — 36. Chronicles ef Chrirtf-^' 
97. An Abridgement of the New Testament. — 38. QnestioBB of. itm 
Holy Scripture.— 3Q. The glorious Triumph of God's Word.— 40.1^ 
Praise of Death. — 41. Postils upon all the Sundays' Gospels.— 42. A 
Disputation upon the Lord's Supper. 

Gilbert Alcock was an exceUent minister of pnritaii 
principles, bnt silenced, with many of his brethren^ for noe^ 
ccNuformity . April 3, 1 57 1 , he presented a supplication to the 
conyocation, in behalf of himself and his sumring breflnai) 

• Baker's MS. Collectiois vol. I. p. 193. 

f Tkis excellent work was reprinled in the (tne of Archbisbop Lanif 
bnt upon the complaint of a popish priest, bis pace CMunadcd it la bt 
suppressed, and threatened tbe printer witb a protecaCioa. Sacb wM.tba 
spiritaad iacliaation of tbisf r«<ftt«al pidatc— Onitafift«riitl»Mps*»C^jUib 

AlCOCK. Vf£ 

eBomesily wBciting the house to conskEer thieir case, and 
redress their grievances. In this supplication, now before 
me, hespolce with considerable freedom and boldness, con-^ 
ceming the corruptions of the church. He expressed 
himseff as follows : — ^' The ceremonies now retained in the 
church, and urged upon the consciences of christians, occa- 
sion the blind U> stumble and tall, the obstinate to become 
more hard-hearted, Christ^s messen^rs are persecuted, the 
holy sacram^t is profaned, €rod dishon(Hired, the truth 
despised, christian duty broken, and the hearts of many are 
sorely vexed : they cause papists and wicked men to rejoioo 
in superstition, error, idolatry, and wickedness : they set 
friends at variance, and provoke the curse of God. fVoe 
unto him by whom the offence cometh, 

<< The godfathers and godmothers, who promise to do so 
much for the child, are the pope's kindred ; and, by his 
canon law, like priests, are forbidden to marry. It is 
holdien that kneeling in the public sacrament, is more 
reverent, more religious, and more honourable to God; 
and thus they make themselves wiser than Jesus Christ, who 
sat with his disciples at the last supper. Matt. xxvi. In 
vain do ye worship me^ teaching for doctrines the command^ 
menls of men* 

^' If a minister preach true doctrine and live yiriuously, 
jet omit the least ceremony for conscience sake, he is inw 
mediately indicted, deprived, cast into prison, and his 
goods wasted and destroyed ; he is kept from his wife and 
children, and at last excommunicated, ey^i though the 
articles brought against him be ever so false.* How heayjr 
these ceremonies lie upon the consciences of christians ; and 
what difference there is between them, and those for which 
tile people of God haye been, and are still, so much perse- 
.cuted, judge ye, as ye expect to be judged in the aay of 
judgment. Those who observe your ceremonies, though 
they be idolaters, conunon swearers, adulterers, or much 
worse, live without punishment, and have many friends. 
We, therefore, beseech your fatherhoods to pity our case, to 
take these stumbling-blocks from us, that we may liye ^uiet 
and peaceable lives, to the honour of our God."f xhc 
cmiyocation were, however, of another mind; and, instead 
of lessening their burdens, very much increased them. 

* Bisliop Maddox has endeaTOured to iovalidate this statement of Mr. 
Alcock, but completely failed in the attempt. He bag produced ad* 
ditional evidence otthe extreme scTcrities inflicted lipon the oppreucd 
pj|iritaiiB.~r<R(iJca/f«n, p. S35, S36. 

f MS. Regfftcr» p. 90— 9S* 


Datid Whitehead's. D.-^This fkmou^ ditine, gieaBf 
celebrated for leaminfl^ picty, Imd modcrHtioii) Waa cdtt* 
catcd at Oxford, and chaplain to Queen ^Anne BiMai. 
Archbishop Cranmer *says, *< he was endowrd with good 
knowledge, special honestj, feriront zeal, and politic 
wisdom;" for which, in the year 1559, be ncmiinatMl hifts 
as the fittest person to become Archbishop of Armaslitf 
The nomination, however, did not succeed ; for another 
was chotsen to the place.* In the beginning <if the Uoody. 
persecution of Queen Marj, he fled from the storm^ and 
?etirrd to Frankfort, where he was chosen pastor to the* 
English congregation. Here he was held in high cateem 
by bis fellow exiles. He discovered his great wisdom and 
moderation, and answered the objections 6f Mr. Hartley 
lelative to church discipline, and the worship of God, and 
used his utmost endeavours to compose tne dififertaces 
among bis brethren. f 

Upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Mr* WhitdUsad 
letomed home ; and, the same year, was appointed, txigctber 
with Drs. Parker, Bill, May, Cox, Grindal, PiikiAgton,. Hod 
Sir Thomas Smith, to review King Edward's liturgy. The 
same liturgy was published the following year. This wan 
the third edition of the English liturgy ever publisbed, 
the two former editicms having come forth in the reign of 
Kintf Edward 4 In the year 1559, he was appointed oo^ 
of the public disputants against the pcpish bishops, liie 
subjects otdisputation were, — 1. ^^ Whetner itwasnot aguiMt 
tht word of God, and the custom .of the ancient cfaurd^ 
to use, in the conunon prayers and administration of flie 
sacraments, a tongue unknown to the people.— -2. Wbed^f 
every church hath authority to appoint, change, and take 
sway, ceremonies and ecclesiastical rites ; so the same wtft 
done to edification. — And 3, whether it could be proted 
by the word of God^ that in the mass there was a propkiotorf 
sacrifice for the quick and the dead." The other disputants 
on the side ot the protestants, were, Dr. Story, bishop oT 
Chichester, Dr. Cox, Mr. Grindal, Mr. Home, Mr. Sandyl, 
Mr. Gest, Mr. Aylmer, and Mr. Jewel ; most or all of ^koitt 
afterwards became bishops, and some of them wrchbishopa.^ 
On this occasion, Mr. Whitehead had a fine opportunitf of 
displaying his great learning, piety, and moaeratioR; and 
he shewed himself to be so profound a divine, that the 

• Strype's Cranmer, p. 274—878. . .■ , 

f Troobles at Frankeford, p. ^2, 1S9HM4* Lvi 

i stripe's Annalc, vo]. i. p. 52. | f jtsYllwtyiS tfl* Mi/ Wk^Kk 

« • % 


t{<i^ii^(^>ed him tte tictibishi^pric of Canterbury. ^ Thfii 
heldecIiBed) as some thought, from a desire of privacy ; but 
us others thoujErht, from a disaffection to the ecclesiastical 
discipline. The mastership of the Savoy, which he might 
have accepted without subscription, was also offered moi 
about ^ same time ; but he would accept of no preferment 
in the church, as it then stood. Revising to embrace the9e 
eSeved promotions, he excused himself to the que^i, by 
•ayW, he could live plentifully by th« preaching of tfe 
gosp^ without amy preferment* While others exeitet) 
themselves to obtain dignified titles and worldly emolument^ 
he was content with deserving them. Accordingly, he went 
up and down like an apostle, preaching the word where it 
was most wanted ; and spent his life in celibacy, whicli 
gi^inedhim the greater reputation in the eye of the queen^ 
who was never fond of married priests. Jt is observe^ 
that Mr. Whitehead coming one day to the queen, hfac 
majesty said to. him, <^ I like thee the better, Whitebeai 
because thou livest unmarried.'* ^^ In troth. Madaip,*^ 
replied Mr. Whitehead, ^^ I like you the worse lor thQ samf 

In the year 1564, Mr. Whitehead sliared the same fote 
lifitli many of his brethren. He was cited before the eccle^ 
siastical commissioners, and sufiered deprivation, for nour 
conformity to the rites and ceremonies of the churcbtt 
Though it does not appear how long he remained under the 
ecclesiastical censure. Bishop Maddox is greatly mistakequ 
when he asserts, '^ that Mr. Whitehead always cootinu^ 
preaching, that he approved the constitution of the churcly 
and died a member of the church of Kngland."^ Thp 
celebrated Lord Bacon observes, that though he was mucli 
esteemed by Queen Elizabeth, he was not preferred, becau^ 
he was against the government of the bishops.H During hijs ^ 
deprivation, he most probably united with the other non* 
conformist divines, in presenting to Archbishop Parker, ft 
paplsr of reasons for refusing the apparel. This exccUei^ 
paper, now before me, is entitled '^ Keasons grounded upQit 
the Scriptures, whereby we are persuaded not to admit the 
use of the outward apparel, and ministering garments of 
the pope's church."i[ Mr. Whitehead died in the year 
A37L ' AcciMrding to Wood, he was a great schoUr, and a 

♦ FuUcr's Worthies, part ii. p. 12. t Ibid. 

iStrype'8 Griodal, p. 98. ^ ViodicaHM of At Chmedn, p. 9S7. 

Bacons Wof ks, fxil. ii. p. 419. JSMi. iW$, 
1 MS. Rej^ister, p. 57— 4Q. 


most fxcdknt ptofeisor of dmnity.* In tbe opinioD of 
Fuller^ be was a man of great learnine, a dorp divine, and 
a rare example of moderation and 8^*denial.f It is ob» 
senred of Coverdale^ Turner, and Whitehead, three worthy 

Sritans, ^^ That they were tbe most ancient preachers of 
» gospel, and the most ancient fathers of this our oounliy ; 
and that from their pens, as well as their mouths, most of 
Queen Elizabeth's aivines and bishops first received the 
light of the gospel/*! Mr. Whitehead was author of 
^Lections andHomilies on, St. Paul's Epistles,^' and pro- 
bably some other works. 

Mr. MiLLAiN was fellow of Christ's college, Cam* 
bridge, and one of the preachers to tbe university. He 
maintained liberty of conscience, and publicly avowed his 
sentim^ts. Being thoroughly dissatisfied with the corrup* 
tions in the church, he openly declared his opinion of them, 
l» things worthy of censure. In tiie vear 1572, having 
deliverra a sermon in St. Mary'si church, he was convenea 
before the vice-dianceUor Dr. Bying, and the heads of 
colleges, when he was charged with having delivered the 
following opini<His: — 1. ^< That the ordering and making 
d ministers as used, in the church of England, is an 
borrible confusion, and contrary to the word of God. — ^2. 
That ignorant and unpreaching ministers are no ministers.-— 
3. That such as are not called by some particular con^re* 
gation, are no ministers. — 1. That able and sufllcient 
ministers are rejected from the sacred function. — 5. That 
the clergy of England deface and pull down the church, by 
maintaining both adultery and idolatry. — 6. That to com« 
mand saints* eves to be observed, is idolatry. — 7. That to 
conunand saints* davs to be kept as days of fasting, is 
iAK>minable idolatry. — When he was examined upon mese 

Eoints, he confessed the whole, declaring that what^ he 
ad delivered was according to the word of Grod. Itefusin^ 
therefore, to revoke these dangerous errors, as they are 
called, he was expelled from h^ college, and driven firom 
the university.^ 

William Bonham was a zealous nonconforaust, and a 
ccmsiderable sufferer under the oppressions of the perse* 

• Wood's AtbeMB Oxod. toI. i. p. 135, 136. 

f Foller't Worthies, port ii. p. 18. i Strypo't GimiUBcr^p. S74, 

{ Sirype'i Whitsift, p. 48, 49. Appes. p. 16. 


ctiting prelates. In the year 1569, he and Mr. Nicholas 
Grane, another puritan minister, were licensed to preach by 
9ishop Grindal. Their liconses are said to haye been 
granted on condition that they should avoid all conven- 
ticles, and all things contrary to the order established in 
this kingdom. Accordingly, they made the following pro* 
mise, signed with their own hands.: — " I do faithmlly 
*-^ promise, that I will not, any time hereafter, use any 
^' pnbKc preaching, or open reaaing, or expounding of the 
^^ scriptures ; nor cause, neither be present at, any private 
^' assemblies of prayer or expounding of the scriptures, or 
^^ ministering the communion in any house, or other place, 
*^ contrary to the state of religion now by public authority 
^^ established, or contrary to the laws of this realm of £ng- 
^^ land. Neither will I inveigh against any rites or cere- 
** monies used or received by common authority within 
*^^this realm."* Such were the conditions on which these 
divines entered the sacred function ! But, surely, if th^ 
diurch of England, so lately separated from the church of 
Rome, had come immediately nrom heaven, and been as 
infallible as its natural parent, the mother church, pretended, 
it would have been too wisely constructed to require such 
tyrannical promises of the Lord's servants* 

The two divines were afterwards apprehended and cast 
into {irison for nonconformity, where they remained more 
than twelve months, and then they were released. But 
persisting in the same practice,- and not keeping to the exact 
order established in the church of England, Mr. Bonham 
was again committed to prison, and Mr« Crane was silenced 
from preaching within the diocese of London ; but it doeis 
not appear how long ' they continued under these eccle- 
siastical oppressions.f 

Mr. Bonham was a zealous man in the cause of the 
reformation. Being concerned for the restoration of a purer 
^clesiastical discipline, he, in 157IS, united with his brethren 
ih the formation of the presbyterian church at Wandsworth 
in Surrey4 Our divine was afterwards called to endure 
fresh trials. Mr. Bonham and Mr. Nicholas Standen^ 
another puritan minister, were brought nnder the tyrannical 
power of the high commission, and cast into prison for non- 
CCHifonnity. After having continued imder confinement a 
long time, and being deeply afflicted with the sickness of 

♦ Strype's Grindal, p. 166. 

t Ibkl. p. 153— 155.— MS. Gbronology, toI. ii. p. 405,' (6^) 

t Fuller's Church Hi^t. b. ix. p. 103. 


the prison, they presented their petitions to the lordb oi 
the council, to which their lordships paid immediate atten- 
tion. They accordingly addressed a letter to Archbishop. 
Parker and other commissiofiers, signifying that they shoula 
be glad to assist tliem in any lawful cautic against such aa 
rciused conformity ; yet they did not like men to be so 1<mi£ 
detained without Iiaving their casue examined^ aad diesiie 
them to proceed in such cases more sjieedily in futured* 
They entreat them to examine the cause of the two com- 
plainants, and, in case thry sliould be found hO sick their 
thty could not continue in prison without inconvenience), to* 
suiFer them to be bailed till their cause slioukl be ended.*- • 

This tfibrt of the council seems to have been without 
any good effect. Undismayed, howe^r, by the fifst 
repulse, they made a second application^ but in a style' 
much more peremptory. They addressed another letter to* 
the archbishop alone, signifying, tbat^ for good considera- 
tions, it was her majesty^s pleasure that Bonham and, 
Standen, committed by his lordship for breach, of coi»- 
ibrmity, should be set at liberty, upon warning to observe 
the laws in their public ministry in future, or else to abstain 
from itt 

Mr. Strype observes, that, during the above yeai:, these 
two divines were accused of being conc^ncd in Undertree's 
sham plot, and committed to prison ; but, upon examina- 
tion, they were found innocent, and were both acquitted and 
released by order of council. $ 

Robert Johi^sok was fellow of King's college, Cam- 
bridge, and domestic chaplain to Lord Keeper Bacoi^. He 
})reached and administered the sacrament in his lordship's 
amily at. Grorambury, and was statedly employed in the 
ministry at St. Alban's. In July, 1571^ he vvas brougfit 
into trouble for nonconformity. He was cited before Arch- 
bishop Parker, and the Bishops of Winchester and Ely, at 
Lambeth. Upon his appearance, he vms threatened to be 
silenced if he would not subscribe. Accordingly, not being 
satisfied in every point contained in the artide» prpppsed to 
him, and reflising subscription, he was immediately sus- 
pended. Afterwands, he sent the following humble letter, io 
the commissioners, earnestly desiring to be restored to hifi 

• Baker's MS. CoUec vol. zxl. p. 384. f ibid. p. 385. 

J Strype's Parker, p. 466. 

H. JOHNSON. 177 

ministry. This letter was dated from the lord keepist^s 
^bouse, Go^mbury, near St. Albans, August 14, 1571. 

-" Whereas July 4th," says he, " bcbg before your IcMfd- 

ships, to answer to your three articles, I did forbear to 

<sul^ribe to the first, Yiz« ' That the Book of Common 

• Prayer is agreeable to the word of God,^ becau&e it seemed 
to me to. contain a license of administering bapti^ by 
vWinneh, a thing forbidden by the word of Gr^. And being 

suspended and sequestered, I have abstained from preaching 
and administering the sacrament, and tliereby, my lord, and 
his family, have suffered the want of those most necessary 
and comfortable religious privileges. Therefore, my duty 
to his lordship's household, tind to that part of the church 
from which I receive some maintenance, move me with all 
due humility and submission, to beseech you that I may be 
restored to my former liberty. 

^^ And concerning the articles, I trust this will suffice and 
fully answer your- ititention, that^ by this my letter, sub- 
scribed with my own hand, I do promise ahd declare, that 
I did not mean to vary from the ordinary book of service, 
in my ministry. Neither to inveigh against it by public 
speech, wittingly, or maliciously ; but to move the auditory 
to hold the truth in matters of faith and sound religious 
practice, and to live for ever in the fear of God. And I 
think that the contents of the service book, then expressly 
mentioned, and according to the expiosition then given to me, 
are not defective, nor expressly contrary to the word ' of 
God ; and that the imperfections thereof, may, for the sake 
of unity and charity, be suffered, till God grant a more 
perfect retbrmation : Tor which, every man, according to his 
particular vocation, ought diligently to labour. 

" As to the second article, ^ That the apparel of ministers 
is not wicked, and directly against the word of God; and 
being appointed by the prince only for tlie sake of policy, 

• obedience, and order, it may be used ;' yet is it not generally 
expedient, nor edi tying. 

" And as to the third, ^ That the articles of religion, 

which only concern the confession of the true christian 

faith^ and the doctrine of the sacrament, comprised in a 

book, entitled Articles agreed upon by the Archbishops 

•and Bishops of both Provinces, and- the whole Clergy, in 

^the cohvodation holden in London, in the year of our lx>rd 

-\§l6liy and every of them, contain triK and godly christian 


<< And because I perceived it to be offensive to his grace 

VOIi. I. N 


flie archbishop, that I hold by the fovour of the lord keeper, 

Xbend in Norwich, I now inform yon, that I mean to 
luish it the next half year following. Trusting, that 
imon the receipt of this my humble submission, you wiB 
idease me, and grant me a new licoise to preach. And to 
committing your lordships, in all your ^odly and leakos 
undertakings, to the direction and blessmg of Almighihr 
•God. Sul^ribing myself your lordship^ most Inunhfe 
petitioner ^ Robert Johnson."* 

What effect this letter produced, we are not able to leam ; 
but it probably £Euled to answer the end proposed. We 
find, however, in the year 1573, that Mr. Johnson wss 
brought into further trouble. He was ccmvened before the 
bishop of Lincoln, and required to subscribe to the three 
curious articles following: 

1. ^^ I am content hereafter, in my open semums and pnUic 
.preaching, to forbear to impugn the articles €i rdigioo 
agreed upon in the Synod fU Lcmdon, in 1563, or any of 

S. <^ Neither will I speak against the state of the church 
xjf England, now allowed by the laws of this realm; not 
against the Book of Common Prayer, or any tbing con- 
tained therein. 

3. '' Neither will I say or siug, or cause, procure, or mun- 
tain any other to say or sing, any conunon or open prayoi^ 
or minister any sacrament, otherwise, or in any duMT 
manner or form, than is mentioned in the said book^ tiD 
further order be taken by public authority.'* 

Mr. Johnson refusing subscription, answered as foDows :— 
<^ Whether these articles be such as I ought in duty to aolh 
scribe, and whether for refusing this subscription, I destrfe 
to be openly declared a forswer of the church, and the 
flock committed to my care, and whether it be matter f<V 
which I ought to be defamed, I refer to your wondiip*s 
. consideration, upon the following reasons: 

<^ I take it for granted, that there are fiiults, and suck as 
ought to be reformed, both in the goyemment of the choxd^ 
and in the Book of Common Prayer, upon which I ifeaam 
thus. .Either there is, or there is not, a reformatiim inifioM, 
;by those in authority. If there be a reformation ii^t endWi 
ihfin it is good that the people^s minds be prepared thePHHf 
willingly to receive it when it com^ and , to. ^^ '^'^ 

« Str3rpe*s Parker, p. aSTiJSt^ 

ft. JOHNSON. 179 

IxjTtsound reason and the authority of scripture, before thejr 
are compelled by law to obey. This preparation of the 
people to obey, is necessary, lest they be- compelled to obey ' 
Ibey know not what. Therefore, that the people may tite 
iBore willingly, and without murmuring, agree to a reforma- 
tiop, and praise the Lord for the same, it is necessary Uiey 
48bould first know the defects in the church, which need 
formation. But if vh reformation be intended, it is 
proper the people should understand how much the churc)i 
stands in need of it, that they may pray unto God to stir 
.up those who are in authority to promote it; and, no doub^ 
.the Lord will file sooner hear their prayers. So that, 
^whether a reformation be intended, or not intended, the 
.church of God should be told of its corruptions, that the 
.people may the more willingly praise Goa when they are 
taken away, and the more earnestly pray unto him until 
.they -be taken away. This is one reason why ministers 
should not bind themselves to conceal the faults and cor- 
.ruptions remaining in the church. 

'' Another reason is, that seeing there are many preachers 
.who maintain that the government of the church is perfectly 
good, and that the Prayer Book needs^ no amendment; and 
as these preachers have license to preach where they pleas^ 
they may preach these thin^ to that flock over which God 
hath made me overseer ; if I should consent and subscribe, 
:tiiat, in such a case, I will not speak, I cannot see how I 
-could acquit myself before God. Therefore^ the fear of 
4his evil, in these days of peril and confusion, is another 
reason for not giving either the promise of my word, or the 
^obscription of my hand, to hold my peace against the 
jron^emment of the church, and every thing contained in 
1^ Book of Common Praver. 

^^ Also, in the Book of Common Prayer, there is a manifest 

abuse of scripture : as in the ordination of ministers, it is 

-spid. Receive the Holy Ghost. Corrupt prayers : as in 

-confirmation, << Almighty God, who hast vouchsafed to 

.Ji^nerate these thy servants, by water and the Holy Ghost ^ 

\WA hast given them the forgiveness of all their sins. These 

ffid many such faults in the book, are such, that a preacher 

pught not to promise and subscribe, that he will never ^ea^ 

.,4m%f thing against them. There are, likewise, mainr things 

;.i^ the government of the church.: as the court of mctiitiibs, 

•llie hi^ commission court dispensations for nonresidence, 

and many others, against wnich I cannot oblige myself that I 

',n€per speah*^^ IPhb (u?^^7iriili;nmch mw^ to the sam« 


purpose, Mr. Johnson delivered August 6, 1573, subscribed 
with his own hand ♦ 

We do not, indeed, find what immediately followed his 

•refusing to subscribe ; whether he was dismissed, and allowed 
to go on in his ministry, or sent to prison. Most probaUf 
he was released ; for he afterwards became minister of S. 
Clement's church, London. Here, however, he enjoyed bol 
little repose; for towards the close of December, ia die 
above year, he and some others, were committed cloR 

' prisoners to the Gatehouse, for nonconformity . f Febnisrr 9d, 
following, Mr. Johnson being still in prison, wrote a fetteir 
to Dr. Sandys, bishop of London, whom he styles <' supdr- 
intendant of popish corruptions in the diocese of LondoiL'* 
In this letter, he reminds his lordship of some of the existipg 
evib, especially that of professed christians persecating one 
another. " There is," says he, " persecution enough. Some 
are imprisoned, and are in danger of losing, not only thdr 
liberty, but also their lives, being compelled to remain in 
filthy jails, more unwholesome than dunghills, and mort 
stinking than pig-styes. Others are persecuted in thcit 
minds, by being enforced to subscribe to those things 
against which every good man's conscience makes a stand, 
and every godly man disallows. It i§ a great evil for a man 
to lose or spend his property in prison ; it is a greater, to 
lose his reputation; it is greater still, to lose his liberty; 

. but it is greatest of all, to be greatly distressed uid disquieted 
in his conscience. Take heed, therefore, lest you gd; yout 
name enrolled amongst the number of persecutors. Let not 
worldly policy prevail more than true divinity. Let iKit 

- rosLU cause you to do that which God has forbidden. Let irat 
the conunission draw you further than God's word wiU 
allow. Let not your honour here on earth, cause you to do 
that which is against the honour of God. Let not y(rar 

• palace make you forget the temple of Christ. 

" The present persecution is among brethren, not only of 

one nation, but of one profession : those who persecute^ jiind 

those who are persecuted, believing in one God, p rmsfi ^ 

one Christ, embracing one religion, receiving one gosp^ 

communicating in one sacrament, and havin? one hope 'ol 

salvation. Dii^ntion in a kingdom, discord in anatibii, 

^controversy among neighbours, and contention amoii^ 

bre't))n*n, are more to be feared than any of them among 

cneir.ics. You say, you are our chief pastor, -we d«ie 

. - ■ • ■ .■ 


« • i 

R. JOHNSON. lai 

f^od : yoii say, you are our doctor, ure desire to be tauglit* 
This is the best way to win us, and the best for you to use. ' 
Tbe laws and authority of meriy should not set aside the 
laws and authority of GocL The popish logic of slander and 
imprisonment will not prevail at last. The Fleet, the Gate* 
bouse, the White-lion, the Kin^Vbench, and Newgate,- 
aie weak arguments to conyince the conscience."* 

Upon the SOth day of the same month, Mr. Jdinson 
was brought to trial before his judges, and examined at 
Westmin^r-hall, in the presence of the queen's commis- 
sioners, the bishop of London, the dean of Westminster, the 
lord duef justice, and others. He was accused of marrying 
without the Wiz^, and of baptizing without tbe cross^ which ' 
he did for a time ; but upon complaint against him, he 
bc^un again to use them. He was accus^ed, also, of a 
misdemeanour, as it is called ; because when he was once 
administering the sacrament, the wine falling short, he sent 
for more, but did not consecrate it afresh, accounting the 
former consecration sufficient for what was applied to the 
same use, at the same time. The examination which he: 
underwent at his trial, was as fellows : 

Johnson. If it please your honours, may I not submit 
myself, and declare the truth of things as they were done ? • 

Lord Chief Justice. Yes, you may. 

J. I stand here indicted for three points. The first is, 
that I have not repeated the words of the institution ; or, as* 
they commonly call it, I did not consecrate the wine, when* 
I deliyered it to the communicants. — Secondly, that I bave 
not married with the rin^. — Thirdly, that I have not used 
the. cross in the adminutration of baptism, and have left 
oujt the whole sentence for that purpose.f — Unto these 
charges, I answer, that respecting tbe cantempl, as expressed 
in the indictment, I plead, md guiUj/. And as to the first 
of those charges, I answer under my protestation, that at na 
time, in celebrating the communion, have I omitted .any 
pmyer or words of the institution, which the book pre^- 
sdibieth, but have used them in as full and ample a manner 

of a Register, p. 101-^105. 
f Jo Mr. Johnson's indictment, be was charged with having solemnized 
natdmony, between one Leonard Morris and Agnes Miles, without using 
tbe ring. And having baptized a male child that he did not know, he did 
■ot make tbe sign of tbe cross on its forehead, nor use the following words : 
** We receive thU child into the congregation of Christ's dock, and do sign 
^IMm with .the sign of the cross,*' as conti^ined in the Book of Common 
Prayer r" And that he did the same, voluntarily, and hi contempt of tho 
** qaeen und her laws, und agaiqst the peace of the realm."-^irs. RegitteTf 


as fhej are aj^ihted. Only upon a certain occasimii y^hm - 
the wine failed, I sent for more, which I delivered to the 
people, using the words appointed in the book to be used 
in the delivery of the sacrament, not again repeating the 
words of the institution : partly, because, as 1 taike it,.b6iog 
an entire acticm and one supper, the words of the institiitioii 
at first delivered were sufficient ; and partly, because, in the 
Book of Common Prayer, there is no order appointed to 
which I could refer the case. And as to the second, I 
answer that once or twice, I did not use the ring. For 
looking into the miss-book, I found the words with which 
the papists hallow the rin^ ; and because this seemed to me 
no less derogatory to the death of Christ, than holy bread 
and holy water, 1 tliought as other persons had onutted 
those, 1 might omit this. 

Commissioner. There is no such thing in the Book flf- 
Common Prayer. 

Dean. He speaketh of the mass-book. 

Bishop. Tiien you compare the mass-book and the com* 
mon prayer book, and make the one as bad as the other. 

J. My lord, I make no such comparison. But after I 
was complained of to my ordinary. Dr. Watts, archdeacon 
of Middlesex, who reprehended me, I used the ring, as I- 
have good and sufficient witness. Since, therefore, I did 
in this default correct myself, I refer myself to your honour's 
discretion, whether I have herein stubbornly and cont(»npta« 
ously broken the law. — As to the third charge, I answer, 
that I have omitted to make the sign of the cross, bat not o£ 
contempt. But seeing I have already suffered seven wedn 
imprisonment, with the loss of my place and living, I 
beseech you, be indifferent judges, whether this 'be Act 
sufficient for so small a crime. 

Mr. Gerard. You were ^ot sent to prison for that^ bat fiii 
your irreverent behaviour. 

J. I trust, sir, I did not behave myself more irreveraitly 
than I do now. Whereas the indictment is, that I omittc4 
the whole prayer, " We receive this child," &c. . This'i* 
felse ; for 1. never administered baptism without using that 
prayer, though I omitted making the sign of the cross. 

B. Those two are but trifles. The chief is the cobsecM^ 
iion of the sacrament. For, as it had not the word, it was 
no sacrament, and so the people were mocked. 

J. My lord, I did not mock the people ; fbr it was f 

D. SL Augustin saith, << That the "irord must be addad t« 


tim el^menty to make a sacrament.^' Yoa lacked the wovd^: 
therefore, it was no sacrameat. 

J. I had the word. 

B. How had you the wcnrd, when you confiess that ^oo: 
recited not the institution ? 

J. I had recited the institution before, and that .was 

D. Yea, for that briead and wine diat was present ; but 
when you sent for more bread or wine, you should again 
have rehearsed the words of the institution. . 

J. The book appointed no such thins. 

B. Yes, sir, the book saith, you snail have sufficient 
bread and wine, and then the prayer of the institution 
must be recited. Now, as you had not sufficient^ you 
should, therefore, have repeated the institution. 

J. There is no such caveat, nor proviso, appointed in the 

B. But that is the meaning of the book. 

J. Men may make what meaning they please ; but I refer 
myself to the book, whether or not it be so appointed. 

D. You are not forbidden to use the repetition. 

J. Neither am I coinmanded. - 

D. I will prove this to be the meaning of the book. For it 
is said in the prayer, " these creatures of bread and wine :" 
ao ibsLt the book hath respect to the bread and wine .there 
present, and not to any other. Therefore, if there be any 
more brought, it must be consecrated afresh, by the words 
of the institution. 

J. I pray you tell me one thing. Are the words of the 
institution spoken for the bread, or for the receivers ? 

D. For both. 

'J. I deny that. For the evangelist declares, that Christ 
aaid unto his disciples^ to teach them for what end and pur- 
pose they should take the bread. 

D. Then the word is of no force. 

J. I deny that. The word is necessary to the substance 
of the 'sacrament. Biit tins is not the question : we both 
confess this. Herein is the controversy, whether it be ne- 
cessary for the institution to be repeated, seeing it is but 
(me ud the same action, and the same communicants 
as before, for wh6m the words are spoken. If it had 
Bot been the same supper, or if the communicai^s bad 
been changed, it would have been necessary to rehearse the 
B. You like yourself very weU^ and you are stubborn 


and arromnt. I have before heard of yoiir stahbotn heaff^' 
but now I perceive it. 

J. My lord, who he is that iiketh hims:elf so well, and is 
so stubborn and arrogant, that Lord, who trieth the hearts 
of ail, must judge. ^ 

B. Why, you beuig unlearned, stand stubbornly agunst 
us all, and so no learning will satisfy you. 

J. I would fain understand witn i%hat words Christ did 

Dr. Wilson. With this word, benedixit. 

J. Be it so. But we know not the words with which 
Christ did benedicere. Therefore, we must consecrate with 
we know not what. 

L. C. J. Ah ! Johnson. Is this your submission 3 

J. I must needs defend my own innocence. 

G. Johnson, you in a manner confi ss as much as yea 
are charged with. For you confess, that when the woros q(* 
the institution were recited, you had no wine. 

J. I do not confess that. I had both bread and irin^, • 

6. But you had not that wine. 

J. No. . 

G. Therefore it was not consecrated. • • 

J. The wordis before repeated were sufficient for the con*' 

D. Then, with those words you consecrated all the wine' 
in the tavern. 

J, No^ sir, it was the wine that was brought from the 
tavern to the church, and of a common wine, was appointed* 
to be a sacramental wine, to represent Christ's blooa ; and 
this is consecration. ^ 

D. Why then, with you, the word is of no force. 

J. It. is not of force to bring any holiness to the sacia^ 
ment. . I* trust you do not think that the word mnkeOi th^^ 
bread any holier when used in the sacram^nt^ 

W. Yes, it is holy bread. 

B. It is a holy sacrament. 

J. That I confess. But holiness is in the use and ead,^ 
not in the substance. For otherwise you would make-ai^ 
magical enchantment of it^ and not a consecration. Dr.* 
Crahmer, in his book on the sacrament, saith, ^' There* 
Cometh no holiness to the bread by consecration." .. i 

G. If thou wertwell served, thou wouldst be used like 

J. iVhatever your judgment may be, I stand or fiill ta 
my own Lord. 

R. JOHNSON. la^ 

' R Yo«ikiK>w not Trhat faann you have dose^ by c^fend- 
ing an error before this company, brin^g them so into* 
doubt, that thejf know not which way to take. 

J. My lord, I defend no error. I maintain the truth. * 

D. Nay, you maiatain a horrible heresy. 

Bromley. Yea, if you were well served, you shoaldjrjf 

J. As you say that I maintain a heresy, I pray yon shew 
me by what commandment I am bound to the precise woidi^ 
of the institution. 

D. As the word in baptism is,^^I baptize thee in the' 
' name c^ the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost :'" so 
the word in the Lord's suj^r is the rdiearsal of the 

J. Bullinger was of another mind ; for he saith, ^^ The * 
consecration of sacraments is not by the nature, will, com* 
mand, or precept of Christ, nor from the authority of any 

D. Where doth he say this ? 

J. Sermon vi. decad 5. 

D. You falsify his words. 

J. No, I cite them right. And the churches of Greneva 
and Scotland consecrate with other words, without using the 
words of the institution^ except in preaching. 

D. You slander those churches, as appeareth from thdr 
own words, which I have here in a ho€k. • 

J. I have not slandered those famous churches. Let iheif 
liturffy witness. And as to that book, there is nothing in it 
whica I do not believe. But I pray you, my lord of 
London, answer me one question. Must consecration be* 
performed before the delivery of the elements, or after? 

B. I will not answer it. 

J. It is only a question. I pray you answer it 

B. Answer it thyself. 

D. It shall be -answered. The consecration must go be«^ 
fore; for Christ gave a sacrament, which could not be 
without the word. Ccmsecration, therefore, must go before. 

J. But Christ spake the word after the distribution. For 
he first gave them the bread, and then said, << Take, eat, thisr 
is my body." 

D. And what then ? 

J. Then, according to what you say, Christ did not coii« 
secrate aright. 

D. You defend a horrible heresy: for you rgect the 


J. I do not reject the woid> but would ondeffetepd iriM 
tbe wmrd me^neth. 

D. It meaneth the institution of Christ. 

J. All writers do not so understand it. Some b^ .the 
word, understand the promises, as MusguIus, BuUmger^ 
Peter Martyr^ and Calvin. 

D. The word is not the promise. , 

J. These learned men so take it. Herein I am contfait 
to refor mj^self to the judgment of the learned. 

L.C.J. Here is my lord of London, a prelate of tbt. 
I«ahn, and a bishop, and this gentleman, Mr. Dean ; dosi 
thou think they are not learned ? 

J.I neither despise, nor deprave their learning. But as 
to the words of the institution, I say, they are to be consi* 
dered, either as they are expressly set down by the evan- 
gelist; or,' as other words are used equivalent to them^ 
declaring the sum and substance of them, and, in either 
case, the institution is whole and sound. Consecration may 
be taken either according to the consecration of the papists, 
who say, " This is my body, and this is my blood; or, as 
the best writ( rs in our time,.take it for the rehearsal of tbe 
promises and thanksgiving to be enjoined ; and whichsoever 
of these two be accepted, seeing I used the words of delivery^ 
there was sufficient consecration. 

• L. C. J. Let us make an end of it. Charge the jury.— - 
The witnesses were then called and sworn, some dT whom 
were known papists, and others had done penance for the 
foulest crimes, against whom no exception would be taken ; 
and Mr. Johnson being by their verdict found guilty, was 
wndemned to one year's imprisonment, and inunediiitely 
sent back to the Gratehouse.* 

The hard treatment Mr. Johnson received from Bishop 
Sandys, and the other commissioners, as appears^ 
above examination ; with the heavy sentence pronounced 
upon him, after having endured some close and severe 
imprisonment already, were, surely, more than proporticmalB 
to any crime with which he was charged, even supposing 
lie had been guilty. Indeed, whether the principal thing 
with which he was charged was good or evil, was matter of 
mere opinion, and a point much to be disputed. But rigbt 
or wrong, he must be punished. 

During the executicm of the heavy sentence, and about 
two weeks after his trial, Mr. Johnson wrote a letter ta 

• PtoteofaBegiiter,p«106— 111. 

». JOHNSON. ' tgf 

Bitili^p Saoidj^s, datM March 7, 1574, in which he eiameMy 
pleads for more kind treatment. He thus observes, <^ Our' 
Saviour saith, Blessed are the merciful^ ^ortkey shaU obtain 
mercy: And the apostle, He shall have judgment without; 
mercy ^ thai hath shewed no m^cy. I wonder what mercy^ 
you, and the rest of the commissioners, hope tor, and whaA' 
judgment you look for, seeing for trifles an! of no weight, 
nay of no truth, as I doubt not you are persuaded in your 
dwn consciences, you not only mock and molest men, de-» 
prave and d(>prive them, but to their great poverty and 
utter ruin, and without any bowels of mercy,^ you condemn 
them to long imprisonment. Where hath God given any 
such commandment ? Where hath Christ given any such 
precedent ? Where did the apostles put any such thing iil 
practice ? If you say, that we hold errors', are schrsmaticsi 
and promote sects ; then do you the part of a teacher, to 
reform our errors, to reduce schismatics to unity, and \o 
dissuade sectaries from dissention. Your office and func- 
tion, your name and title, your degree and profession, your 
knowledge and religion, yea the apostles, Jesus Christ, aild 
Grod himself, requireth this at your hands. You know who 
saith, If a man he overtaken in a faulty ye which are spiri* 
tualj restore such a one in the spirit of meekness. Compare 
your doctrine in time past, and your doings now, ancl se6 
how they agree. We may sdy as the propbet said : TTie 
£jord God of your fathers was wroth tenth Judahy and he 
hath delivered them into your handj and you have perseeuiei 
them in a rage that reacneth up to heaven. 

<^ If to imprison and famish men, be the proper way to 
instruct the ignorant and reduce the obstinate, where is the 
office and work of a shepherd, to seek that which was lost, 
and bring home that which went astray ? We beseech vou, 
therefore, to gather something out of the Old and New 
Testament, that you may reduce those who go astray, and 
heal that which is bruised and broken. And I pray you^ 
let us feel some of your charitable relief, to preserve us irom 
death, under this hard usage ; especially as you have beett 
the chief cause of rny trouble, I desire you to be some pait 
of my comfort. Let pity requite spite, and mercy recom- 
pence malice. Thus breeching Grod, that you may proceed 
faithfully in all the duties of a bishop, I commend you t$ 
Jesus Christ, the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls. 

« Robert JoHNSON/y 

• Fitfte •f a Regigter, p. 117, 118. 


Mn Johnton, at the same time, presented a petitioB to. 
the queen or council, d( siring to be restored to his former- 
libeily of preaching, from which he was restrained by the . 
fcHt'going heavy sentence. This petition, together with a. 
letter from the court, dated Greenwich, March 19, 157^ 
were sent to the Archbishop of Caiit(*rbury and the Bishc^ 
of London, pressing them to take the case into considera* 
lion, and take such order therein as shouhl appear most 
convenient. The council also sent anotlier letter to the. 
Bishop of London, dated Greenwich, May .16, 1574, sigDi«>. 
fying that their lordships were given to understand, that, 
Mr. Johnson, committed to the Gatehouse for noncon* 
fiHmlty, was very sick and likely to die, unless he might 
enjoy more open air. Therefore they commanded his grace 
to give order for the poor afflicted man to be bailed, and 
vpon sureties to be removed to his own bouse, but npt tO: 
depart thence without further order.* 

All these efforts were,^ however, without any good eficct*. 
The relentless prelate continued inflexible. Mr. Johnsoa 
experienced neither his lenity, nor his charity, nor any other 
favour : for the good man died soon after, a prisoner in tho 
Gatehouse, through the cruelty of his imprisoument, and, 
his extreme poverty and want.f Herein, surely, his inhu-. 
man persecutors would be highly gratified. Bisnop Sandys, 
who was at the head of these proceedings, is said to have 
been '' a man very eminent for his learning, probity, and 
prudence ;'^t but, surely, it may be questioned whether he 
exercised those excellent qualifications on the present occa*. 
non. This is even admitted by his partial biographer : for 
he observes, that during the above period, the good bishop 
proceeded so vigorously against the puritans, that his doingi 
brought public reproach on his name and reputation.^ . - 

Mr. Johnson wrote a letter, a little before his death, to tha 
Dean of Westminster, another zealous promoter of his 
persecution. This letter is still preserved.|| Mr. Strype 
charts Mr. Johnson as a false accuser, and, in 16(99, as 
reviling the puritans. But. the fact of his being dead seve^d 
years before either of these events are said to have taken 
place, at once acquits him ot the twofold charge. Some 
other person of the same name, who was a rigid churchman| 
we believe to have been guilty of those crimes.1 

• fiaker'8 MS. Collec. ?oI. xxt. p. S83, 384. 
+ Parte of a Register, p. 1 1 1 , 1 '8. 

{Le Neve's Lives, vol. i part ii. p. 89. S ^^^^» p. SI. 

Parte of a Register, p. 1 12-116. I Strype's Parker, p. S88, SSfti 

tAVEftNEIt. 189 

Richard Taverner, A. M. — This distinguished persoa 
was bom at Brisley in Norfolk, in the year 1505, and 
educated first in Bennet college, Cambridge^ then in Uie 
tiniversity of Oxford, The famous C&rdinal Wolsey haying 
founded a new college at th« latter place,* furnished it witS 
all the best scholars in the nation; among whom w<^re 
Tavemer, Tindal, Frith, Good[man, and many others. Here 
Mr; T^velfner and his brethren were soon called to the triftl 
<rf their faith. They were men of good learning and gaite 
judgments, and Mr. Tavemer was famous for his knowledge 
of music ; but conferring to2:ether about the corruptions at 
the church, they were presently accused to the cardinal, and 
cast into prison. They were confined in a deep cell undar 
the college, where salt fish was wont to be preserved ; so 
that by the filthiness and infection of the place, several of 
them soon lost their lives. Mr. Taverner, however, escaped 
the fatal malady. Though he was accused of hiding ontt 
Mr. Glark^s books under the boards of his school, Hb^ 
cardinal, on account of his music, exempted him, say in?! 
'^^He is only a musician f' and so he was released.f He 
had a good knowledge of the Greek language, pBilosophy, 
and divinity ; but about this time he removed or was expelled 
iVom the imiversity, and became a student at the inn^ d 
court. Here, when he read any thing in the law, he made 
his quotations in Greek. In the year 1534, he was taken 
under the patronage of Lord Cromwell, principal secretarf^ 
to Henry VIH. ; by whose recommendation the king after^ 
■ wards made him one of the clerks of the signet. This place 
he kept till the accession of Queen Mary, having been held 
in high esteem by King Henry, Edward VI., and the Duke 
of Somerset, the lord protector. 

In the year 1539, he published " A Recognition or Cor- 
rection of the Bible after the best Exemplars." It was 
printed in folio^ dedicated to the king, and allowed to be 
puWidy read in the churches. But upon the fall of Lord 
•Ci^well, in 1540, the bishops causing the printers of the 
Bible in English to be cnst into prison and punished, Mr. 
Taverner, as the reward of his labours, was sent to the 

* * Cardinal Wolsey possessed, for some years, aU that power and [[»raiide«r - 
which coold be enjoyed by the greatest favoarite, and niost absolute iiil« 
Dister, ander an arbitrary prince. He exercised as absolute a power in. the 
church, as he had done in the state. His abilities were equal to his great 
offices, but these were by no means equal to his ambition. He was the 
only man that ever had the ascendancy oT Henry VIII., but afterwards feU 
'tllto disgrace.— Orofiger^f Hio^. Hitt, vol. i. p. 92. 
f Foz*iMartynyVol.U.p.S099 251. 


Tower. Here^ however, he did not continae loiiff; for, 
liaving fully acquitted himself before his judge*, ne was 
•oon after released, and restored to his place and the king's 
&vour. He was about this time, a member of parliament, 
audi held in high esteem by meo of piety and worth. Upon 
King Henry^s coming to the parliament house in 1545, 
and exhorting the members to charity, unity, and concord, 
he published a translation of £rasmus, entitled << An Intro* 
iduction to Christian concord and unitie in matters of 

In the year 155S, Mr. Tavemer, though he was not 
.0rdained, obtained a special license subscribed bv Kiom 
•Edward, to preach in any part of his dominions : and he did 
not fiiil to make use of the liberty granted hinu He preached 
from place to place through the kingdom; also at couiC 
]before the king, and in other public places, wearing a yelTOt 
iKmnet or round cap, a damask gown, and a chain of eold 
about his neck; in which habit, lie sometimes preached in 
^ Mary's church, Oxford, in the days of Queen Elizabeth. 
When Queen Mary came to the crown, he retired to bis 
^country house called Norbiton-hall, in Surrey, where he 
continued during the whole a[ her reign. Upon the aqces- 
pion of Elizabeu, he presented her majesty with a congra- 
tnlatory epistle in Latin, for which she exceedingly respected 
liiin, placed great confidence in him, and, besides offering 
kim the degree of knighthood, put him into the conui^iwon 
e£ peace mr the county of Oxford. Here numerous con« 
cems were entrusted to him, and, in 1569, he was made 
jbigh sheriff of the county. Notwithstanding bis high 
station, he did not relinquish his ministerial labours, but 
continued preaching as he found opportunity. While lip 
ams in the oSGice of nigh sheriff, he appeared in St. Mjuy's 
pulpit, with his gold chain about his neck, and hU swcnp^ 
hy his side, and preached to the scholars, beginning lis 
Krmon with the following words : — ^' Arriving at the mopnt 
^ of St Mary % in the stony* stage where I now stand, | 
^ faay^ brought you some fine biskets, baked in the oyen 4if 
f^ charity, and ciirefuily conserved for the chickins of tke 
<^ church, the sparrows of the spirit, and the sweet swallows 
*< of Salvationist This way of preaching was then.mostly 
^hionable, and commend^ by the generality of schdlan 

. * WbQd says the pulpit of St. Mary's wa« then of fine canred itoaje^ 
bitt it WW taJcen away in 1654, when Pr. Jpbn Owen was fice-cbanccUor, 
and a pnlpit of wood set iip in its pWc^,—-AfheH€B Oson. vol. i. p.,U4. imi» 
f FuUcr'g Church Hiit. b. iz. p. ^/ . ' 

HARVEY. 1191 

in those times. This celebrated refonner and zealous 
coofonnist to the charch a£ England,. hud down his head 
in peace, July. 14, 1575, aged seventy years. He died at 
his manor-house, at Wo(^-Eaton, in .Oxfordshire, and 
his remains were interred with great funend solemnity, in 
the chancd of the church at thiS place.* 

Hur Works.— 1. The Sam or Pith of the 150 Psalmes of David, 
tednced into a forme of Prayers and Meditations, with other certafae 
•f odiy Orisons, 1639. — 2, Correction of the Bible, already mentioiied. 
•—3. The Epistles and Gospels, with a brief Postill upon the samg, 
from Advent to Low Sunday, drawn forth by divers learned men fior 
the singular commoditie of all good Christian Persons, and namdjr 
of Priests and Curates, 1540.— 4. The Epistles and Gospels, with a 
brief Postill upon the same, from after Easter till Advent, 1540.—- A. 
Fmite of Faith, containing all the Prayers of the holy Fathera, 
Patriarks, Prophets, Judges, Kings, renowned Men, and Women, ai 
the Old and New Testament, 1582. — 6. Various Poems in Latia mmI 
'iBnglish, and several Translations of the works of other lesurned meoi 

'R. Haryet was a zeal6us and learned minister in the 
'city of Norwich, a divine of puritanical principles, and 
brought into troubles for his nonconformity. Haying 
spoken against the pompous titles, and the govemmefnt of 
bishops, and other ecclesiastical officers, he was summoned, 
"May 13, 1576, to appear before his diocesan at Norwich. 
Upon his appearance before his lordship, he was iihfne* 
diately suspended ; when the dean, who pronounced the 
.sentence, behaved himself towards Mr. Harvey, not as a 
judge, but a most angry tyrant. + 

Mr. Harvey haying received the ecclesiastical censure, and 
conceiving himself to have been hardly used, wrote a letter to 
the Bishop of Norwich, in which he addressed his lordship 
with considerable freedom and boldness. The substance AF 
this letter is as follows : — ^* I am moved in conscience,'' sayi 
he, " to address you in this way, that I may give a further 
^account of nfiy behaviour. I think you may see, if you 
Ithnt not your eyes, how the man of sin, I mean the pope (^ 
JRome, hath so perverted and corrupted the doctrine of 
Ohrist, that not one free spot of it now remaineth. In like 
manner, touching the discipline and government of the 
thurch, although our Saviour, who is tfie only king of his 
:diurch, sate in the seat of judgment, with the crown of life 

Xn his head, and the sceptre of righteousness in his hand ; 


* Wood's AthensB Oxon. vol. i. p. 143 — 145. 

f »trjrp«'t AanaMk voU a. p. 448, 449,— Pftcte of a Reg liter, p. SS9. 


that man of sin plucked him from his throne^ and pUtced 
himself upon it, having on his head the mitre of deafly aiid 
in his hand the sword of cruelty and blood. These things 
I hope you know. 

'^ We find in the scriptures of truth, that when Christ 
ruled and reigned in his church, his officers were biahopi or 
pastors, and elders and deacons. But when the po^ set 
aside this government, he appointed new ffovemors in the 
church, as carduiais, archbishops, lord-bishops. dean% 
chancellors, commissioners, and many others. The dec* 
trine and government of the church bein? thus thrown 
down, it pTensed the Lord in his time to shew us fayottr. 
Bv means of our good prince, he hath purged the doctrines 
of our church from tlie errors of popery; and was ready 
to have restored unto us true discipline, if it had not been ^ 
prevented by our own slackness and unthankfulness. BiA ' 
you prelates turn the edge of the sword against us^ and 
stand in the way to keep us from the tree of life. The 
government of the church is much the same as it was under 
popery. The pope's officers, you know, still bear rul^; 
.and, therefore, the reins of government are not in the 
hands of Christ, but in the hands of antichrist And 
though you hide yourselves under the shadow of the prince^ 
saying, that she created you and your authority ; you per- 
Tcrsefy attempt to deceive the world, and you miserably afiuan 
the name and goodness of our prince. For how long if en 
Tbur names and offices in full force before our prince was 
oom ? How then will you make her authority the origin oiF 
Jour jurisdiction? 

<^ Moreover, as Jesus Christ is the only lawgiver in hi^ 

church, and as he alone has power and authority to app^nt 

its officers, if any king or prince in the world appoint 4inr 

other officers in the church, than those which Christ hath 

already allowed and appointed, we will lay down our necks 

upon the block, rather than consent to them. Wherisforei 

do not so often object to us the liame of our prince ; for Vo^ 

use it as a cloak to cover y^ur cursed entcrprizes. IJavB 

you not thrust out those who preached the word of God 

. lincerelyand faithfully ? Have you not plucked out those 

, preachers whom God fixed in his church? And do you 

' think that this plea, / did but execute the law^ will excuso . 

you before the High Judge."* It does not appeiix wh«t 

effect this bold address had on the mind of the reveroid 

• Parte of a Regiiter, p. S65— 870. 


prelate; nor whethet- t^e good man ever procured his 

Mr. Hanrey appears, to have written <^ A Treatise of the 
Church and Kingdom of Christ/' a copy of which is stitf 

5 reserved, though, most probably it was never published.* 
^he Oxford historian gives a very curious account of one Mr. 
Richard Harvey , who lived about the same time, but he doel 
not appear to have been the same person.f One Mr. Kiqhard, 
Harvey of Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, took his degrees in 
Alts in 1581 and 15S5.. This was probably the same person' 
that last mentioned.! . ' 

Edward De^ring, B. D.^^This learned and distin« 
guished puritan was descended from a very ancient and 
worthy family at Surrendcn-Dering, in Kent ; and having 
been carefully brought up in religion, and the rudiments of 
soimd learning, completed his education in Christ^s collie, 
Cambridge. Here he made amazing progress in valuable 
knowledge, and became an eminently popular preacher. He 
was fellow of the house, was chosen proctor in 1566, and 
Lady Margarct^s preacher the year following.^ This, in- 
deed, was not sufficient to protect him from the fury and 
persecution of the prelates. 

. In the year 1571, being cited before Archbishop Parker 
and other commissioners, he was charg^ with certain 
assertions, which^it is said,, he maintained and subscribed 
before them. These assertions were the following : ^' That 
breaking the laws of civil government is, in its own nature, 
no .sm, but only on account of scandal. — ^That Chrisfi 
descent into hell relates only to the force and efficacy of his 
pajssion ; but that neither his body, nor his soul, went id 
that place. — ^That it is lawful to take oaths,- when the formg 
are written or printed, to determine the sense of the imposer ; 
jbut to make use of the book, as a circumstance of solenmity,> 
is a sacrilegious addition. — That the clerical garments, 
which are aerived from popery^ are full of oTOnce, and 
af^pear to me directly against the truth.^'|| It do^ not 
-appear, however, what punishment was inflicted upon him 
for these assertions. 

. • 118. Registor, p.5SS— 554. 

f -Wood's AtbensB Oxon; toI. i. p. HSy l74. 

fBaker*sMS. p. 381. . 
MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. S^. (^.) 
I SHrype't Pu jTer, p. S26. — Baker*> li|S..Ci41ec. vol. xxxtI. p. 3ST« 
VOL. I, * 6 * * ' 


Mr. Deerioff was domesiic chaplain to the iinfbitiiiiatt 
Duke of Norfolk, (who, in the above year, lost his head oa 
Tower-hill,) ftnd was tutor to his children. In this aitoatiaii^ 
he conducted himself with great propric ^, and mnch 
to the satisfaction of his nobk patnm.* When the dnka 
was imprisoned for his treasonable oonnecti(Ai8 with the 
Queen of Scots, Mr. Deering thns addressed him: ^ Yon 
once earnestly professed the gospel; but now dissimnlatiflri, 
ambition, and hypocrisy hath bewitched you. Yoa know 
how many times 1 dissnaded you from your wicked senranlL 
your popish friends, and your adulterous womaii. Alas*! 
my lord, your hi^h calling hath so bridled my words, thit 
I could not spew to you as I would : my worda were too 
soft to heal so old a disease/'f 

In the year 1572, he became lecturer at St. Faid*!^ 
London; where^cm account of his great learning, rea^ 
utterance, and unccmimon boldness, he was amimii|gly 
followed. This beii^ grievous to certain ecclesiastical 
persons, it was deemea most proper to silence him. Thk 
was accordingly done the very next year. Our historian 
intimates, that he was a great enemy to tlie order of bishopt. 
This was, indeed, the case with most of the puritans. The^ 
generally looked upon the episcopal office, as app<Hnted in 
Uie church, to be equally, a popisn invention, and contrur 
to its ori^al design, according to the Mew Testament. He 
further mforms us, that Mr. Deerinff was intimately ae| 
quainted with the Lord Treasurer Buneigh, with irhata he 
often interceded, in behalf of the sujBering nonconf0rmi8l84 . 

While he was lecturer of St. Fold's, he was charged with 
having spoken certain things, which, by interpretaticm, ifoe 
said to reflect upon the magistrate, and tend to break iki 
peace of the church. Therefore, by an order fitnn the 
council, his lecture was put down. Persons were appoinied 
to watch him continual^, to take advantage of what he 
delivered ; and when he was brought under examination fir 
delivering certain things offensive to the ruling powers, he 
utterly denied that he nad said any such thin^, and decfaued 
that the charges were mere slanders. Inoeed, upon Ini 
appearance before the attorhey-geiieral and the bishop d 
JLondon, the bishop frankly acknowledged that he coofil 
not accuse him.§ What a pity then was it, that ao exfifl- 
lent a preacher as he is denominated, who had' so large a 

* S(rype*8 Aonals, vol. ii. p. ISO, 

f .M)5. Chrooology, ▼ol. i. p. 8S2. (t) 

t Stirype't Aimali, fol. U. p. 190» S ibid. p. M«i 


eongregation, and when such preachers were much wituited, 
should be put to silence ! 

In September this year, he wrote to the treasurer, request- 
ing that he might no more appear before the councu, but 
be judged by the bishops themselves, at any time and place 
they should appoint. In order to the restoration of hiis 
lecture, he requested that jud^ient might not be deferred '; 
that he might be charged with some impropriety, either in 
his words or actions; and that upon the knowledge of 
which, his honour might himself be able to judge what he 
deserved. He beseeched his lordship to inquire into hiji 
character, and examine his actions, tiU he could find only 
two persons who had heard him speak evil : but if sucn 
evidence of his ill behaviour could not be obtained, he 
intreated him to become his friend. He urged further, that 
his lordship would either believe his own judgment, having 
himself sometimes heard him, or the report of multitudes^ 
who were his constant hearers. And if^ his lecture might 
not be restored, as he was persuaded it was his duty to seek 
the good of souls, he earnestly prayed that he might have 
liberty to preach in some other place. 

Though the treasurer was undoubtedly willing and de- 
sirous to serve him, he obtained no redress ; but was cited 
to appear before the court of the star-chamber, when several 
articles were exhibited against him. But before his appear^ 
ance to answer these articles, he wrote a long letter to 
Burleigh, dated November I, 157^ in which he addressed 
him with great spirit and freedom, concerning his own case, 
and several important points of controversy. This letter 
was as follows : 

<< Grace and peace from God the Father, &c. 

*' Bear with me, I beseech your honour, though I trouble 
^ you ; and let the cause of my grief be the discharge of my 
^< boldness. It behoveth me to discharge myself from 
^< slander, lest the gospel should be reproached in me. And 
*^ it behoveth you to obey this commandment. Receive no 
^< accusation asainst a preacher wUhout good and sufficient 
** wUness. I kuow, my lord^ ^ou will not do it 1 have 
<< good evidence of your equity in this behalf. Yet I am 
^< bold to put you in mind of the word of Christ, which you 
^ cannot possibly too often remember. I ask no more tha)i 
<< what if due to me, even fiom her majesty's seat of govern- 
<< ment and justice. If I have done evil, let me be punished^ 
'* if not, let me be eased of undeserved blame. 1 crave no 
^ paitiidity, but seek to answer, and to make yoi|jgo daAing 


« the other lords of the council) judges oF my cause ; before 
<< whose presence I ought to fear, and the steps of whose 
,<^.feet I humbly reverence. If, before your honours, I 
^ should be convinced of these pretended crimes, with whi|t 
.<< shanxe should I hide my face all the days of my Ufe 1; 
<< Where were the rejoicing that I have in Grod, in all things 
<< that he hath wrought by me ? Where were their OHnfJHt,. 
<< who have so desirously heard me ? Where were the good, 
.<< opinion of many, and all the good<*will you have- shewed 
<< me ? I am not so ignorant, that I see not this. Therefjiie 
V persuade yourself, that I am on sure ground, TijUd shall/ 
M teach your eyes and ears the truth. £id to persuade your 
<^ heart, I give unto you my faith, I cannot accuse myself 
<< of any thought of my mind, in which I have not honpoied 
*^ the magistrate, or word of my mouth, in which I have not 
.^* regardol the peace of the church. And I thank God|. 
^ who of his unqieakable mercy, hath kept for me this ipon-! 
.^< science against the day of trouble. 

<^ If you muse now, how these slanders have risen, you 
}^ may easily know, that tlie malice of satan is giaeat aj^unst 
'< the ministry of the gospel. • I know I have given no 
^^ cause, more than I have confessed ; and with what words 
}^ I have spoken, I desire to be judgad by the hearers.. And 
^^ so much the more bold I now speak to you, because my 
'^^ lord of London, of late told me, before Mr. Attorn^ 
,<^ and Mr. Solicitor, that he could not accuse me of any 
<^ such thing. As I was glad to hear this discharge^ sol 
y should have been much more glad, if, upon ^ fr^. i| oon^ * 
*{ fession, he would favourably have restored me (o nij 
" lecture. Though it be somewhat strange to punish .'§ 
'' man l^eforc he offend, lest hereafter he should ofiSmd; yet 
<< J am contented with it, and leave it unto them, who 
.^^ should, be as much grieved as myself to see so great a poo: 
."ffregat ion dispersed," . . .: 

, Mr..Deering next proceeds to prove the lordship iuA 
cm/ government of bishops to he unlawful, and contauy to 
scripture. ^^ The lordship and civil government of bishops,'* 
jsays he, '' is utterly unlawful. The kingdom of Christ U 
f* a spiritual' government only. But the government o^ the 
^' church is a part of the kingdom of Christ. TherdGooe^ 
^vthe .goyemmont of the church is only a spintual SNyyomr 
foment. What the kingdom of Christ is, and whst 
5^ government he hath estabushed init, learn not o^ me,.^^ 
^^, of God himself. What can be plainer thanlhe ivoiai.of 
<^ Christ? Mj/ kingdom knot of this world f Bqmptualif 

DEERING; ' '' \9t 

f^ dotH St, Paiil say, The weapons of our- warfare are hoi 
^^ carnal f Let him, therefore,' who is the King of kings, 
*^ have the pre-eminence of government. And let him, 
^^ whose dominion is the kingdom of heaven, have the sword 
^^ and the sceptre that is not fleshly. Let not h vile pope, iii 
U the name of Christ, erect a hew kingdom, which Christ 
" never knew : a kingdom of this work!, which, in the 
** minifiltry of the gospel, he hath condemned. This kind of 
^^ rule hath set all out of order, and in confusion, mingled 
** heaven and earth together. — As the minister hath nothing 
** to do with the temporal sword, so it much less becometh 
" him to be called lord. The reason is plain from scripture. 
" Ministers are cuWed fishers ofmeriy labourersin the harvest,- 
** callers to the marriage, servants of the people, t0orkmeny 
** stewards, buildersy planters, &c. In all of which, they are 
** removed from a lordship over the people. And affain, 
" they are called fellow-elders, fellow-helpens, fellow* 
** workmen, fellow-soldiers, fellow-servants, fellow-tiravel- 
*ners,-&c. In which names, they are forbidden lordship 
" over their brethren. And, surely, it must be great rashiiess 
" to refuse so many names, which God hath given us, and^ 
^* take another, which importeth dominion over others. Can 
^* we doubt then in the question of lordship ? We appeal to 
*^ Christ, and the words of his^ mouth, to decide the contro- 
*^ versy» The disciples had this contention, as well as 
" ourselves. They ^rove much, who should be highest ; 
^^ against which strife, our Saviour Christ pronouncefh this 
" si»nterice. He 
" least. And z 

" servant of all. This is a'biief account of the superiority 
" in the ministry. And this shall for ever determine the 
** controversy, though all the wisdom in the world reply to 
*« the contrary. If a lord bishop find his titles given him 
" here, let him rejoice in his portion. If he have- them not 
" hence, he shall not have them from us: we will not so 
'< dishonour him who hath given the sentence." 

Aiierwards, ispeaking i»f oishops in the primitive church, 
and those in modem times, he makes the following distinc- 
tions : '< The bishops and ministers then, were one in degree : 
" now they are divers. — ^There were many bishops in one 
*^town: now there is but one in a whole country.— -No 
^^ bishop's authority was more than in one city : now it is in 
^' many shires. — The bishops then used no bodily bunish-^ 
*^ ments : now they imprison, fine, &c. — Those bishops 
<< could not exconmiunicate, nor absolve, of th^ir own 

11, VUl OC&TlvrUt V^'Ull.Bk |Jll/ll\/Ull«^V7i.u liiio 

? thai is greatest among you, let hint be as the 
whosoever of you wiS be the chief shall be 


<< authority: now the^ may. — ^Then, witboat consent, fhey 
<^ could make no mmisters: now they do. — They could 
^ confirm no children in other parishes: they do now in 
^ many shirks. — ^Then they had no Hying of the chuivh, but 
^^ only in one congregation : now they haYe.*-<-Then they 
<< had neither officials, nor commissaries, nor chancdlors^ 
^ under them. — Then the^ dealt in no civil government, by 
^< any established authority . — Then they had no right in 
^ alienating any parsonage, to give it in leiise. — ^Then they 
^^ had the church where they served the cure, even as those 
'^ whom we now call pamA minisiers,^^ — This bold and excel* 
lent letter contains many other interesting particulars, too 
numerous for our insertion.* Upon the appearance of Mr* 
Deering in the star-chamber, the fcdlowmg charges were 
brought against him : ^' That he had spdSen against god' 
fathers aim godmothers. — That be haa asserted that the 
statute of providing far the poor was not competent to the 
object — ^That he had said, he could provide tor them in a 
better way, by committing .them to be kept by the rich.— <» 
That, at a public dinner, he took off his cap, and said, 
< Now I will prophesy, Matthew Parker is the last arch- 
bishop that shall ever sit in that seat :' and that Mr* Cart« 
wiipht said, Accipio omen.^* 

To acquit himself of these charges, he presented an 
address, November 28th, to the lords of the council, who 
cxmstituted the above court. In this address, he proves his 
innocence, and- establishes his own reputation. He savs 
here, ^^ Against godfathers and godmothers, save only the 
name, I spake nothing. — That I said the statute of prpvision 
finr the poor was not competent to the object, or any such 
words, 1 utterly deny : I commended the statute. — >That I 
said I coidd provide for the poor, I utteriy deny, as words 
which I never spake, and thoughts which w^tre never yet in 
my heart. And if I had spoken any such thin^,. I had 
rooken wickedly, and accordingly deserved pumshmentt 
And thus much I profess and protest, before tlie seat of 
justice, where I dare not lie. — In tne last place, I am charged 
with taking off my cap, and saying, < Now I ^1 prfq[>li^^, 
Matthew ranker is the last archbishop that shall ever sH in 
that seat : ^d that Mr. Cartwri^t said, Accmioometu* Toi 
this I answer^ t^ I have confes^ what I said ; and hsn I 
send it, witnes^ by the hands of thosewho h^a^ it^ I 
put off no cap, nor spake of any prophesy .*'f 

« Strype's Annuls, vol. n. p. S70— 879, 
f Ibld.AppeBdi9,p.(Hh-68 

OEERIN6. 189 

' Howerer before Mr. Deering could be restored to hit 
bdoved ministerial work, the bishop or the archbishop 
leqoired him to acknowledge and subscribe to the four 
following articles : — ^^ 1. 1 acknowledge the Book of Articles, 
agreed upon by the dergf in the Synod of 1563, and con- 
firmed by the queen^s majesty, to be sound, and according 
^ the w(Hd of God;' 

In reply to thi^ he excepted a^unst the article of the 
fxmsecrtdion of bishops and archbishops, as contained in 
the said book. << To what i)urpo6e," says he, << is this 
article put in ? What reason is there to make all subscribe 
imto it ? Who dare make so bold an addition to the word 
tf God, as to warrant these consecrations to be tied unto it? 
Let him allow of it, who hath the profit of it : and he that 
liketh it not, let him have no bishoittic. I would, therefore^ 
f^dly make this exception. Also, the article touching 
Epmilies, to which, because they are made by man, I dare 
liot give my absolute warrant, that they are, in all thingsL 
according to the word of God. And when I set my hand 
unto it, I must needs avow that which I know not. I would, 
therefore, make this addition, As far as I know/* 

^^ 2. That the queen's majesty is the chief governor, next 
under Christ, of the church of England, as well in eccle- 
siastical, as ciVil causes." — '^ The second article," says he, 
*' I freely acknowledge." 

<< 3. That in the Book of Common Prayer, there is 
nothing evil, or repugnant to the word of God ; but that 
it may be well used in this our church of England." 
^. To this he excepts, ^< That in the book, there are many 
phrases and hard speeches, which require a favourable 
exposition. There are many things, though well meant, 
when first appointed, which were certainly ill devised, 
b&ng first usecl by papists. And, therefore, being stiU k^ 
in i& Prayer Book, they are offi^ve. — ^That day in which 
there is no communion, certain prayers are to be said after 
the ofiertory • What this ofiertory is, and what it meaneth, 
I cannot tell. And to account our prayers as offertories, I 
dare not warrant that it is acanrding to the word of God.-— 
Jn this bode, we are commonly called by the name of 
priests; which name, besides importing a ^pish sacrificer, 
and so is sacrilegious, cannot possibly be given to us, and to 
our Saviour also.— On Christmas-day, we say, < Thoo hast 
^ven us tiby Son ihis dwj to be bcim of a virgin.* The 
^sme words we use all Ums week after, as if Christ had 
ten bom anew every day in the weeL If it be aaidj tiis 


b but a iriffy the more loath I am to subscribe, that' it li 
according to the word of God.-*In one of the prajers, we 
saj, ^ Grant us that, which, for our unworthiness, we dare 
not ask.' These words cannot be excused. Thej fight 
directly a^inst our faith. We must come boldly io iism 
throne of grace, and doubt not of obtaining mercy, in 
w{iatever God has promised. These and such other thingSy 
thus standing in - the prayer book, make many fearful of 
aubscribing, that etery pari of it is according to the word 
of God." 

^< 4. That, as the public preaching of the word, in the 
church of England, is sound and sincere; so the public 
order, in the ministration of the sacraments, is consonant to 
the word of God." 

Upon this he observes, ^ How can I tell, that all preach- 
ing m England is sound and sincere, wh^i I hear not fdl 
^preachers ? And sometimes those whom I do hear, preach 
neither soundly, nor sincerely : but this is the fault <h man. 
—And that the public order, in the ministration of the 
sacraments, is according to God's word, I cannot simplv 
confess. There is an order how women may baptise. All 
reformed churches have condemned this, and how caft I 
allow it? All learned men write against the questions 
and crossings in baptism; and why should I, with my 
hand, condemn all their doings ? The wafer cake in 
many churches, is thought intolerable; and our own act 
of parliament for avoiding superstition, hatii appointed 
other bread r what then if I should dislike it ? 

<< Another reason why I cannot subscribe both to <tbis 
article and the first, is the one contradicting the other. In 
■the first I must subscribe to all the homilies s in this, to all 
-the ceremonies ; and yet our homilies condenm many df oar 
ceremonies. In the homilies it issaid, ^ That the costly and 
manifold furniture of vestments lately used in the chuvch, 
is Jewish, and maketh us the more willingly, in tiuch 
apparel to become Jewish.' If I subscribe to this, how Can 
I subscribe to the ceremonies used in cathedral cbutches, 
wjiere the priests, deacon, and subdeacon, are in copes and 
yestments ? In the homilies, it is said, ^. That pipmg, 
singing, chanting, playing on organs,. &c. greatly displease 
GcM, and filthily aefile his holy temple.' If I must sub* 
•crifaie to th is, then I must not subscribe io the Contrary, eevea 
that all our ceremonies are good, and acording to the witwd- 
0^ God. tiow can I say, that our doctrine; Our sttcranllBnt^ 
oar prayers, our ceremonies, oqr or^iers, eyen that all ii 

.« r. 


liccotdiri^ to the word of God ? A person haying a c(^ 
science, or no conscience, must needs be tried here: imd 
blessed* is he that is not offended. See, I beseech you, what 
trrong I sustain, if I be urged to this subscription. While 
toy law bound me to wear the cap and snrplice, I wore hcfOu 
When I was at liberty, surely I would not wear them for 

•^ devotion. I never persuaded any to refuse them, nor am I 
charged witli ever preaching against them. Thus, accord- 

' ing io my promise, I have set down how far I would yield 
in these articles which your worship sent me. If 1 se^m 
curious, or to stand upon little points, conscience, it should 
be remeinbered, is very tender, and will not yield contrary 
to its persuasion of the truth. I have sent you these articles^ 
subscribed with mine own hand, and sealed with my heaiti 
even in the presence of Grod ; whom I humbly beseecli, fat 
Christ's sake, to give peace unto his church, that her 

~ ministers may rejoice, and her subjects be glad. 1 concliide, 
desiring God to make you rich in all grace, to his honour 
and glory. December 16, 1573."» Here we see the evil 
df requiring subscription to articles and creeds of humian 
composition. To yield in such a case as this, would rack 
the cons^cience of every honest man. ■...-.■ 

Twenty other articles were, about the same time, presented 
to Mr. Dcering in the star-chamber; to each of which, he 
gave a particular answer. These articles were designed. 
Bays Mr. Strype, to make exact inquiry into his principles 
and opinions, concerning the church, its usages, practices^ 
and clergy, and the queen's authority ; and he might, with 
truth, have added, that it assumed all the appearance of a 
tyrannical and cruel inquisition. Mr. Deering, in the 
preface to his answers to these articles, thus expressed him- 
•elf :-^-^" I most humbly beseech your honours, to remember 
iny former protestation, that I have never spoken against 
the book of prayers; and in my book in print, I have 
spoken openly for the allowance of it. I resort to common 
prayers ; and sometimes, being requested, 1 say the prayers 
as prescribed. If I be now urged to speak what I think, as 
liefi>re an inquisition, there being no law of Grod requiring, 
-me- to accuse -myself, I beseech your honours, let my 
'answer witness my humble duty and obedience, rather than 
be prejudicial and hurtful to me. This I most humbly 
crave; and tinder the persuasion of your fevour, I wiu 
answer boldly, as I am required.^' These articles, which so 

• Pftrte of a Register, p. SI-»tf . 


omcb difloover tbe spirtt of the tiInefl^ and (he aniwcn ^ 
Mr. Deering presented to the coojrt, thou^ at some .Icaagthp 
we here present to the carious and inquisitiTe reader. They 
were the following : 

Article 1. Is the book entitled ^ The Book of CraimM 
Serrice.*^ aUowed by public authority in this realm^ to be 
allowed in the church of Grod, by God's word, or not ? 
. Answer* The similitude oi this book, to that form of 
nrayer used by the papists, leads me to ttiink it declindtli 
nom those laws, Deut vii. 25^ xiL 90^ xviii. 9. Also, ita 
great inconyenience in encouraging unlearned and indolent 
ministers to conclude, that the mere reading of the seryioe 
is sufficient. These are some of the reasons why I cannot 
aubscribe, that all the book is allowable by the word of 
God. Some other things, the bishops themselyes confev to 

2. Are the articles set down by the clergy in Synod» 
and allowed by public authority, according to God's woid| 

I confess, as I am persuaded, that the articles of fiutk aio 
food. I think the same of the articles about traditions, aa 
oath before a jud^ the ciyil magistrate, the doctrine of the 
komilies, &c. But that which relates to the consecratimi oi 
archbishops and bishops, I can by no means confesa as 
^odly, and according to the word of Grod. 

3. Are we tied in all things, by God's word^ to tht 
order and usage oi the apo^es and primitiye chmdi| 
INT not? 

No doubt we are bound to whatsoever was the usual order 
of the apostles. When St. Paul had said to Timothy^ 
f< Thou bast fully known my doctrine, manner pf liik 
purpose," &c. &c. he adds, continue in the tkin^. arAtcf 
ibou host learned. And he chargeth the PhiTippianS| 
Those things which ye have both learned and received, aid 
heard and seen in me^ do. 

, 4. Is there any right ministry, or ecclesiastical govem* 
IDent, at this time, in the church of England, or not ? 

I^ by right, you mean such a calling as the word of Qod 
lequireth : a«, t Tim. iii. S., Acts i. 23., xiy. 23,. 1 Tim. iy. 
14., I am sure you will confess it is not right«^ If yom 
mean a right ministration of the ck>ctrine and sapramentfl^f 
Uumbly c*onfess, that no man ought to separate hiqwlf 
from the church. Concerning goycrnment, >ee the ^Cfffitk 

5. May nothing be in the churchy eithec concerning ceie> 


monies, or go?eriiiiieiit, but tbat only which the Lord ia 
his word, commandeth ? 

Such ceremoiiies as do not necessarily appertain to the 
fpspel of Christ, may be changed ; observing aiwaj^ that 
which 8t Paol hath commanded, Phil. iy. 8., 1 Cor. xiv. 8& 

6r Oaght every particular church or parish in England, 
of necessity, and by the order of God's word, to have its 
omn pastor, elder, and deacons, chosen by ;|he people of 
that parish ; and they only to have the whole government oi 
fliat particular church, in matters ecclesiastic^ i 

Wherever this government hath been, the choice hath 
lieen by certain persons, with the allowance of the peopl^ 
so &r as I ever read. But what is most requisite at the 
present time, I leave to those whom God hath set in 

7. Should there be an equality among all the ministers of 
Ais realm, as well in government and jurisdiction, as in the 
ministration of the word and sacraments ? 

That all ministers are called to the preaching of the 
word, and the ministration of the sacraments, no man, I 
think, will deny. Touching government or govemois, the 
Holy Ghost odleth them feUow-ministers, fellow-eldem^ 
fellow-officers, fellow-soldiers, fellow-labourers, fellow-ser^ 
vants : and St P^ter expressly forbids them being hrcb over 
GocTs heritage. St John evidently condemneth the lordly 
dominion of Diotrephes, in commanding and exconunum* 
calin^ by his own authority. Our Lord himself, refused to 
lexercise any lordly dominion; and when his disciples 
Stroye for superiority, he expressly forbad them, and 
leproved them for aspiring after it. Though ministers aie 
worthy of double honour, singular love, great reverence^ 
and all humble duty, I dare, by no means, make them lordk 
|a the ministry, nor give to any one df them authority 
above the i:est 

8. Are the patrimonies of the church, such as bishops* 
lahds, the lands belonging to cathedral churches, the glebe 
lands, and tithes, by ri^t, and Grod's word, to be taken 
from them t 

Render unto Cas$ar^ the things which are Cmsai^s; ani 
unto Godj the things thai are God^Sy is a rule alwuys 
binding. Evenr pnnce who feaveth Ae King of kin^i, 
must make sufficient provisicm for the ministry, then for 
4he poor, then for schools and the universities, in such a 
dqpnee as may supply the wants of the ministry; wOt' 


oat which the spoil of the church is most nimatoiBl 

9. Are the ministers of this realm, of whatsoever caHing, 
now in place, lawful ministers; and their administration^ 
and (*ccle8la8tical actions, lawful and effectual ? 

This article, so far as I can see, is the same as the 

10. Is it liot convenient at a marriage, to have the com* 
munion, and 'the newly married perscms to communicate; 
and, at a funeral, to have a sermon ? 

I would have communions at such times as the church 
appoints. On those days, if there be a marriage, it is 
meet that the parties communicate. As to the funeral 
sermons, they may be used. Yet, if there be any incon* 
▼enience, by hurting or offending the church, they ought 
to be omitted. 

11. Is it lawful for any man to preach, besides he who b 
a pastor ; and may a pastor preach out of his own flock 
without a license ? 

None may preach but a pastor, and he, on just occasion, 
being requested, may preach out of his own flock. But, 
•urely, if he have no license to preach, he hath no license 
to be a pastor. 

IS. Is it better and more agreeable to God*s word, and 
more for the profit of Grod's church, that a prescribed order 
of common prayer be used, or that every minister pray 
publicly, as his own spirit shall direct him ? 

An ordinary prayer is very necessary, that it may Tbc 
fiuniliar to the people : but, as every pansh will have its 
occasions and necessities, so it is necessary, that the 
minister be able to pray in the congregation, according to 
the necessities of the people. 

13. Are the children of parents, who are perfect papists, 
to be baptized ? And are infants within God's covenant, 
and have they faith ? 

If parents arc obstinate, and perfect papists, wanting 
nothing of the spiritual wickedness of antichrist, and are so 
accounted by the church, their children are not to be 
admitted to this sacrament, though we exclude them not 
firom the election of Grod : but if the parents be not cast but 
of the ohurch, we may admit the childlien; yet not a« 
having that faith which cometh by hearing, but as b^ing 
•Within the covenant : / am their Cfod^ and the God of their 



14. May any ecclesiastical persons have more eccle- 
siastical livings than one?* 

For one man to have many parsonages, where he cannot 
possiSly reside, is great wickedness. And seeing Christ hath 
purchased his.churcfa with his own.Uood, whosoever enjoy s 
several livings, considers very little the words of St. Paul : 
Take heed unto all the-Jlock^ acer which the Holt/ Ghod 
hath made you overseers^ to feed the church of God* ly 
therefore, humbly 'beseech your honours, to have this. care- 
fully reformed. 

" 15. TfiidLj one be a minister, who has no particular .flock 
assigned him } And may an ecclesiastical person be ezeri' 
cjscS, also, in a cm/function ? 

A minister can no more be without a charge, than a king^ 
without a kingdom. No man that warreth entanglelh him^ 
sdf with the affairs of this life. And I am sure whatsoever 
person seeketh after civil offices, wanteth that love which 
should most abound. Our Saviour refused to be judge m 
the division of lands. Yet 1 judge not him, who, on 
special occasions, seeketh to do good to others. 

16. Are all the conunandmeuts of God needful finr sal- 

. All the commandments are necessary for all men in all 
places, and are ever to be observed. And as Christ was 
minister^ not of earthly thin^, but heavenly; so the 
pbservance of all his commandments is necessary ta salva^ 
tibh ; and the breach of the least of them, if imputed to 
iis^ hath the just recompence of eternal death. " 

. . 17. Has the Queen of England authority over the 
ecclesiastical state, and in ecclesiastical matters, as well as 

Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, whether, 
he be an apostle, or evangelist, or prophet, or whatsoever he 
be. This subjection is not a^mst his calling. Princes 
have full authority over all ecclesiastical and civil persons^ 
aiid equally over both, to punish offenders, and to praise 
well-doers. Only this is the difference in the sovereignty 
oyer both. The commonwealth cannot be without the 
magistrate; but if all magistrates fall from the church, we 
miist still hold this article, ^^ I believe in the catholic 
church.^^ For Christy and not the christian m9gistrate, is 
the life and head of the church. In the commonwealtl^ 

* What could the commissionen desi^ by proposini; this qoesCion ? Did 
they imagine it was a crime tospealc against plaralities, tb»great plagao of 
thf cbHitian church, and at which even papists blosh ? 


the prince midLeth and repealeth laws, as appears most' for 
the safety of the state, and the bcsiefit of the people; but in 
tbe chiuch, there is only one Lawgiver, even Jksus 

18. Is the Qaeen of England the chief governor under 
Christ, over the whole church and state ecclesiastical in this 
lealm, or but a member of it ? And may the church of 
Eiudand be established without the magistrate i 

This is answered under the seventeenth article. 

19. Is the Queen of England bound to observe the 
judicial laws of Moses, in ue punishment and pardon of 
criminal ofiences ? 

We are sure that the law of Moses, was, to the people of 
Israel, an absolute and a most perfect rule of justice ; so 
that ul laws ought to be made accordingto its equity. Yet^ 
to decide on all particular cases, dare I not. It belongedi 
to the Lord to say, I will pardon, or I will destroy. 

20. May the Queen of England, of herself, and by her 
own authority, assign and appoint civil officers ? 

I never knew a man who doubted this article. And sure I 
am, that her majesty, in her wisdom, may do as she thinketh 
best.* \ 

These were the articles proposed to Mr. Deering in the 
atar-chamber, and this was the substance of those answers 
which he presented to the court in writing. In these 
answ^ says Mr. Strype, he made very Ul reflections upon 
the reformation and religion of the established church.f 
Whether this remark be consistent with christian liberality, 
or even common justice, every reader will easily judge. What 
could be the design of the commissioners in proposing such 
inquiries ? Some of them relating wholly to matters of state^ 
seem designed to ensnare him. Others were evidently 
intended to draw him either to approve, or to censure, tlie 
corruptions of the church. And m general, it is extremely 
manifest, that they were put to him, to rack his conscience 
and to get sometmnff out of him ; to make him an offender 
by his own confession. ^< For my part," savs Mr. Peirce^ 
*^ when I consider the abominable tyrannv of all such prcn 
eeedings, and the barbarous wickedness of sifting the secrete 
of mens' hearts, about those matters, of which perhaps thqr 
never spoke any thing in their lives; I heartily bless mt 
Qod that he did not cast my lot in those davs, but leservca 
ao for times of greater equity and freedom«*^t 

* Barteof a Register^ p. 73— M.— SCrype'i Annab, tdI. H. p. S8O988I* 
t Strjpe'i Parker, p, 459. t Pelroe'i YladloaloB, part I. p. 81.: 


Ihuring Mr. Deering^s smension, the Bistiop of LondcMii 
out of good nature, it is said, interceded with the treasoren 
to procure the consent of the councU for his liberty to preaen 
again at St Paul's ; upon these conditions, that he tauglifc 
aound doctrine, exhorted to virtue, dissuadra firom vice, and 
meddled not with matters of order and policy, but left tbea 
16 the magistrate : and, he said, he believed Mr* Deerinc 
would be brought so to do. He thought these gentle deaf- 
ings the best, tor the present, and would quiet the minds of 
the people. He thought a soft plaster, in such a case, much 
better than a corrosive. But the treasurer, we are informed, 
disliked the advice, and sharply reproved the bishop fof 

S'ving it At length, however, he prevailed; got flffr. 
Bering's suspension taken ofl^ and, notwithstanding his 
puritanical answers to the above articles, procured hb resto- 
ration to his lecture.* 

The lords of the council having restored him to hik 
bdoved work of preaching, the archbishop and several of 
llie bishops were much offended. Dr. Cox, bishop of Ely, 
wrote a warm letter to the treasurer, signifying nis grf»t 
disapprobation of the conduct of the council m restoring 
him, even as a man sound in the faith, and by their owil 
authority, without consulting spiritual men, whose businesji 
it was to determine in such cases : , and that they ought not 
to have determined a matter relating to reUgion without the 
assistance of those who belonsed to the ecclesiastical func- 
tion. Mr. Deering was, indeed, restored in consequence of 
the answers he gave to the articles, which articles, it seems^ 
were collected out of Mr. Gartwri^hf s book against Whit^ 
gift. Though Bishop Cox said his answers were fond and 
wUrucj the lords of the council thought otherwise, and were 
satisfied with them. The bishop urged, that in these mat- 
ters ihey ought to have consulted the jud^ient of learned 
divines, adding, << In all godly assemblies, priests have 
usually been called, as in parliaments and privy councils.** 
And in tlie warmth of his zeal, he seemed inclined to move 
the queen's majesty to oppose and recall the decree of the 
council : but he trusted that the treasurer would, in his 
wisdom and godlv zeal, undertake to do it himself, f Our 
author further adds, that when Mr. Deering and three of hii 
inrethren were first cited into the star-chamber, the Bishc^ of 
Xrfmdon remained silent, for which the queen afterwatA 
bitterly rebuked him.} 

• Strype*! Barker, p. 4S6. f Ibid. p. 486, 497. 

t Qaeen filisabetli wu a lady of a proud and Impcrioos ipirit; aad 


Although Mr. Deering was again allowed to preach, his 
troubles were not endri. The Bishop of London, by whose 
influence he had been restored, appeared soon to repent of 
what he had done. Whrn he waited, upon the bishop, 
informing him that the council, by their letters, had restored 
him to his lecture, his grace said he would see the letters, . 
or he should not preach, and added, ^^ That unless he 
preached more soberly and discreetly than before, he would 
silence him again." Mr. Deering replied, ^^ If you dp 
forbid me, I think I shall obey?' His obedience was, 
indeed, soon brought to the test ; for the bishop silenced, 
him presently after. He brought complaints against him in 
the star-chamber, and urged the treasurer to procure an 
order from the queen to put down his lecture. He wrote 
ialso to the Earl of Leicester, signifying how much he disliked 
Mr. Deering's continuance. This was going the right way' 
to work, and he was sure of success. Accordingly, the 
business was brought before her majesty, who commanded 
him to be silenced ; and a warrant being sent to the bishop, 
for this purpose, he was again suspended.* 

In the year 1574, the famous Dr. Thomas Sampson being 
laden with old age and infirmities, was desirous of Mr. 
Deering succeeding him in his lecture at Whittingtoin- 
eollege, London, for which there was a stipend of ten pounds 
Hyear. The company of cloth-workers had the power rf 
nomination, and the archbishop had the allowance. Dr.. 
•Sampson had no doubt of the company's approbation, but 
doubted the - favour of the archbishop. And, indeed, his 
doubts were not without foundation; for his grace bein^ 
moved to allow of Mr. Deering, in case he should be nomi* 
.nated by the company, he utterly refused. Dr. Sampson, 
however, wrote to Burleigh, the treasurer, earnestly iiitreat- 
ing him, in this case, to use his influence with the archbishop. 
In this letter, he observed|^ tliat though the archbishop di4 
not himself like to take pains in the congregation, he should 

■snaHy carried things with a Tery high hand, expecting aU to bow to ber 
%iil and pleasure. This arbitrary temper she exercised over ber owa 
.«lergy, as well as others. Dr. Nowell, dean of St. Paal's, and one of tbe 
.queen's chaplains, having spoken leas reverently of tbe sign of the croat* ia 
m sermon preache<l before her majesty, she called aloud to him from iter 
closet window, commanding him to retire from that ungodly digreMioD,aDd 
letnra to his text. — On another occasion, Elizabeth and the Earl of SmtjL 
^t exactly agreeing in a point of political prudence, this sovereign lady 
was so exceedingly provoked, that she gave him a box on the ear, and bid 
kirn '' go and be hanged."— ffe^/in*! HUt. of Rtifor. p. 194. Edit. IIITO.-^ 
MMpin's Hist vol. ii. p. 149. 
• Hrype'i Barker, p. 4«8. 


not ImAet or.foibid otbers, who were both able and Wiffiil^* 
He could say of Mr. Deering, that his grace of Canterbui^ 
could find no fault with him, either in his doctrine or hu 
life. Also, that it was no ^reat promotion, but a place in 
which, bj the labours of Mr. Deering, he doubted not that 
her raaj^y's subjects would be much profited. It was all 
to no purpose. The archbishop remembered his \fonner 
nonconformity, but especially his puritanical answers to the 
articles in the star-chamber; and, therefore, remained in- 
flexible, and would not admit him.* 

At ten^h, Mr. Deering being worn out by hard laboujir 
and manifold troubles, fell sick ; and perceiving his disso*. 
lution to approach, he said to his friehds, '^ The good Lord 
pardon my great negligence, that, while I had time, I used 
not iin precious gifts more for the advancement of his glory, 
as I might have dcMie : yei I bless God, that I have not 
abused those gifts to ambition and vain studies. When I 
am dead, my enemies will be reconciled to me ; excepting 
such as knew .me not, or such a;s have in them no sense of 
tiie truth. I have faithfully, and with a good conscience, 
served the Lord my God, and my prince." A brother 
minister standing by him, said, *< It is a great blessing tor' 
you, that you shall depart in peace, and be takim Irom 
many troubles, which your brethren shall behold and suffer." 
To whom he replied, ^' If the Lord hath appointed that 
his saints shall sup together in heaven, why do I not go to 
them ? But if there be any doubt or hesitation resting on 
my spirit, the Lord reveal the truth unto me." Having for 
son^ time lain still, a friend who attended him, said, that 
he hoped his mind had been employed in holy meditation ; 
to whom he thujs replied : ^' A poor wretch and a miserable 
man that I am, the least of all saints, the chief of all sinners f 
yet I trust in Christ my Saviour. Yet a little while,' and we 
shall see our hope. The end of the world is coming upon us ; 
and we shall quickly receive the end of our hope, which we 
have so much looked for. Afilicticms, diseases, sickness, 
and gHief, are c«ly parts of that portion which God hath 
allottod uA hi this world. It is not enough to continue some 
time ki' his ways ; we must persevere in the fear of the Lord' 
to the iftnd of our days. For in a moment we shall be taken* 
away. Take heed, therefore, that you do not make spoit of 
the word of God^ nor lightly esteem so great a treasnrew 

• Strype'i Pftrk«r> p. 469* 4'£0u 
TOL. I. P 



Blessed are tliey who, while they have tongues, usf them te 
God's glory." 

As the hour of his dissolution approached, being i^ided 
up in bed, his friends desired him to say something to their 
edification and comfort. The sun shining in his face, he 
thus addressed them : ^^ As there is only one sun in the 
world, so there is only one righteousness, and one commu-' 
nion of saints. If I were tlie most excellent creature in the 
ivorld;, equal in righteousness to Abraliam, I^aac, and Jacob, 
yet would I confess myself to be a sinner, and that I expected 
salvation in the righteousness of Jesus Christ alone : for we 
all stand in need of the grace of God. As for my. death, I 
bless God, I find and feel so much comfort and jpy in my 
soul, that if I were put to my choice, whether to die or live, 
I would a thousancl times rather choose death than life, if it 
was the holy will of God. He died soon after, June S6, 

. Fuller denominates Mr. Deering a pious man^ a painful 
preacher, and an eminent divine ; but disaffected to bishops 
and ceremonies.f Mr. Strype says, he was disliked by the 
bishops, and some other great personages, as a man vain and 
full of fancies^ because he would tell them of their ccmmum 
swearing and covetousness. He would not associate ^ith 
persecutors ; and was much grieved when the benefice ci a 
great parish was ffiven to an impreachinff minister. Yet, 
says he, it was Mr. Deering^s common fault to tell Hes^t 
Does not this look like a slander ? What did the excellent 
i)r. Sampson say of him, as already noticed, who knew bim 
well ? Surely, if this had been his common fault, having so 
many enemies constantly and narrowly watching him, bis 
sin would have found him out. Granger gives a very 
different account of him. ^' The happy death," says h^ 
'^ of this truly religious man, was suitable to the purity and 
integrity of his life.'^ He is classed with. the other learned 
writers and fellows of Chrisf s college, Cambridge.] 

Mr. Deering was a man of great learning, and a fine 
orator ; but in his sermon before the queen, February 85, 
1569, he had the boldness to say, " If you have somdimea 
said (meaning in the days of her sister Mary,) tanquam<n4sy 
as a sheep appointed to be slain ; tal^e heed you hear mo^ 

•■•• • ■ " ■ ' . •».•.■ 

, * Account annexed tp JSfr. Deering^a Lects. db Heb; — ^FoUer'-s Ahcl 
Redf7Wu«;p. ^1,342. - .. . 

f Faller's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 109. t SCrype's Parker, p. 381, 489. 

S Granger's Biog. Hi^, vol. i. ^. S15. g Fuller's Hist, of Cum. p. 98* 


now of the prophet, tanquam indomica juvencoy as an un- 
tamed add unruly heifer."* For this, he was forbiddea 
preaching any more, at court; and surely, says Fufler, 4he 
Queen still retained much of her former disposition, as a 
^heepj in not inflicting a greater punishment, for so public 
a reproof.f . 

Mr. Clark relates the following anecdote, shewing the 
dmiableness of his truly christian spirit. Mr. Deerjng being 
once at a public dinner, a gallant young man sa,t on the 
opposite side the table, who, besides other vain discourse^ 
broke out into profane swearing; for which Mr. Deering 
gravely and sharply reproved him., The young man 
taking this as an affront, mmiediately threw a glass of beer 
in his face. Mr. Deering took no notice of the insult, bujt 
"friped his. face, and continued eating as before. The young 

Sntleman presently renewed his profane conversation ; and 
r. Deering reproved him as before ; upon which, but 
trith more ra^ and violence, he flung another gla^ of beer 
in his face. Mr. Deering continued unmoved, still shewing 
tis zeal for the glory of God, by bearing the insult with 
christian meekness and humble silence. This so astonished 
the young gentleman, that he rose from the table, fell on his 
knees, and a^ked Mr. Deerin^'s pardon ; and declared, that 
it* any of the company offered him similar insults, he woul(j|[ 
stab them with his sword.^ Here was practically verified, 
the New Testament maxim, " Be not overcome of evil, but 
overcome evil with good." 


: His Works. — I. A Sermon at the Tower of London, 1569.— r2. A 
sparing Restraint of many lavish UntrHths, which Master D. Harding 
qpth cbaiienge in the first Article of my L. of Salisburies Reply, 1560. 
—3. Certaiqe godly and comfortable Letters, full of Christian Conso- 
lation, 1671. — 4. Twenty-seven Lectures, or Headings, upon part of 
the Epistle to the Hebreaes, 1576. — 5. A Sermon preached before the 
Queeifs Majesty, the 25th day of February, 1569, from Psalm Ixxviil. 
70., 1584. — 6. A briefe and necessarie Catechisme, or Instruction very 
iieedfiil to be known to all Householders. — AU these were collected 
and published in one volume, in 4to., 1597. i 

Thomas Aldrich, A. M. — He was son of John Aldrich^ 
^ho was twice chosen mayor of the city of Norwich, 
And member of several parliaments for that city. His father 
being a public character, introduced him to public aotic^ 

* Seroion before the Qoeen, Feb. 95, 1569. 
' -f Poller*! Church Hist. b. ix. p. 109. 
t Clark's Examples, p. 60Q. JSdit. 1671.' 


and obtained his preferment to seyeral ecclesiastical bene- 
fices. He was made archdeacon of Sadbnrj, prebeiidaiy 
of Westminster, master of Bennet colk^ Cambridgi^ 
proctor of the imiversitj', and rector of nadleigh in Sii& 
folk.* About the same time, be became chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Parker, and was appointed one of the commisriflneri 
for visiting and . reforming the papists in the count j i/ 
Norfolk, f Notwithstanding all these woridly aUnrementi^ 
together with a flattering prospect of much higher advance- 
ment, he espoused the cause of the deqpued puiitans; 
became a zealous nonconformist, and one of their kaden iai 
the university of Cambridge. 

It is observed, that. May 20, 1 57 1, Mr. Aldrich preached 
at Thetford, in Norfolk : Bf ay 21st, he preached at Wy- 
mondham : May 22d, he preached at Matshall : Biay 24tli| 
he preached in St. Clement's church, Norwich : aund the 
next Lord's day. May S7th, he preached in the Greenvard, 
before the mayor and citizens. He was, therefore, no inddent 
labourer in the Lord's vineyard.^ 

Mr. Aldrichbeingmaster of the above coUese, and refusing, 
from a scrupulous conscience, to take the degrees required 
of those in that office, was brought into many troubka^ 
and at length, to avoid expulsion, resigned his mastership of 
the college. Many other grievous complaints are said to Imve 
been broudit against him, most probably about his noncon- 
formity. In one of these complaints, he b said to have 
called the archbishop ^^ the pope of I^unbeth add Bonnet 
college." Dr. Whitgifl, at this time one of the heads of the 
university, took an active part in these severities. This was 
in the year 1573 ; but some time previous io these tronbla^- 
Mr. Aldrich voluntarily resigned his preboid at West-' 
minster.^ It is, indeed, acknowledged, that as be objected 
taking the degrees, upon the ground of a scrupulous con- 
science, the treatment he met with was-rof Aer too sfvat4 

The author last cited, however, brings many foul accu- 
sations against him. He observes, that Mr. Aldrich was^ 
charged, not only with Refusing to qualify for his oCBce, bnf 
with evil goveniment of his college, in neglecting its 
exercises and discipline ; with things prejudicial to its 
temporal interests ; and with various otusr things, io the^ 
number of twenty. Aiid the troubles of the coll^ did not'. 

• Blomefleld*! Hist, of Norfolk, toI. ii. p. 4S8. 
+ Newcourt*8 R«pert. Eccl. fol. i. p. 926. 

■^ Strype*! Purker, p. 264. S Ibid. p. 4S9-4S9.— WhiCgilt p.49. 

Maste^i UUt. of C. C. C. p. 118. £dlr. 1T63. 




^d with his resignation. For the masters and fellows, says 
he, were afterwards un^er the necessity of appealing to 
Chancery, to oblige him to account for several suras' of 
tnoney which he had received, and had not paid ; to restore 
many writings, the private seal of the master, and some 
other things; and to discharge the various debts which he 
had contracted. These, however, were not recovered till 
after his death, which happened in the year 1576.* These 
are certainly very heavy charges! But how far he was 
guilty, is not easy now to ascertain. He was a jnan well versed 
in the learned languages, also in the French and Italian.!* 
The Oxford historian says, that he was deprived of his 
prebend for notorious nonconformity; but, iipon his re- 
pentance and reconciliation, that he was admitted to another 
prebend, in 1576, the year in which he died.]: It is not 
easy to reconcile this with the account given above from Mr. 

' Thomas IjEver, B. D. — This celebrated divine was bom 
of respectable parents dt^ Little Lever in. Lancashire, and 
eciucated in the university of Cambridge. After taking 
his degrees, he was choseii fellow, then master of St. John's 
college ; in which office he succeeded Dr.. William Bill, 
and was the seventh master of the house.^ He wa^ a 
famous disputant, a cdebrated scholar, and remarkably 
aSealous in the advancement of true religion,|| He was 
drdained both priest and deacon^ in the vea'r 1550, by 
ttishop Ridley, afterwards martyr in the Mai-ian persecu- 
d^on^ and was a most eloquent and popular preacher to the 

MKfE AJUO MVAVt CUJ«A |Jiai.lI %Jl\if»iKjAllMM^» KJjJ\ytM.^M.M.I^ \fM. I«AV' ^JV/M^Uftll^ 

6f Latimer, Bradford, Knox, arid Lever, he said; " They 
lipped so deeply in the galled backs of the great men at 
<iourt, to have purged them of the filthy matter festered ia 
tSieir hearts; as, insatiable covetousness, filthy carnality,, 
voluptuousness, intolerable pride, and ungodly loathsome- 
ness to hear poor mens' cases and God's word ; that they 
coidd never abide them above all others."** Afterwards, 

• Master'i Hist, of C. C. C. p. Ill, 118. 

f l^rype^i Parker, p. 889. t Wood*8 Athenn Oxon. toI. i. p. Tfij. 

^.Baker's MS. CoUec. ▼ol. i. p. 146. 

I Strype'i Cranmer, p. 163. 

1 Baker's MS. CoUec. vol. i. p. 146. •• Strype's Fhrker, p. 811« 


when Ridlej^was cast into prison, and not long before- be 
was committed to the flames, he wrote a letter to his friend 
Grindal, then in exile, in which he made affectionate and 
honourable.m<'ntion of Mr. Lever, as one of the persecuted 
servants of Christ.* 

In the above year he preached two sermons, the one at 
Paul's cross,+ the other before the king, which, it is said, 
would in that day have spoiled any man's preferment. As 
he delivered several things on these occasions, illustratiiig 
the history of the time, and particularly shewing the state 
of learning, the way of living, and the course of study, as 
well as the manner of preaching, in those days, 'we shall, 
take notice of one or two passages; which serve also to 
describe the author in his spirit and address. Having 
spoken in commendation of King Henry's bounty, in giving 
j^SOO annually, towards the exhibition of five leamea men, 
to read and teach divinity, law, physic, Greek and HebreW| 
and of his munificence in founding Trinity college, and 
other bounties, he proceeds as follows : 

" Howbeit, all they that have knowen the universitye^of 
^^ Cambryge, sense tnat tyme that it dyd fyrst beeynne to 
^* receive these greate and manyefolde benefytes from the 
^' kynges magstye, at youre handes, have juste occasion 
** to suspecte that you have decyved boeth the kynge and 
** universitic, to eniyche yourselves. For before that you 
*' dyd begynne to be the disposers of the kynges lyberalitye 
** towards leamynge and poverty, ther was in houses be». 
** longynge unto the universitye of Cambryge two hundred 
^' students of dy vy nytye, many verye well learned j whyche 
^* be nowe all clene gone, house and name ; younge towarde 
^^ scholers, and old fatherlye doctors, not one of them 
*^ lefte. One hundred also of an other sorte. that havynge 
^^ rich frendes or beying benefyced men dyd lyve of they m« 
^^ selves in ottels and innes, be eyther gon awaye, or elles 
^^ fayne to crepe into colleges, and put poore men from 
'** bare ly vynges. Those bothe be all gone, and ^ small 
" number of poore godly dylygent students now remaynyiige 
** only in colleges be not able to tary, and contynne 
** their studye in the universitye, for lacke of exhibition 
^* and healpe. There be dy verse ther which ryse dayly 
** betwixt foure and fy ve of the clocke in the mdmynge ; 

• Fox's Martyrs, Tol. iii. p. 347. 

f Pilars cross was a palpit, in the form of a cross, which ifAod nearlj 
in the jniddle of St. Paul's chiirch-yard, where the first reformen ttsed 
frequently to preach onto the people. 

LEVER. f 815 

<< and from fy ve untill isjxe of the clocke, use commob 
*^ prayer, wyth an exhortation of God's worde, in a common 
^^ chappell ; and from sixe unto ten of the clocke, use ever 
<^ eyther. private study or common lectures. At tenne of 
^.^ the clecke they go to dynner, where as they be contente 
'' wyth a penye pyece of biefe amongest foure, havynge 
** a few.e porage made of the brothe of* the same byete,' 
^> wytbe salte and otemel, and nothynge els. 

^ Aflter thys slender dinner, they be either teacfainge or 
^ learnynge untyll fyve of the clocke in the evening,' 
^' whenas they have a supper not much better than theyr 
^ diner. Immedyatelye Mter the wyche, they go eyther to 
^ reasonynge in problemes or unto some other studye, untyl 
^* it be nyne or tenne of the clocke; and there beynge 
^' wythout fyre, are fayne to walke or runne up and downe 
^^ halfe an houre, to gette a heate on their feete, when they 

Notwithstanding the heaw pressures under which the 
university, and particularly St. John's college, groaned, of 
which Mr. Lever complains in his sermons, occasioned by 
the hungiy courtiers invading the ecclesiastical preferments ; 
yet his college greatly flourished, a3 well in religion as in 
sound learning. The reformation in no place gained more 
ground, or was maintained with greater zeal^ than in this 
college, and und^ the worthy example and just government 
of this master. This was manifest in the day of trial; 
when he, with twenty-four of his fellows, quitted their 
places and preferments, to preserve their own consciences, f "^ 

Mr. Lever ^as a zealous advocate for the refonnation, a^ 
well as genuine piety. He held a correspondence with his 
numerous friends; and among his letters, the following, 
whiich contains information not unworthy of notice, is given 
as a specimen of his sentiments and address. It is addressed 
to the learned Roger Ascham ; and though there is no year 
mentioned, it appears from the contents to have been written 
November 13, 1551^ and about the time when he was pre^ 
lerred to the mastership of his college.; 

f ^ Tq Roger Ascl^am^ 

^ My salutation in Christ I haye received your letters 
*' written, unto me. As concerning a privilege to be pK>? 
^' cured for you, go that the reading of Greek in Cambridge 
^^ might be free from Celibatus^ and such apts as the fellows 

« Baker's MS. Col}e<:. vol. j. p. 147, 148. f Ibid. ^ 149, 150. 

- :t Ibid. Tol. xMil. p. 496, .497, .' 


^^ of the house be bound unto. I have abo shewed. Mr. 
^ Cheek your request, and have as yet no answer from him. 
<< Your letters of news written to all the fellows of St. 
<^ John^s, are as yet reserved there, and come not as .yet 
^^ unto my sight. As touching the imprisonment of the 
f^ Duke of Somerset and his wue, the Earl of Arundel, the 
<< Earl Paget, Lcnrd Gray and others, that be lately put 
^< into the Tower, other men that know more than I do 
<< may write unto you better than I can. The bishoprics of 
^< Lincoln, Rochester and Chichester, be as yet void, and 
^^ appointed as yet certainly to no man for as much as I know. 
^^ Mr. Home is dean of Durham, Dr. Redman is deceased, 
^ and Dr. Bill by the king is appointed master of Trinity 
^^ college, Cambridge, and I to succeed him in the master- 
«< ship of St. John's. Dr. Redman being in a consumption 
^ did look certainly for death, and did ever talk of rdigion 
^^ as one who had clean forsaken the world, and look and 
^' desire to be with God. I will shjew you p«urt of such talk 
^^ as IVIr. Young of Cambridge did hear of Dr. Redman 
^^ himself, and did shew unto me afterwards. J^list, Dr. 
^^ Redman being desired to answer to questions of rdicjoo 
^^ his judgm^it, did say, that he would answer betwixt Ood 
^^ and his conscience, without any worldly respect. Tbm 
f^ being demanded what he thought of the see of Rpme^ he 
^' said, it was the sink of iniquiiy : but do not yoii also think 
^^ that we have a stinking pumv in the church ofEngho^-9 
^^ Tothe demand of pt/rga/ory,ne said, there was no SH/Sipitr- 
^' gatory as the schoolmen do imagine ; but when Christ siiall 
f< corns surrounded with fire from heaven, then oU meeting 
^^ him shall there be purged, as I think, sfdd he, and as 
^^ many authors do take it And to inake the mass a 
^^ sacrifice for the dead, is to be plain against ChrisL And 
«< to the proposition, faith onfyjustifieth^ he answered, that 
^ was a comfortable and sweet doctrine, being rightly under* 
^ stood of a true and lively faith, and that no worka coidd 
<< deserve salvation; no, not the works of grace in a man 
<< that is justified. When he was asked what he thouglit of 
<< transubstantiation, he said, he had studied that matter 
<( th<^ twelve years, and did find that Tertullian, Irenaeus 
^< andOrigen,didplainlywritecontrarytoit,andmtheotlia 
<^ ancient writers it was not taught nor maintained. Hiefie!^ 
<< fore, in the schoolmen, he thought he should have fbniid 
^ plain and sufficient matter for it; but in them th^re was 
^ no good ^ound, but all was imaginations and groqs errarB^ 
^ Concerning the presence^ he s^id^' thfvL.Ghriat waa la tjhe 

LE¥BR. *I7 

f^saeraineiit reaUy and corpoiallyy as Mr. Toung fold me; 
^ and yet being asked whether that was Christ's tody which 
^ we Mjie the priest lift up, he said that Christ s body 
^^ could neit|ier be lifted up, nor down ; and carrying it 
^^ about to be honoured, he said, was an cyil abuse. AlsOy 
<« he said, that evil men do not receive Christ's body, but 
** th^ sacrament thereof. He advised Mr. Young to^ study 
^ the scriptures, and to beware of men. He said also thi^ 
•^the book which my lord of Canterbury last set forth 
" of this matter, is a wonderful book, and willed Mr. 
*< Young to read it with diligence. Mr. i oung said to me, 
^ that whereas he was aforetime as ready and willing to 
*^ have died for the transubstantiation of the sacrament, as 
^ for Christ's incarnation ; he is now purposed to take 
<< deliberation, and to study after a more indifferent sort, to 
<< ground his judgment better than upon a common consent 
<^ of many that have borne the name of Christ. I trust that 
<^ not only Mr. Young, but many others are drawn from 
^^ their obstinacy unto more indifferency^ by Dr. Redman^s 
<^ comniunication. 

^^ If I be master of St. John's collegl^, I shall be desirous 
^< to have you at home, and not unwilling that you should 
^' have and enjoy any privilege that may encourage you to 
•< a better knowledge of the Greek tongue.* Since I wrote 
•* last, there be dead of your acquaintance Dr. Neveyear, 
^ Dr. Redman, and Dr. Bell the physician. All other your 
^ friends and acquaintance are in good health* When you 
^< talk with Grod in meditation and prayer remember me* 
^ Consider; be <ngilant; pray, pray, pray. Scribbled at 
^ London, 13 November. 

" Faithfully yours, 

" Thomas Lever." 

On the death of King Edward, and the return of popery 
ttui persecution, Mr. Lever withdrew from the storm, fled 
lieyoiid 6^ and was involved in the troubles at Frankfort 
It do^ uoif however, appear that he took any active part in 

• ■ 

* Roger Ascham* to whom this epistle was addressed, was one of the 
lirightest geniuses and politest scholars of his age. He was public orator of 
~tbe«nivertity of Cambridge, and LatiA secretary to Edward Vf., Qaeen 
^fary« aad ^een Elisabeth, the last of whom he taught to write a floe 
luwd, and instructed in the Greek and Latin languages, of which be was* 
consomniate master. His letters are valaable both for style and matter, 
and are'almost the only classical work of the kind written by an English- 
nan i yet with all his learning and refinement, he was extrafagantly fond 
of archery, dicing and cockfighting. — JV^od'tMhM^Osou, vol, I. p. 695. 
tfrmif er*« Biog, HM* Tol. I. p. 876. 


those diflgracefiil broikp bat was invited thither io be one of 
the pastors of the church, and a judicious mediator between 
the contending parties. Herein his worthy service uttarly 
failed. He also visited the learned profestants at Stran- 
burgh, Basil, Zurich, Berne, Lausanne, and Geneva ; amone 
whom he discovered great learning, sound doctrine, and 
godlj discipline, especially in Bullinger and Calvin; as he 
wrote tp his intimate friend Mr. John Bradford, then in 
confinement previous to his martyrdom.* While Mr. Lever 
was in a st^e of exile^ he lived chiefly at Arrau in Switzer- 
land, where he was chosen pastor to the English church. The 
members of this churchy under his pastoral care, are said to 
have lived together in ^odly quietness among themselves, 
and in great favour with the people among whom ther 
yfere planted. Upon the arrival of news of the queen s 
death, and a prospect of better days in I^is own country, he 
united with his brethren at Arrau, in addressing a most 
aflfectionate letter of congratulation to their brethren in 
exile at Geneva.f 

On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Mr. Lever returned 
home, but not to the mastership of his college, having 
brought with him, it is said, ^f that unhappy tincture which 
disqualified him for bis preferment.''^ This was his non- 
(Conformity. leaving acted ppon the genuine protestant 
principles^ in matters of ceremony and discipline, while in 
k foreign land, he wished to act upon them now he was ie» 
turned to his native country, and ifas desirous that the 
reformation plight be parried on tqwards perfection. 

He was a celebrated preacher at court, and was often, 
called to preach before the queen. He had so much influx 
ence over her majiesty, that he dissuaded her from assuming 
the title of Sfipreme Head; for which, though he did it 
with great temper, he was severely censured by persons of 
another spirit.^ It was this which gave the first and great 
offence to the ruling courtiers. Though thev had heard 
him with great attention in the days of King Edward, they 
ivpuld not amend their lives under Queen Elizabeth, nor 
ivould many of th^m attend upon his ministry. He 
entered upon the married state soon after his return ftcKn- 
exile, ana sooner than he could dp it with safety. Bis 
marriage, as well as his puritanical principles, appears to 

• Troablet at Frankeford, p. SO.— Strype'i Annaliy Yol. i. p. ISI4 . 

•t-TroublnatFrankeford, p. 159, 164. r - > - 

1 Baker's MS. Collec. vol i. p. 150. '. . 

S Strype'i Annals, ▼ol. i. p. 132. ' * i 

r LEYEIU .:; 219 

have been some binderance Xo bis return to the mastefBhip 
of his college.* ' ?[ 

In the year 1561, according to Mr. Stiype, he was pre* 
ferred to a prebend in the church of Durham, and to th^ 
mastership of Sherborn hospital, near Durham ; the former 
of which, he says, in one place, be supposes Mr. Lever was 
deprived of for nonconformity, and in another, that he 
resigned it in the year 1571.f In addition to this informa-: 
tion, he tells us that upon Mr. Lever's return from exile, he. 
obtained no othier preferment besides that of the mastership 
of the above hospital, which he kept to his death : yet he 
mentions him as Archdeacon of Coventry, and in this, 
capacity, sat in the convocatipn of 1569, and subscribed the 
Articles of Religion.| It is extremely difficult, not to say. 
impossible, to reconcile these accounts of the learned and. 
voluminous historian. By another writer, he is said to 
have been collated to the mastership of the abo^e hospital, 
January S8, 15^3; and, the year following, to his prebend 
in the church of Durham ; both of which, ne supposes Mr.> 
Lever held by connivance from Bishop Pilkin^n, who 
bad formerly been one of the fellows in the university .§ 

Archbishop Parker having pressed conformity to the. 
habits and ceremonies, sequestered and deprived many: 
learned and faithful niinisters. This was a great affliction, 
to the Lord's servants. They were exceedingly tempted 
and tried. The sorrow of most ministers was, mdeed, very; 
great; and they murmured, saying, ^^ We are killed in 
our souls, by this pollution of the bishops. We cannot 
perform our ministry in the singleness of our hearts. We 
abide in extreme misery, our wives, and our children, by. 
the proceedings of the bishops, who oppose us, and place 
ignorant ministers in our places.*') Mr. Lever, therefore, 
addressed an excellent le^r to the Earl of Leicester and. 
Sir William Cecil, dated February 24, 1565, in which he 
exposes the extreme hardships under which the puritans 
laboured, by the imposition of the habits and ceremonies ; < 
and earnestly solicits them to use their utmost endeavours to 
procure some favour for bis silcmced brethren, who had 
been lawfully admitted into the ministry, and had alwayaf 

• Baker's MS. CoUec. to], i. p. 152. 

+ Strype's Anoalsi, vol. i. p. 133. — Piirker, p. 325. 

i Strype*s Annals, to), i. p. 290. toI, ii. Appeo. p. 1$. 

S Baker's MS. Collec. vol. ). p. 150. 

g Ibid. Tol. zxvii. p. S8S, 389. 


fiutlifiiny- pleached flie gospel, in this letter, he es^ressed 
himself as follows :• 

. <( Wherefore in the nnitersifies and elsewhere,*^ says he^ 
^ novtandine bnt sinking doth appear ; when, as the office 
and living ofa minister snail be taken from him, who, once 
baldly admitted, hath ever since diligently preached, 
because he now refiiseth prescription of men in appardi ; 
and the name, living, and office of a minister of God sword, 
allowed to him who neither can nor wilt tvreach. exC^ as a 
mere form. — ^Now there is notable papistry in Eri^aim and 
Scotland proved and proclaimed by the piea^hm^ of the 
gospel, to be idolatry and treason, and how much idolatry 
and treason is yet nourished in the hearts of many,^ Gcd 
knoweth ; and now the old stumbling-blocks are set up in 
manv things and many places, especially the dmcifix in 
England, and the mass in Scotland, before the ikces of the 
highest, IS daily seen by idolaters and traitors with tejotcing 
and hope ; and by christian and dbedicait stibjects with IMiaow 
of heart and fear of Uie state. 

^^ If, in the ministry and ministers of Grod's t^ord, the 
sharpness of salt by doctrine to mortify alitetidn8,be rejected^ 
and ceremonial service, with flattery to feed afieetidnt^ be 
retained, then doth Christ threaten such treading under fooi^ 
as no power nor policy can withstand. 

<< Now, therefore, my prater unto Grod, kad ihrkHDf, to 
your honours, is, that authority in England, and especially 
you may for sincere religion refuse worldly pletoure and 
gains. You ought not to allow any such corruptions ainolig 
protestants, being God's servants, as to make papists to 
rejoice and hope for a day, being God's enemies : out rsflieT, 
cause such abolishing of inward plApistry, and outWaild 
monuments of the same, as should cause iaolirtrous traitcSs 
to grieve, and foithful subjects ■ to be glad : such castuog 
forth of the unsavoury ministry and minist^ as mi^ht make 
only such as have the savouryness of doctrine aild edificatuA 
to be allowed to that office, seeing such ministry only may 
preserve princes, and priests, and people ftom casting and 
treading under foot : and so not deceiving" and leiiving the 
godly m distress, to perish with the ui^odly; but ever 
travelling to deliver, defend and help the godly, till b^ 
God's providence and promise they be ddivered and pre- 
served from aU danger, and in continuance and increase o£ 

• Baker's MS. CoUec. toI. zzi. p. 559—661 .—Strype'i FSukcTi Appen. 7Y. 

LEVER. nt 

godly honour ; whi^h God for his mercy io Christ .mnt 
unto the queen's majesty, unto you andjall otb^ of hen 
honourable counpU, ameii^ -^J^ yours- at <?onuiiaBdiiienV 
faithful! J in Christy 

" Thomas Lbvbr.'' 

Mr. Lever was a perscm greatly beloved, especially by, 
persons of learning and real worth ; but the above letter was 
most probably without its desired effect. He was a most 
learned and popular preacher at court ; and though he 
was a decidea nonconformist, he obtained a connivance for 
some time. In the year 1566, when many excellent minsters, 
were sileiiced for rousing the habits and ceremonies, he is 
said to have been still alUowed to preach ;• but the year 
fdlo^ng, he was deprived of his prebend in the church of 

There were at this peripd numerous puritans confined ia 
the various prisons about London, for refusing conformity 
to the established church ; when Mr. Lever wrote a letter, 
dated December 5, 1568, to those who were confined in 
Bridewell. In this excellent letter, he first endeavours to- 
comfort the prisoners under their manifold afflictions; thei| 
declares that though the popish garments were not in them* ' 
selves unclean, he was resolved, oy the grace of God, nevor 
to wear the square cap and surplice; <^ because,*' says he, 
<< they tend neither to decency nor edification, but to 
offence, dissention, and division in the church of Christ.'^ 
He would, therefore, use his utmost endeavours to eet them 
abolished; and adds, <<that he would not kned at the 
communion, because it would be symbolizing with popeiTi 
and' would look too much like the adoration of the host/^t 
Though he was a fixed nonconformist, he was a man of 
a peaceable spirit, and of great moderation, and constantly 
omosed to a total separation from the church. 

These excellent qualifications could not screen him from 
the persecutions of the times : for he was not only deprived 
of his prebend, iis observed above, but, in June 1571, he 
was convened before Archbishop Parker and others of the. 
high commission at Lambeth. What prosecution he under- . 
went on this occasion, we are unable fully to ascertain, only 
our historian by mistake observes, that he resigned, or was 
deprived of, his prebend.^ 

* 8(rype*s Parker, p. 8SS. f Baker*i MS. CoUec. ?oK i. p. lal.i 

± MS. Register, p. 18, 19. 

I Strype'i Parker, p. S25.*-GrAiida]> p. 170. 


Mr. Lever was a person of grent usefitlness. He spent 

great pains in promoting the welfare of his hospital, not 

only by preaching and. other religious exercises, but by 

recovering its temporal privileges. On account of the 

corrupt management df its estates, which were rented by 

several persons one of another, its pecuniary income was 

verv much reduced, and even almost lost : but by his zealous 

andf vigorous efforts, it was effectually recovered* His 

endeavours in this business reflect much honour on bis 

character.* In this situation he spent tiie latter part of life 

in ffreat reputation and usefulness, and died in the numth 

of July, 1577. His remains were interred in the chapel 

belonging to the hospital, and over his grave was the 

following plain monumental inscription erected to bif 

memory :f 

Thomas Lbver, 

preacher to King £i>^ard vl 

He died in July, 


A few weeks previous to his death, Mr. Lever received s 
letter from the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, dated 
June 18, 1577, requiring him, in her majesty's name^ 
to put down the prophesyings within his archdeaconry.t 
Had he lived a little longer, he would in all proljabilitj 
have felt the severities of persecutipn from the new Bishop 
of Durham, as was the case with his brotlier Whittingham; 
but God took him awav from the evil to come, ruikt 
says, that whatever pre^rment in the cliurch he pleased, 
Courted his acceptance ; but is grcativ mistaken conceming 
the time and place of his death.^ Mr. 8try|)e denominaiei 
him a man of distinguislied eminence for piety, leamingi 
and preaching the gospel. || Mr. Gilpin says, he was a man 
of excellent parts, considerable learning, and very exemplary 
piety ; that, in the days of King Edward, he was esteemed 
an excellent and bold preacher; and tliat he was the 
intimate friend of the celebrated Bernard Gilpin.f Mr. 
Baker hnn favoured us with the following account of him t 
" Preaching," says this writer, " was indeed his talent, 
which, as it was thought fit to be made the only ingredient 
in his character, so he continued ui it to the last, even afier 

• HtryprN Annntii, vol. 11. p. 513,514. 

f Ibid.— RakrrS MK. Collec. vol. i. p. 151. 

t MS. Rf KiMf r, p. «84. S Faner*8 Wartbief , part U. p. 99ii 

I 8frypr*t Parkrr, p. 81 1. 

1 GMplD*! Life of Bernard Gilpio, p. 849. Edit 1780. 


he was deprived. Thus much may be gathered from the 
printed Register, that will give a very authentic character 
of the man. From the passage, it appears, that be was a 
useful preacher, and permitted to preach after his depriva« 
tion ; that he was inoffensive in his temper; and that no 
sufferings could provoke him. in the days of King Edward, 
when oUiers were striving for preferment, no man was more 
vehement, or more galling in his sermons, against the waste 
of church revenues, and other prevailing corruptions of the 
court ; which occasioned Bishop Ridley to rank him with 
Latimer and Knox. He-was a man c^ as much natural 
probity and blunt native honesty as his college ever bred : a 
man without guile and artifice ; who nevefr made suit to any 

Eatron, or for any preferment ; one that had the spirit of 
[ugh Latimer. No one can read his sermons without ima- 
?ining he has something before him of Latimer or Luther, 
i^hough 'his sermons are bold and daring, and full of rebuke, 
it was his preaching that got him his preferment. His 
rebuking the courtiers made them afraid of him, and pro- 
cured hun reverence from the king. ' He was one of the 
best masters of his college, as well as one of the best of men 
the college ever bred."* He was succeeded in the mastership 
of his hospital by his brother, Mr. Ralph Lever, another 
puritan divine. Mr. Henry Lever, his grandson, and Mr* 
Kobert Lever, his great-grandson, were both gected by the 
act of uniformity in 1662,f 

; His Works. — 1. Sermon on Rom. xiii. 1 — 7., 1660. — 2. A Sermon 
preached the tbyrd Sondaye ill Lente before the Kynges Majestie, 
on John vi. 6 — 14., 1660. — 3. A iSermpn preached at Paul's Cross, the 
14th day of December, on 1 Cor. iv. 1.,' 1660. — 4. The right Way from 
ike Danger of Sin and Vengeance in this cricked World, unto godly 
Wealth and Salvation in Christ, 1676. — 6. A Commentary on the 
|jord's Prayer.;— a. The Path-way to Christ. 

* Francis Merbury was minister at Northampton, and 
brought into many troubles for nonconformity, being several 
iime§ cast into prisoKi. November 5, 1578, he was convened 
before the high commission; when he underwent the 
following examinatic*i before Bishop Aylmer, Sir Owen 
Hopton, Dr. Lewis^ Mr. Hecorder, and Archdeacon i^lulliiis, 
in the consistory of St. Paul's, London : ' 

* '•.^ Baker's MS. Collec. vol. I. p. 146, 152. - 
t Fruiter's' NoircooMiieni.?ol.iii. p. 58, 704 • 


Bishop. Merbury, where have you hten sin^ your latl 
enkrgeinent ? 

Merbury. At Northampton. 

B. You were especially forbidden to go to that place. 
For there you did all the harm. 

M. I was not, neither in justice may be inhibited from thai 
place. Neither have I done harm there, but good. 

B. As you say, sir. 

M. Not so. I refer myself to the judgment o£ God^a 
church at that place. 

B. The last time, you found mor? favour than you 
deserved, and more than you shall find hereafter; and yet^ 
you vaunted that you had rattled the Bishop of Peterbo^ 
lough, and in like manner you would treat me. 

M. If your ears be open to every sycophant, you will 
have slanders enow : but for proof, bring forth mine 
accusers. F<Nr if bare words will serve your purpose^ jofoL 
may as well accuse me of high treason. 

B. Well, sir, what have you to say against my lord of 
Peterborough, <Nr me ? 

M. NotUng ; but God save you both. 

B. Nothing ! Why, you were wont to bark mndk rf 
dumb dogs. Are you now yiestry of it ? 

M. I came* not to accuse, but to defied.. Yet becanw 
Tou urge me for advantage, I say, that the bidiops of 
liondon and Peterborough^ and all the bishops in !&i^Uuid^ 
are guilty of the death of as many souls, as have perished 
by the ignorance of the ministiers of their making, whom 
they knew to be unable. 

Jd. Whom snch have I made ? 

M. I acctise you not particularly, because I )uiow apt 
your state. If you have, you must l)ear the condemnatiMU ' 

B. Thy proposition is raise. . If it were in- Cambridge^ il 
would be hiss^ out of the schools. 

M. Then you had need hire hissers. 

B. If I, jGuading one well qualified with learning, admit 
him, and he afterwards play the truant, and become ifovH 
rant, and by his ignorance slay souls, jam I guilty of uieir 

M. This 18 another question. I diistinguish and speak xH 
them which never were able. -«;•'. *•■ I 

B. Distinguish ! thou knowest iiot a idDistmctioii*' Wbfjf 
is a distinction ? 

M. It is tiie severing of things which qppear to be Umi 


B. Nay, ihat is differentia* 

M. Different^ quce mm sunt ambi^ua; but we distineuiflli 
those things only which are ambiguous : as, you differ 
not from the Bishop of London; but 1 may distinguish 
between you and the Bishop of London, because you are a 
man though you were without a bishopric. 

B. Here is a tale of a tub. How many predicaments are 
there ? 

M. I answer you according to your question, if I say 
there are enow of seven. Why do you ask me questions so 
impertinent ? 

B. How many prcdicables be there ? Where didst thoU 
learn logic ? 

M. The last time you spoke of good behaviour; but this 
is something else. 1 am no logician. 

Recorder. Merbury, use my lord more reverently. He 
is a peer of the realm. I perceive your words are puffed 
up wilh pride. 

M. I speak only the truth. I reverence him so far as he 
is reverend ; and I pray God to teach him to die. 

B. Thou speakest of making ministers. The Bishop of 
Peterborough was never more overseen in his life than when 
he admitted thee to be a preacher in Northampton. 

M . Like enough so, in some sense. I pray God those 
scales may fall from his eyes. 

B. Thou art a very ass; thou art mad ; thou art cou- 
rageous ; nay, thou art impudent. By my troth, I think he 
is mad : he careth for nobody. 

M. Sir, I take exception against swearing judges. I 
praise God I am not mad, but sorry to see you so much out 
of temper. 

B. Did you ever hear one more impudent. 

M. It is not impudency, I trustj to answer for myself. 

B. Nay, I know thou art courageous; thou art fool-! 

ML Though I fear not you, yet I fear the Lord. 

R. Is he learned ? 

B. Learned ! He hath an arrogant spirit. He can scarce, 
construe Cato, I think. 

M. Sir, you do not punish me because I am unlearned,. 
Howbeit, I understand both Gr^k and Latin. Make trial 
of me, to prove your disgrace. 

• What ridiculous trifling Was ih}%\ Yet this is the prelate whom Mr. 
Sft^pe extols on account of bis great learning, and deep knowledge of > 
divinity .->S^i^e*s utylmer, p. 256, 

VOL. I. Q 

jaas LIVES OF the puritans. 

B. Thou takest upon thee to be a preacher, but tiiiere is 
nothing ilk thee. TlM>a ait a nery ass, an tdM, and a fool.* 
M. I humbly beseech you, sir, have patience, and ffiye 
this people a better exampk^. Through the Lord, lam 
ivbat I am. I subnit the trial of my sufficiency to the 
judgment of the learned. But this wandering speech i9 not 

Hopton. Mr. Merbury, how do you prove all the IhiAc^ 
ki England, to be guilty of the death m as natty souls as 
&aye perished, by th& ignorance of the unable minLiters 
which they have made ? 

M. If they oidain unmeet cnr nnaUe ministers,, they, give 
unto them imposition of hands too hastily, to do whtcb, the 
apoirilc^ saitli, they are partakers of other mens' sins. 

B. The Greek word importeth nothing buii the ezaausa- 
tidn of their lives. 

M. It is general enough t& inelude.both ; and it is befoit 
set down in the Epistle as a positive law. ^A bishop (a 
word formerly used nt a more general senfie) must be apt to 
teach;" and, according to the apostle^ if he be not so 
approved to your conscience, you communicate with his 

B. What sins arc those, I pray thee ? 

M. Soul-nmrder. 

B. How dost thou prove that? 

M. The words of the prophet are, ^^ My people are 
destaiojec) for lack of knowledge." And who should teach 
them knowledge ? 

B. Knowledge! Have they not the homilies and the 
catecfabm ? It is more^ methinks, than they will leani. 

M. Yes, or their parish priest either, to any purpose, in 
many places. 

B. W hy then, by thy saying,, it seems they hare too 
much of tbis^ already. 

M. And too little of the other. 

B. What other.* 

M. I mean preaching. What can an ignomnl aoin&ter 
see in thoae thmgs more than a book-learned. pariahioDeri 

B. O! thou wouldst have all preadiing; AM not the 
homilies sermons ? 

M. Godeivcthhia oiwn Hessing fah Ua ogmi MpffdalUt 
means, which is preaching, not iwiniihgk . , o . .^i ^. 

ii , .. i'.' »'. . t -•• 

• Swb WM. Mm. lUKgmifB *Mi a 
jiylmer, p. S40. 


B. Mark you \?hat his words insinuate. He condemneth 
reading in churches ; and seemelh to affirm, that tbej are 
all damned, whose minister is not a preacher. Vou see 
what be is. 

Dr. Lewiff. By St. Mary, these be pernicious errors. Sdf, 
what say yon of them ? 

• M. Mr. Doctor, I allow of the reading of the scriptureil 
in the i^urch ; for Christ read Es^as in the temple, and 
expounded what he re&d. I am no judge. God hartk 
extraordinary supplies, wh^h he^ take^ away thel oVdinary 
means ; but it is good for us not to tempt Gckl, but thdids* 
firlly td use hi^ ordinary means. 

L. Oo to the purpose. If I present a man to my lord^ 
whom I take to be a true man, and he prove a thief, and 1 
guilty of his theft ? Neither is the bishop guilty of the ^ults 
of ministers, of whom there is good hope when he maketh 

M. Sir, you argue a paribus^ but your reason hold^th Adf. 

L. Why? 

M. You may try hinl who tfould be a Spiritual tfciiif 
before you trust him : but you cannot try the other till he 
baye stolen something* 

L*. What trial would you have itiotc than this: he & a 
honest man, and in tiilie likely to prove learned ? 

M. Thefl, in the ntean time, the people perish. You 
will not comttiil yoiit sucking ehild to a dry nurse, be she 
ever so honest. 

L. A good life is a gbod tennon ; and such ministers day 
no skills, though they be iibt sO exqtiisite. 

M. To teach by example only, is good in a matron whom 
^ileiEMie best bec<Hhetii; but the ap^le teHetb TitUs, that 
^ imiiister» must be able by sound doctrine, both to exhort 
and to convince the gainsayers.*' 

B; This fellow would hate^ a preacher in every patisli 

M. So would St. PanJ. 

B. Wh«e Woul Jst thou have them ? 

M. !n Cambridge, in Oxf<»d, in the iimsi of ewirt, yea, 
a^ sotn^ ki prison, if more were wanted. We doing omr 
{wrt, the Lord would do his. 

B. I thought where thou wouldst be. But where is the 
Irving for them ? 

M. A man might cut a large thong <mt.of your hide, and 
tk«t erf tile oihef prefaAs^ andil wmiAi never be missed. • 


B. Go thou on to contrive. Thou shalt orderly dispose 
of our livings. 

M. That is more than jou can do yourselves. If rich 
livings be the fault, they are to blame who have too mudi. 
Whatever be the cause, the church feeleth the smart. 

Mullins. Sir, in the beginning of her majesty^s reign, 
there was a defect of able men ; and the church was con- 
strained to take such as it could get, upon the reconunenda* 
tion of noblemen. 

M. I speak of later times. As for noblemen, they are no 
sureties for us ; and as to the defect, it cannot wholly 
dispense with the word. A minister must be able to teaidu 

Mull. Then you would have a preacher, or none at dl ; 
and so the church would be unserved. 

M. It would be better to have nothing, than that which 
God would not have. 

B. How dost thou prove that God would not have thev^ 
when we can get no better ? 

M. Uoth he not say, '' Because thou hast rejected know- 
ledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest 
unto me?*' 

B. Thou are an overthwart, proud, puritan knave.* Thoa 
wilt go to Northampton ; and thou wilt have thine own 
sayings till thou die. But thou shalt repent. 

M. I am no puritan. • I beseech you to be good to me. I 
hav9 been twice in prison already ; but I know not why; 

B. Where was he before ? 

Keeper of the Gatetiouse. With me, my l^rd. 

B. Have him to the Marshalsea. There he shall cope 
with the papists. 

M. I must go where it pleaseth God. But remember 
God's judgments. You do me open wrong. I p|^y GSqd 
forgive you.t 

Mr. Merbury was then carried to the Marshalsea ; but 
how long he remained in prison we are not able to leam. 
Notwithstanding the cruelty with which the good man was 
treated, he was not a person ol severe princifdes,. but 
acted with great moderation ; and afterwara^ with 
liberty of interpretation, became much more cmfoim* 
able.( A minister of the same name was afterwaicds 

* This prelate was much accustomed to use foul laognafe. He cafleA 
Bishop Bonoer, because he was remarkably corpulent, ** My Laird Lubbcr 
of London.'*— S<ry]ie*« ^y(mer, p. 275. 

t Fsrte of a £egiiter> p. S81— d86, t Baxter*! Second Pies; jp. iU- . 


beneficed in the city of London ; but whether he was the 
same person appears rather doubtful.* 

William Whittingham, A. M. — This excellent divine 
was bom in the city of Chester, in the year 1524, and 
educated in Brazen-nose college, Oxford, In 1545, he 
became fellow of All-Souls college. Afterwards, being 
sccounted one of the best scholars in the university, he was 
translated to Christ-church, then founded by Henry VIII. 
f n the year 1550, he travelled into France, Grermany, and 
Itialy, and returned towards the close of the reign of Edward 
VI. Upon the accession of Queen Mary, and the com- 
mencement of her bloody persecution, he fled from the 
storm, and retired to Frankfort, where he settled among the 
first of > the English exiles. Here he was the first who took 
the charge of the congregation, but afterwards resigned to 
Mr. John Knox. Mr. Whittingliam and his brethren having 
comfortably settled their church at Frankfort, invited their 
brethren, who had taken refuge in other places, to come to 
them, and participate of their comforts : but on the arrival 
of Dr. Cox and his friends, instead of union and comfort^ 
they were soon deeply involved in discord and contention; 
and many of them, in a short were time, obliged to leave the 
place. Our historian observes, that when " Dr. Cox and others 
with him came to Frankfort, they began to break that order 
which was agreed upon : first, by answering aloud after the 
minister, contrary to the determination of the church ; and 
being acknonished thereof by the seniors of the congregation, 
he, with the rest who came with him, made answer, that they 
would do as they had done in England, and that they would 
have the face of the English church. And the Sunday 
following, one of his company, without the consent and 
knowledge of the congregation, got up suddenly into the 
pulpit, read the litany, and Dr^ Cox with his company 
answered aloud, whereby the determination of the church 
was broken."+ These imperious exiles having, by very 
ungenerous and unchristian methods, procured the use of 
the church, Mr. Whittiii^ham said, he did not doubt that it 
"vms lawful for him and others to join themselves to some 
other church. But Dr. Cox sought thai it might not be 
suffered. Then Mr. Whittingham observed, that it would 
be great cruelty to force men, contrary to their consciences, 

• Newcourt*8 Repert. Ecd. toI. i. p. 406,422,519. 
f Troubles at Frankeford, p. 81. 


to obey all their disorderly proeeedings ; and offered, if tht 
magistrate would be plesuied to give them the hearing, to 
dispute the matter against all the contrary party, and 
prove, that the order which they sought to establish, ought 
not to take place in any reformed church. In this tbey 
irere expressly prohibited, and even forbidden meddling 
any more in the business. They ventured, howeter, to 
offer, as their last refuge, to refer the whole matter to foot 
arbitrators, two on each side ; that it might appear who was 
faulty, and they might vindicate themselves from the chftifpe 
of schism : but the proposal was rejected ; and after this 
imkind and unchristian treatment, they left the place.* Mr. 
Whittingham being, in effect, driven from Frankfort, went 
to Geneva, where he was invited to become pastor to the 
English church. He refused, at first, to accept the char^; 
but, by the earnest persuasion of John Calvin, he complied 
with their invitation, and was ordained by the laying on of the 
hands of the presbytery. During his abode at (^nava, he 
was onployed with several other learned divines, in pdb« 
lishing a new translation of the Bible. This, was after- 
wards called the Greneva Translation, a particular account 
of which is given in another place.f 

Soon after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Mr. 
Whittingham returned home; and presently after his 
arrival, was nominated to accompany the Earl of Bedford 
en his mission to the court of France. Upon his i^iim 
from France, he accompanied the Earl of Warwick, in Us 
defence of Newhaven against the French. There he was a 
preacher for some time ; and, as Wood observes, though 
he was ready in his ministerial function, he dissuaded his 
hearers against conformity, and the observance of the rites 
^nd ceremonies of the English church. Yet, such wasthe 
high esteem which this excellent earl had far him, that, 
about Lo63, he was the means of procuring from the queen^ 
his preferment to the deanery of Durham.^ , He wasa veij 
learned and popular preacher; and in Septend)er 156^ lie 
preached before the queen.§ Durii^ this year, the niliBg 
prelates proceeded to a more rigorous imposition of the 
clerical habits; therefore, Mr. Whittingham wrote a most 
pressing letter to the Earl of Leicester, intreatii^ him toiise 
ids interest to prevent it. In this letter, be expres$>ed lijm« 

« Troubles at Frankeford, p. SS^^I. 

+ See Art. Coverdalc. 

t Wood'8 Athenae Oxon. vol, i. p. 153.— Strype's Annals, Tol. i. p. StJT. 

S Strype's Picker, p. 135. 


self with considerable freedom, upon the painfiil subject | 
the substance of which was as follows :• 

^^ I understand," says he, f' th^ are about to compel ijft^ 
contraiy to our consciences, to wear the popish apparel, olr 
deprive us of our ministry and livings. Yet when I >omi^ 
sider the wei^ty charge enjoined upon us by Almi^^ 
Grod, and the exact account we bare to give of the right 
use and faithful dispensation of his mysteries, I canntai 
doubt which to choose. He that would prove the x&e ^ 
the apparel to be a thing indifferent, and may be imposedv 
must {H-ove that it tendeth to God's glory ; that it a^reetk 
with his word ; that it edifieth his churci^ ; and tliat it 
maintaineth christian liberty. But if it wanleth these 
things^ then is it not indifferent, but hurtful. And how cail 
Goers glory' be advianced by those garments which anti« 
christian superstition has invented to maintain and beaodlf^ 
idolatry ? What agreement can the superstitious iuTC^ 
lions erf men, have with the pure wowl rf God ? Whiyt 
edification can there be, when the Spifit of €rod is grieved, 
the (^Idren of God discouraged, wicked papists confirmed^ 
and a door open for such popish traditions and antichristiaAi 
impiety? And can that be called true christian libeitjF^ 
where a yoke is laid on the necks of the disciples; whcipe 
the conscience is closed with impositions ; where faithful 
preachers are threatens with deprivation ; where the regular 
dispensation of the word of God is intemip(ted; wii^ 
congr^tions are robbed of their learned and godl|r 
pastors ; and where the holy sacraments are madt fiUbjedt 
io simerstitious and idolati^ous restm^ats ? 

^ Your lordship will thus see, that to use th(^ oftiamente 
and manners of the wicked, is to approve of their doctiimi. 
Ood forbid, that we, by wearing the popish attire, as a thin^ 
merely imliferent, sboidd seem to consent ta their supanil^ 
tious errors. The ancient fathers with one consent, acknow- 
ledge that all agreement with idolatry, is so far from hdttg 
indifl^ent, that it is exceedingly pemioious. Some will sM, 
-diat the apparel is not designed to set forth popery^ but m 
good policy. Will it then be deemed good policv, to , 
deck the spouse of Christ with the ornaments of the 0al^« 
lonish strumpet, or to force her faithful pastors to be 
decorated like superstitious papists ? God would not petmit 
his people of old, to retain any of the Gentile manner? for 

. • Strype'a Fwtktt, App^Q. p. 43—47. 


the sake of policy, but expressly forbad their imifation of 
'them, and commanded them to destroy all the appurtenieuioes 
of idolatry and supf*rstition. And, in the time of -(he 
gospel, our Lord did not think it good policy, either to wear 
the Pharisaical robes himself, or to suffer any of his disci- 
ples' to do it ; but condemned it as altogether superstitious. 
When I consider that Jereboara maintained his calves in 
Dan and Bethel, under the plausible name of policy^ it 
makes me tremble to see the popish ornaments set forth 
under the same pretence. For if policy may serve as a 
cloak to superstition and papistry, then crowns and crosses, 
oil and cream, images and candles, palms and bends, with 
most of the other branches of antichrist, may again be 

^^ It is well known, that when Hezekiah, Josiah, and other 
famous princes, promoted the reformation of religion ac- 
cording to the word of God, thry compelled not the 
ministers of God to wear the apparel of Baal's priests, but 
utterly destroyed all their vestments. Hezekiah commanded 
all the appendao;es ot superstition and idolatry, to be car- 
ried out of the Temple, and to be cast into Kedron. . Josiah 
burnt all the vestments and other things belonging to Baid 
and his priests, not in Jerusalem, but out of the city. All 
this was done according to the word ot the Lord, who 
commanded that not only the idols, but all things pertaining 
to them, should be abhorred and rejected. And if we com- 
pel the servants of Christ, io conform unto the papists, I 
greatly fear we shall nturn again to popery. 

" Our case, ray lord, will be deplorable, if such compul- 
sion should be used against us, while so much lenity is used 
towards the papists. How many papists enjoy their liberty 
and livings, who have neither sworn obedience to the queen's 
majesty, nor discharged their duty to their miserable flocks! 
These men laugh and triumph to see us treated thus, and 
are not ashamed of boasting, that they hope the rc»t of 
popery will soon return. My noble lord, pity the discon- 
solate churches. Hear the cries and groans of many thou- 
sands of God's poor children, hungering and thirsting after 
spiritual food. I need not appeal to ^\e word of God, to 
the history of the primitive church, to the just judgments of 
God poured out upon the nations for lack of true reforma- 
tion. Judge ye betwixt us and our enemies. And if we 
seek the glory of God alone, the enjoyment of true christian 
liberty, the overthrow of all idolatry and superstition, and 



to win souls to Chri^; I beseech your honour to pity our 
case, and use your utmost endeavours to secure unto us our 

What effect this generous letter produced, we are not 
able to learn. Mr. Whittingham was a man of an exc<?l- 
lent character and admirable abilities. This was well 
known at court. Therefore, some time after his settlement 
at Durham, Secretary Cecil being made lord treasurer, he 
was nominated to the secretary's place ; and, says Wood, if 
he had sought after this office, and made interest with his 
noble friend, the Earl of Leicester, he might have obtained 

• * Bishop Pilkington of Durham wrote a letter, at the same time, to the 
same noble person; in which he addressed him as follows : — '* Consider, I 
**• beseech ycxur honour, how that all countries, which have reformed 
" religion, have cast away the popish apparel with the pope; and yet we, 
** who would be taken for the best, contend to keep it as a holy relic. 
**' Mark, also, how many ministers there be here in all countries, who are 
**' so zealous, not only to forsake the wicked doctrine of popery, but ready 
*' to leave the ministry and their livings, rather than be like the popish 
'* teachers of such superstitions, either in apparel or behaviour. Thii 
** realm has such scarcity of teachers, that if so many worthy men should 
** be cast out of the ministry, for such small matters, many places would be 
*^ destitute of preachers; and it would give an incurable offence to all the 
'^ favourers of God's truth, in other countries. Shall we make that so 
*^ precious,. which other reformed churches esteem as vile ? God forbid. 
,** If we forsake popery as wicked, how shall we say their apparel 
**' becomes saints and professors of true holiness? St. Paul bids us refrain 
** from all outward shew of evil; but, snrely, in keeping this popish 
.*' apparel, we forbear not an outward shew of much evi7, if popery be 
*' judged evil. How christian peace shall be kept in this church, when so 
** many,, for such small things, shall be thrust from their ministry and 
** livings, it passes my simple wit to conceive. We roust notso sobtilly 
** dispute what christian liberty would suffer us to do, but what is most 
** meet *and edifying for christian charity, and promoting true religion* 
'** But, surely, how popish apparel should edify, or set forth the gospel 
** of Jesus Christ, cannot be seen of the multitude. How much it rejoices 
** the adversaries, when they see what we borrow of them, and contend for, 
*' as things necessary. The bishops wearing their white rockets l>egan first 
** by Sisiuius, an heretic bishop of the NoVatians; and these other have the 
^* like foundation. They have -so long continued and pleased popery, 
** which is be^^sarly patched up of all sorts of ceremonies, that they coald 
*' never be rooted out since, even from many professors of the truth. 
*' Though things may be borne with for christian liberty's sake for a time, 
*^ in hope to win the weak; yet, when liberty is turned to necessity, it is 
** evil, and no longer liberty ; and that which was for winning the weak, is 
*' become the confirming of the froward, Paul used circumcision for a 
*< time as of liberty; but when it was urged of necessity, he would Dot 
*< bend unto it. Bncer, when be was asked why he did not wear the 
'" squarelsap, made answer, becaute my head i» not square. God be mer^ 
*' ciful to us, and grant us uprightly to seek his honour with all simplicity 
^* and earnestness." This prelate, who had been an exile in the days of 
Queen Mary, was a man of great learning, piety, and moderation, and a 
constant friend to the persecuted puritans. — StrypeU Parker^ Appen. 
p. 40,41, 


it ; but lie was not in the I(»st anxious for court prcfcnnent* 
During the bevcrilies inflicts a\Hin (lie nonconfonniBt«, in 
the forniiT piirt ot'Qiic^n Miziibclh'x rcii^ti, when nx>d mai 
were obliged to conform, nr be deprived of their liringi 
and ministry, it is naid that Mr. Whiltiii^liam at fint 
lefuKCi), but afterwards subscribed.^ And in the year 1571. 
by the instif^alion of Archbishcm Parker, he was ciM 
before Grindal, nrchbiHhop of York; but tho particalir 
cause of his citation, or wliat prosecution Ite underwent, at 
leant at timt time, does not npiwar.; 

While Gniidal lived, who, towarrls the close of life, 
connivt^d at the noocoiiformiNtH, Mr. WhJUinghnm and hii 
bn'thrcn in the province of York, were not much iflter- 
nipfed ; but Dr, Sandys was no sooner made archbishop, 
than he wiut brought into troubles, from which the stroke « 
dt^li alone coulifdeliver him. In the year 1577, the new 
archbishop resolved to visit the whole of his i>rovinc«, and 
to begin with Durliani, wlicrc Dean Whiltingham bad 
lAAaituni a dislinf^tished reputation, but hiul been orduwd 
only arcording to (he reformed church at CJencva, and not 
according (o iJie Kiiglish service book. J'lic accusationi 
brought against him contained thirti/'Jir^ arti(;lcs, aivlfortv^ 
nine interrogatories; but the pnnt'ipul charge was nil 
Geneva ordination. Mr. Whittinghoin refused to aasver 
the charge, but stood by the riteN of the church of Ourbin, 
and donittd (he archbiKhop'N power of visitation in tbit 
church, uj)on which his grace -was pleased to cxconunniu- 
cate him. Mr. Whit(ingnnm then appealed to the qacco. 
who directed a commi^iiion to the arctibishop, Henrv Ean 
of Huntington, lord prcNidentof the north, and Dr.Iinttoo, 
d<-an of York, to hear and determine the validity of bii 
ordination, and to inquire into the other inisdemcaDOon 
rontained in the articles. The president was a lealoai 
favourer of the puritans, and Dr. llutfon was of Whittii^ 
ham's principles, and Imldly declariHt, " That Mr. Whli' 
linghniu WEiH ordained in a better sort tliiin even Hie arcb- 
bisTuip himself." The (;umniiMiiiri, thirefure, rarac to , 
nothing.^ J 

Hiiuays bt^iiig sorely vc] bb di(iuppoEnlniai(;U«a>>' , 

an Whitlingham's cullinf juD )■>» "nhi^'' Mthnlu'", 

obtained aituther coinuii' Ifed (u tiui' iii<vy'\' 

• Wood'i Alhpnn Oxan, r 
t Strype'i (Irlndal, p, 08. 

?Ihid.p. 170.— ftlrypr't I 
Slrjpc't Anoali, val. ||. j 


dP Darham, the Lord President, tihe Chancelfor of the 
Diocese, and some others in whom he could confide, to visit 
the church of Durham. The chief design of this was to 
deprive Mr. Wliittingham, as a mere layman. Upon his 
appeanmoe before the commissioners, be produced a certifi- 
cate under the hands of eight perscuis, signifying the manneir 
of his ordination, in these woras : — ^' It pleased God, by the 
** suffrages of the wlkde congregation (at Geneva) orderly 
" to choose to Mr. W. Whittingham, unto the office of 
<< preaching the word of God dnd ministering the sacra^ 
^^ ments ; and he was admitted minister, and so published^ 
^^ with such other ceremcmies as are there used and a(;cus- 
*• tomed."* It was then objected, that there was no mention 
made of bishops or superintendants, nor of any external 
solemnities, nor even of imposition of hands. Mr. Whit- 
tingham replied, that the testimonial specified in general the 
ceremonies of that church, and that he was able to prove 
his vocation to be the same as all other ministars of Geneva. 
Upon this the lord president said, '' I cannot in conscience 
agree to deprive him for that cause alone. This," he added^ 
*^ would be ill taken by all the godly and learned, both at 
home and abroad, that we allow of popish massing' priests 
in our ministry, and disallow of ministers made in fi 
reformed church." The commission was, therefore, ad- 
joumed, and never l«newed.+ 

The archbislM^'s proceedings against Mr. Whfttingham, 
were evident^ invidious ; and they greatly isunk his reputa-^ 
tion, both in town and country. His calling \¥1iittingfaam*9 
ordination in question was expressly contrary to the statute 
of 13 Eliz. by which, says Mr. Str3rpe, " The ordination of 
foreign refoim6d bhurcheis was made valid; and those 
who nad no other orders, were made of like capacity witU 
others, to enjoy any place of ininistry in £n£;land.''| 
Indeed, the Oxford historian says, Mr. Whittingham did 
good service to his country, not only against the |^pisl| 
rebels in the north, but in repelling the ArchWshop of York, 
from visiting the chiurch of Durham. Yet he denominates 
him a lukewarm confinrmist, an enemy to the habits and 
ceremonies, and an active promoter of the Geneva dec- 
trine and discipline; and he brings many severe charges 
against him, styling them works of impieii/. He caused 
several stone cofllins,. belonging to the pricnnB, and laid in the 
cathedral of Durham, to m iSken up, and appqinted them 

# * 

t Strype's Annals, toI. ii. p. 653. f Ibid. {[. 684. } IbUT. 


to be used as troughs for horses and swine, and their coven 
to pave bis own house. He defaced all the brazen pictures 
and imagery work, and used the stones to build a washing- 
bouse for himself. The two holt/ water stones of fine marble, 
very artificially engraven, with hollow bosses very curi- 
ously wrought, he took away, and employed them to steep 
beef and salt fish in. He caused the image of St. Cuthbert, 
and other ancient monuments, to be defaced. And the 
truth is, he could not endure any thing that appertained to 
a monastic life.* How far Mr. Whittingham was concerned 
in these works of impiety, it is not in our power to ascer- 
tain ; and how far he is censurable for these things, is left 
with the reader to determine. 

With an evident design to reproach his memory, Dr. 
Bancroft says, that Mr. Whittingham, with the rest of his 
Geneva acc^npUces, urged all states to take arms, and 
reform religicn themselves by force, rather than suffer such 
idolatry and superstition to remain in the land.f And a late 
writer, with the same ill design, observes, << that when he 
returned from exile, he imported with him, much of the 
leaven of (ieneva."* 

He was, however, a truly pious man, opposed to all 
superstition, an excellent preacher, and an ornament to reli* 
gion and learning. He .died while the cause of his depri* 
vat ion, for not being ordained according to the rites of the 
English church, was depending, June 10, 1579, in the 
sixty-fifth year of his age. Wood informs us, though 
without the smallest evidence, that he unwillingly submitted 
to the stroke of death.S His remains were interred in the 
catliedral at Durhani. 

This learned divine wrote prefaces to the works of several 
learned men ; as, Mr. Goodman's book, entitled " How 
superior powers ought to be obeyed," &c. He published 
the translations of sewral learned works, and he turned 
part of the Psalms of David into metre. These are still 
used in the church of England. Those which he did, have 
W. W. prefixed to them, among which is Psalm cxix. ; as 
may be seen in the Common Prayer Bo(A.|| 

* Wood's Athens Oxoo. vol. i. p. 154. 

+ Bancroft's Dangerous Positions, p. 68. Edit. 1640. 

i Chnrton's Life of Nowell, p. 114. S Athens, p. 155. 

n The other persons concerned in taming the Psalms iiito metre, were 
Messri-. Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, and Thomas Norton, all emioent 
In their day, and zealous in promoting the reformation of thecburcb. The 
parts which they performed have the initials of their names pre6xed ta 
them, as may be seen iu the Common Prayer Book. — IVood'i Ath€n€^% yoU 
i. p. 6S, 63, 153. 


Mr. Lawrance was a man of great pi6ty^ an admired 
preacher, arid incumbent in the county of Suffolk. He 
discovered great modesty^ was unblameable in his life,^ sound 
in doctrine, and a laborious and constant preacher. He was 
first employed in the ministry in the above county, about 
the year 1561, where he continued to labour about six years 
with great acceptance and usefulness^ But in the year 1567^ 
he was silenced by Archbishop Parker^s visitors for noncon- 
formity. The good man having received the ecclesiastical 
censure, several persons of quality in that county, who knew 
his excellent character and ^reat worth, wrote a letter to the 
archbishop, earnestly soliciting his restoration* This letter^ 
dated October 27, 1567, was as follows : 

" Our humble commendations and duties remembered to 
jour grace. Great necessity doth occasion us to write to 
you for one Mr. Lawrance, lately a preacher ; of whose 
great modesty, unblameable life, and sound doctrine, we have 
good experience, having with great diligence been well 
exercised among us these five or six years. He commonly 
preached twice every Lord's day, and many times on the 
working days, without ever receiving any thing. His 
enemies^cannot accuse him of any thing worthy of reproach, 
as we testified to your grace's visitors, and desired them that 
he might still continue his preaching ; for we knew very 
well that we should have great need of him. Now we see 
it more evident. For there is not one preacher within a 
circuit of twenty milesy in which circuit he was wont to 

" Thus we have thought good to certify your grace rf 
4;he necessity of our country, and diligence and good 
behaviour of the man ; trusfing that your grace will either 
restore him again, or send us some other in his room ; which 
we mo^t earnestly desire. Commending the same to Almighty 
God, and praying that he may preserve your grace* Your 
grace's to command, 

" Robert Wingfield, Thomas Peiton, 

William Hoptqn, Thomas Colby, 

Robert Hopton, Thomas Playless/** 
William Cavendish, 

Though it does not appear what success attended their 
application, nor yet how long Mr. Lawrance remained 

• MS. Register, p. 889, 880« 


under the ecclesiastical censure, he was afterwards restored 
to his belored ministry. 

This, however, was not the end of his troables : fct in 
the year 1579, he was i^ain suspended by the Biahop of 
Norwich, for not observing all tne ecclesiastical ritea and 
ceremonies. Upon his suspension, his people s6oii expe- 
rienced the loss of his excellent labours. Mr. CaUhiop^ a 
gentleman of distinguished eminence in the county, aad tfie 
lord treasurer Burleigh, therefore, applied to the biiihop for 
his restoration. But his grace observed, that what.he had 
done in suspending him, was by virtue of the queen's 
orders, requiring hui to allow no ministers to preaen who 
were not in all &ings perfectly conformable to the rites and 
ceremonies of the church. Mr. Calthrop urged the ereat 
want there was of such excellent preachers as Mr. Law- 
rance, for whose fitness for the work of the ministry he 
,would undertake to obtain the testimonial of the chief 
gentlemen in the county. But aU was unavailable: the 
good man still remained under the episcopal censure.* 
, Mr. Lawrance was greatly beloved by persons of a reli- 
gious character throughout the county where he lived, and 
nis suspension was the cause of much sorrow and grief io 
all who knew him. Therefore, in the month ik Apri^ 1580, 
the above worthy persons made a second application to the 
bishop, but with no better success. The bishop remained 
inflexible, and declared that unless the treasurer conn 
manded him, he would not restore Mr. Lawrance without 
perfect conformity. So he still continued under sus- 
pension, f 


John Handson was curate of St. James's church, Bniy 
St. Edmunds, in Suffolk, and brought into trouble for non- 
conformity. He refused to wear we sui^lice, not onhr in 
time of divine service, but even in the administration of the 
sacrament ; saying, that by law he thought himself not bound 
to wear it. He was examined by the chanoeUor to the 
Bishop of Norwich ; but it does not appear what peaatties 
were then inflicted i^n him. This was in the year 15734 
In 1581, he was agam brought into trouble by his diocesan, 
Dr. Freke, who suspended him for nonconformity. The 
bishop gave an account of this afiair, in a letter to the tiea- 
feurer, dated April 19th, this year. 

• Strype's Annals, ▼ol. ii. p. 585, 586. f Ibid. p. 600. 

t Strype^s Parker, p. 469. 


Mr. Handson havii^ continued for some time under the 
episcopal censure, the treasurer, after due examioation of 
the case, wrote to the bishop in reply to his letter, desiring 
that the good man might be restpred (o his ministry. ■ At 
the same time, Sir Robert Jermin, Loid North, and some 
others, wrote to his grace, requesting the tanue fayour. Sir 
Robert, m his letter, said, ^' That his iovdi^ip had examined 
'Mr. Handson^s case at length, bat,, in bis opinion, Tery 
indiscreetly, in many of the principal points; that they 
iuew hb ministry to hare been very prc^taUe to gixeet 
plumbers; that they who sought to remove him, were 
adversaries, rather than friends to the truth ; that, bb to faith 
Riid manners, he was ever held a sound teacher ; that in these 
indifferent things (meaning the matters of confomutyyhe 
had never laboured miich ; and that, from these considera* 
iions, he requested the bishop would allow hiin' the fice exev« 
ciae of his ministry." But the kngry prelate stood resolut^ 
and declared peremptorily, that he never would, unless Mi;. 
Handson would publicly acknowledge his faul^ andf enter 
into bonds for his good behaviour in future^ Other 
applications were made to the bishop, to take c^ his suspen- 
(Hon ; but whether he ever became so favoutaUy dispose!^ 
we have not been able to learn.* 

. Robert Wright. — ^He lived fourteen years ia the 
university of Cambridge, was a very learned man^ and tutor 
to the Larl of Essex, both in school learning and at tha 
university. Being dissatisfied with episcopal ordination, ba 
trent to Antwerp, where he was ordained by the laying on 
cf the hands of the presbytery. Upon his return to Eng* 
land, Lord Rich of Rochford, in Essex, made him hi& 
domestic chaplain ; and he coi^tantly preached and adnii'- 
nistered the sacrament in his lordship^s chafiel, but in no 
ather place, seeing the bishop utterly reftised him a license* 
He was an admired preacher ; and, for his great seriousness 
and piety, was universally belovwl by the clergy in the 
county. While his noble patron lived, he prot«:;ted him 
from danger ; but this excellent lord was no sooner deftd| 
than Ik. Aylmer, bishop of I^ondon, laid hands on bim ; 
and for saying, " That to keep the queen's birth*day as an 
boUday, is to i^ike her an icb/," he was committed tatfaa 
Gratehouse, where he continued a long time.f 

• Strype*! Annals, vol. iii. p. Id^ 91. t Strype's Aykner, p. 83—87* 


Having lain in prison se>'eral months, he peiitionecl the 
bishop to be brought to trial, or aclniit(c(l to bail. But aH 
the answer he could obtain of his grace, was, that he 
deserved to He in prison sexen years. This very hard usage, 
togeliier with Mr. Wright*s open and undisguised honesty 
and piet^, moved the compassion of his keeper ; and, hu 
poor wife beinff in child-bed and in great distress, he gave 
him leave, with the private allowance of the secretary of 
state, to make her a visit at Rochford, upon his pande. 
But it so happened, that Dr. Ford, the civilian, met Lim on 
. the road, and acquainted the bishop with his escape; who^ 
falling into a violent passion, sent immediately for the 
keeper, and demanded his prisoner. The keeper pleaded 
the great compassion of the case; but all was unavailable. 
For the bishop threatened to complain of him to the queen, 
and have him turned out of his place. Mr. Wright, having 
received information of his keeper^s danger, returned imme- 
diately to his prison, and wrote as follows to the lord trea^ 
surer in his behalf: — ^< Oh ! my lord,*' says he, ^^ I most 
humbly crave your lordship's favour, that I may be de- 
livered from such unpiliful minds; and especially, that yooi 
lordship will stand a good lord to my keeper, that he may 
not be discouraged from favouring those who profess true 
religion." This was written in May, 1382. The keeper 
was therefore pardoned.* 

The bishop, however, was resolved to have full satisfac- 
tion of the prisoner ; and, bringing him before the high 
commission, he was examined upon certain articles concern-- 
ing the Book of Comniou Prayer ; the rites and ceremonies ; 

f>raying for the queen and cliurch; and the established 
brm of ordaining ministers. He was, moreover, charged 
with preaching without a license, and with being a mere 
layman. To which he replied, '' that he thought the Book 
of Common Prayer, upon the whole, was good and godly, 
but could not answer tor every particular. That as to rite» 
and ceremonies, he thought that his resorting to churches 
where they were used, was a sufficient proof, that he did 
not utterly condemn them. That he prayed for the. queen, 
and for all the ministers of God's word ; consequently, fcHT 
archbishops, bishops, &c. That he .was only a private 
chaplain, and knew of no law that required a license for sudi 
a place. But he could not acknowledge, that he was a mere 

« * Strype*8 Anoals, vol. iii. p. 12S» 1S4. 

. WRiaHT. S41 

htymwy jlHvriiig pieacfaed sevea years in the university wit|i 
a license, aad being since thiat time regularly ordained, by 
tfae laying on of the kands <rf* the preslMery at Antwerp*" 

The bishop havlii^ charged Mr* Wright with sayin^e^ 
** That the election ofministers ought to be by their flocksy^ 
he acknowledged the charge, and supposed it was no error; 
addinff, << That he was himself thns chosen by his flock at 
Jlochrord'; that in his oj>inion, every minister was a bishop^ 
though not a forif bishop; and that his graqe of liondon, 
innst be of the same opinion ; because when he was last 
before him, he rebuked Mr. White fi^ striking one of hi? 
panshionera^ alleging that text, A Mshop mu$i be hq 
Hriker : which hm been impertinent, if m.u White, wbc^ 
was only a minister, had not been a tishapy When be was 
i^arged with saying, << That the lainisters who only used 
the common prayer, were dumb dogs /' he said, ^\ tbe 
phrase, thongh used in scripture, has very seldoi^ been in 
iny mouth, oa any occasion whatever. But it can never be 
proved, that I ever c^ed any man, especially an v preacher, 
hy that name. Y^ ^ man who is projtessedly the pastor id 
a' flock, and does not preach at all, may, according to the 
Resign (rf* the prophet, deserve the name of dumb dog." 

Aylmer also charged him with saying, '^ There were no law- 
ful ministers in the church of En^^Iand ; and that those who 
are called ministers, are thieves and murderers* '^ To this, Mr. 
Wright said, " I will be content to be condemned, if I bring 
not two hundred godly, preaching n^nisters, {is witnesses 
against this accusation. I do as ce^inly believe, that there 
are lawful mihisteis in England, as that th^e is a sun in the 
^ky. In Essex, I can brin^ twenty godly minister;s, all 
jpreachers, who will testify that they love me, and have 
cause to think that I love and reverence them. I preached 
seven years in the university of Cambridge with approba- 
tion, and have a tt^stimonial under the hands and seals of the 
master and fellows of Christ's college, being all ministers, 
rfmy good behaviour.*'* 

Tiiis excellent divine having been a considerable iim^ hi 
the Gatehouse, in September, 1583, became willing to sub^ 
jscribe to the allowance of the ministry of the church of Eng- 
land, and the Book of Common Prayer. Yet !Bis(hc^ 
Ayfaier required his friends to be bound in a good round 
sum^ihaX henceforth he should never jpreach, nor act, con- 
trary to the same. Upon these conditions, his grace wii9 


* SUype^ AnoSliy toL lii. ilppm. p. JA-^^. 
VOL. I. B ' 


not unwilling to grant him faTOur, if the queni appiored of 
it.* It 18, indeed, very doubtful whether the fayour was 
ever obtained ; for the unmerciful proceedings of the above 
prelate against the puritans, were umost unparallded.f 

Bernard Gilpin, B. D. — This celebrated peracm was 
bom of an ancient and honourable family, at Kentmire in 
Westmoreland, in the year 1517, and eaucated in Queen^s 
college, Oxford. He made the closest application to his 
studies, and uncommon progress in useful learning. Havmg 
determined to apply himself to divinity, he made the scrip- 
tures his principal study ; and with a view to his better 
acquaintance with them, he resolved by the greatest indus- 
try to gain a thorough knowledge of the Greek and 
tiebrew languages. He had not been long thus employed 
before he was noticed as a ycHing man of excellent parts and 
considerable learning; and became exceedingly admired 
and beloved for the sweetness of his disposition, and the 

Soliteness of his manners. At the usual term, he took his 
egrees in Arts, and was elected fellow of his collie. ^ His 
reputation was, indeed, so great, that he was chosen to 
supply the coU^ newly founded by Cardinal Wolsey4 

• Strype*! Aylmer, p. 87. 

f Tbe seal and aMidaiCy of Bm hop Aylmer in defence of the chnrch of 
Knglaud, is said to have recommended him to the particular fKwaar of 
Queen Elizabeth. Though in the early part of his life he declaimed againit 
the wealth and splendour of bishops, and spoke with vehemence agaiMt 
their iordlg dignity and civU avMoWl^, and was an avowed advocate of what 
was afterwards called purUanitm ; yet, as he rose in ecclesiastical piiefeiw 
meat and worldly grandeur, he changed his opinions, and became tbeowil 
violent in the opposite sentiments. Aod notwithstanding he i« itjled^ 
penon of extraordinary wisdom, a worthy prelate, and a blemlng to the 
church } he was certainly one of the most unfeeling and cruel penecnton, 
of which the pages of history afford snfficient proof. He was preceptor to 
lady Jane Grey ; and, on the accession of Queen Mary, he went into exile; 
His escape was very remarkable. Being a little man, the merchant of tha 
ship in which he made his escape, put him into a win§ kutt^ with a partition 
in tbe middle « so that he was inclosed in one end of the cask, while tW 
Mearchen drank wine dmwn out of the other. — He was a man of great 
courage, and had one of his own teeth drawn, to encourage CKweii 
Elizabeth to submit to a similar operation. When he wished to ronw the 
attention of his audience while he was preaching, he usaally took hit 
Hebrew Bible out of his pocket, and read them a few verses, and thfifi 
Presumed his discourse. He was remarkably fond ot ImwIs, even oa thi^ 
Iiord*s-day, when he commonly used very unbecoming laqguagOt to. the 
great reproach of his character. — Strype't Aylmer^ jf, %\^—Wt.'^W—^t 
Athenm^yfA, i.p. 611.— li<o^. BHtan. vol. i. p. 384—991. Edit. 177^— 
QrangerU Biog, Hist. vol. i. p. 208. 

1 The following memoir of Mr. Gilpin Is chieflj CoUscted fiwa th*- 
" British Blognphy," vol. iU. p. " 

GILPIN. - i45 

Mr, Gilpin baying ^been trained up in the pop^ religion, 
still continued a steady son of that church ; andin defence 
of popery, had held a disputation with John Hooper, after- 
wards b&hop of Worcester, and the famous martyr. This 
was in the reign of Henry VIII. ; but upon the accession of 
King Edward, Peter Martyr being sent to Oxford, delivered 
public lectures upon divinity in a strain to which that 
univmity had bc^n little accustomed. He attacked the 
Romish doct^nes in a manner that alanned the popish 
party ; which induced them to unite, find make as strong au 
opposition as they were able. Mr. Gilpin having gamed 
considerable reputation in the university, the popish party 
were exceedingly solicitous to engage him in a public 
defence of their cause, and made the most pressing applica- 
tions for this purpose. But they found his zeal much 
cooler than their own. Indeed, he was not satisfied with 
the cause of the reformers, having never had a sufficient ' 
opportunity of acquainting himself with their principles t 
out, on the other hand, he had never been a bigotted papist ; 
and had discovered, in his dispute with nooper, that 
several of the Romish doctrines were not sb well supportied 
by iscripture, as he had before supposed. While his mi^ 
was thus unsettled, he thought himself ill qualified to defedd 
either side by public disputation. His inclination was to 
stand by as An unprgudiced observer ; and to embrace the 
truth, whether he found it among papists or protestantsl 
By much importunity, however, he at l«igth yielded, and 
the- next day appeared in public against Peter Martyr.* 

.Mr. Gilpin being thus arawn into the controversy against 
his incHnatibn, was determmed to make it as useful as posai* 
ble. to himself. By bringing his old opinions to the test^ 
he hoped that he should be enabled to discover whether 
they were justly founded, or he had hitherto been involved 
in ertor. He resolved, therefore, to lay aside as much as 
poiwiMe, the temper of a caviller ; and to follow truth, from 
which he was determined nothing should make him swerve. 
Having commenced the dispute, he soon found the aigu« 
ments of his adversary too strong for him. They came so 
forcMj authorized by the testimony of scripture, that he 

* Dr. Peter Martyr, a celebrated reformer, was born in Florence, and 
invited to England by the Protector Somenet afid Archbishop Cranncr. la 
the year 1548^ he was made regifts professor of divinity at Oxford, and, in 
J660, installed canon of Christ-charch. Bit nomerona works, whici aff 
In Latin, consist chiefly of commentaries on the scripturet, and pieces on . 
eoBlsroyeray. On the accession of Qoeen Mary, and the coaimencement oC 
persecBtion, he desired to withdraw, and died at Zurich, NoYcmber 18> 
l^8.^Graiif er*« Biog» Hist. ?ol. i. p. 141. 


could not iidp ftanklj acknowledging they were of a yery 
different nature from the wire-drawn proofs and atiained 
interpretations, in which he had hitherto acquieioed. . The 
disputation, therefore, was soon over. Mr. GU|Mn had too 
nuch honesty to drfend suspected opinions. He yielded to 
the force of truth ; and owned publicly, thait he isoold not 
maintain what he undertook to defoid ; and theiefinre deter- 
mined to enter no more upon controyeisy, iiU lie iMd 
gained that full information wUchJbe was aaxioaf to 

Mr. Gilpin beinff thus sta^^ered by his opponent's aigi- 
ments, the first stqpne Uxik^ mcr imploring divine assintai^j 
ivas to commtt to paper, the substance of ttie disijHite. Also^ 
he resolved to enter into a strict examinatipn of the whqk^ 
but especially those points ia which he had ibund bimidf 
the most closely pressed. At the same time, he b^gan with 
great assiduity to examine the scriptures, and the writings 
of the fathers, with a particular view to the co ntf u vei y 
betwixt protestants and papists. The -first r<Kiitt of hii 
inquiries, cooled his leal for po|)ery, and gave him a more 
favourable opinio^ of the doctrmes of the refonnattaa. Ia 
this uDsettlea state of mind, he communicated his thoa^ti 
to his friends, and particularly to Tonstal, bishop of 
Durham, who was his mother's unde, and his great friend* 
The advice he received induced him to examine the scrip 
tures and the fathers with still gieaier attention ; aad at jid 
he became thoroughly convinced, that there were mmeroos 
sore abuses and comiptions in the church ctf'lUmcj^ and that 
a reformation was highly necessary. 
. As an academic life affords the greatest leisure for study. 
Mn Gilpin was resolved still io continue whdly em^flgm 
in the pursuit of knowledge. He had too just a sense of 
the ministerial work, to rush upon it Juistily, or to be 
unacquainted with the qualifications requisite to ^ dis* 
charge of it; and too mean an opinion of hiinsdbf, .to thivk 
he was yet possessed of them. He thought m<He kacniiv 
was necessary in that controversial ^ge, than he. had yd 
acquired. And his chief argument with his fnenda^ who 
were continually urging him to leave the univeEskr. im^ 
that he was not yet sufficiently instructed in religion bimself 

* Peter Martyr was much concemed for Mr. Gilpin*! w clflu e, aaiwei 
io say, be cared not much for h\» oiher advormriet; but for GUMb, -wIw 
spoke and acted like a man of inlr^ity, lie was mtch trooUad. Me ihwir 
fore often prayed that God would coimnee him of his error, asd coavcrt 
kirn to the troth ; which the Uud was pleased aflterwardt to do^^^Mbf^' 
Atei JlUdMvhnUt p, S58. 



to teacll otbers. Tbe chf istiaa miniatiy, said he, nas an 
Ai?diibtts ^^mjr, especially m those times ; and- protestantMnt 
could net sufibr more Mian by tiie iawness ajsid inexperieiiM 
of its teadiers. These thoughts continued to attend liim at 
Oxford till the thiity-ftftk year of his age... About thia tisM, 
the rieara^e of NortM^ ia tibe disooesecn Durfaaon, becomiog 
void, hia meads, with some diffficultj, prevailed upon hitt 
to accept k. Accoidinffty, he was presented to this living 
in November, 15531 But before he entered upcm his 
inmortant charge, he was appointed to preach befove King 
£dward at Greenwich. 

Mr. Gilpin was resolved on tMs occasion to censure the 
prevailing avarice and corruptions with honest freedom, and 
ordered ms sennoaL aeoordingly. He began by first 
addressing the clergy. He was sorry, said he, to observe 
amongst them so manifest a neglect of their function. To 
^ei btn^es^ not to take care of their flecks, was their great 
object. Half ef them were pluratists, or nonresidents^ and 
such could never fulfil their charge. He was shocked, he 
said, to hear them: quote human laws againist the word of 
God. if such laws did exist, th^ wece: the remains of 
{>eperj, and oueht to be repealed..' For white mens^ 
c^HBciences would permit them ia hold as many livings as 
they co«ild get, and discharge none,^ it was impossible Ihe 
gospel could have any eonsiaerable success. 
- From the clergy he ttumed to the court; and observing 
file king was absent, he was obliged to introduce that part 
of his sermon, by saying, it grieved him to see those absent^ 
who, for example's sake, ought to have been - presents He 
had also heard other preacters remark, that it was common 
for them to be absent. Business might, perhaps, be their 
excuse ; but he could not believe that serving God would 
ever binder business. If he could, he said,- he would make 
ttem hear ki their chambefs. However, he would speak to 
Iheir seaits, not doubting that what he said would be carried 
lo 11kem.-^^< You, great prince,'^ said he^ ^ are appointed by 
God tobe Ihe govefnor crf'this landt| let metben here call upon 
you in bebalf of your peMlei It is in your pow«r to redress 
them; and if you do not, the neglect must be accounted for. 
Take ikway dispensations for pluralities and nonresidence, 
md oblige every pastor to hold onfy one benefice ; and, as 
fkf as you can, makeevery <me do his duty. Your grace^s 
Irp^to look through the realm, would do more good than a 
Cmutend preachers. The land is full ef idle putors. And 
howi»ii it be ethcnrwise^ while the npbiUt)r^ and i^trons of 


I, put in just who will allow them to take oiit mait 
profit? It would be good, if jrour grace would send cot 
surveyors, to see liow benefices are bestowed. It ia no 
wonder that your people are ccMitinually rising up in idiel- 
lion, when tbey have no instructors to tcacn tnem thdr 
dut J. If some remedies be not applied to these eYiIs^ we 
are in danger of falling into more ignorance, superstitioiH 
and idoLttry, than we ever were in while under the Bihhop 
of itome. This muht, indeed, be the case, if some proper 
methods be not taken to prevent it ; for benefices are erary 
where so plundered and roblx?d by patroiis, that in a littk 
time no one will bring up his children to the church. It is 
amazing to see how the universities are diminished within 
these few years. And I must tell your grace, that all then 
evils will be laid to your charge, if you do not exert your- 
self to prevent them. For my part, I will do my duty: I 
will tell your grace wliat corruptions and abuses pievail, 
and pray to Gwl that he will direct your heart to ameod 

He next addressed the nobility and magistrates. He told 
them, that they all received their honours, their powen, and 
their authority, from God, who expected they would make 
a proper use of such gifts ; and would certainly call them to 
an account for the abuse of them. But he saw ao raacb 
ambitious striving for these things at tourt, that he was 
afraid they did not all consider them in their true light 
He observed, that the spirit of avarice was crept in lunoDf 
them ; that the country cried out against their extortums; 
and that when the poor came to seek for justice in Londflo, 
the great men would not see them^; but their servants most 
first be bribed. Oh ! said he, with what glad hearts and 
clear consciences might noblemen go to reift, after havinc 
spent the day in hearing the complaints of the poor, and 
redressing their wrongs. For want of this, he said, thgr 
were obliged to seek their right amcmg lanry^re, who quickly 
devoured every thing they had, and thousands ^v^ij- tenn 
were obliged to return worse than they came.— ^^ Then,'' 
said he, ^Met me call upon you magistrates, and put ypu.ia 
mind, tiiat if the people are debtors to you for obedfieaoe^ 
you are debtors to tnem for protection. If you den^ 
this, they must su&r ; but God will assuredly espouse their 
cause against you. And now, if we search, for the ro0t-€i 
all these evils^ what is it but avarice i This it is that makath 
the bad nobleman, the bad magistral^ .the bad pastc^ tli9 
bad lawyer/' — ^Having thus fmly aqdiessed JiiB;im#iiaipc^ 

GiLnN. fKr 

he concluded his sermOn with a wann ea^orUion^ that alt 
would consider these things, and that such as ibund them* 
selves faulty would amend their lives.* 

Such was the manner in which Mr. Gilpin entered on the 
work of the minifitr j ^ and such was the sense he had of the 
sincerity and faithfulness necessary to the proper dischaige 
<rfit Whatever appeared to be his duty, appeared also to 
be his interest ; and he was never sway^ by hope or fear« 
He considered himself in some decree chargeable with those 
vices of which he had the knowledge, ^ he failed to rebuke 
them. His plam dealiiig on this occasicm was therefore well 
taken, and recommended him to the notice of many persons 
of the first rank. And Sir WilUam Cecil presented Jbim 
a genaral license for preaching. 

Soon after this, . he repaired to his parish, and with 
becoming seriousness entered upon the duties of his function. 
Though he failed not occasionally to use the king^s license 
in other parts of the country, he considered his own parish 
as requiring his principal labours. He chiefly preached 
on practiced subjects; and seldom touched on points of 
./controversy, lest by attempting to instract, he should only 
mislead. Though he was fully resolved against popery, he 
did not see protestantism in its clearest light; and was^ 
scarcely settled income of his religious ppinipns. Hence by 
d^ees he became extrjemely diffident, which gave him gi^ 
uneasiness. He thought li^ bad en^ged too soon in the 
work of the ministry ; that he ou^nt .not to rest in giving 
Ids hearei^ i^eiely mpral instructions; and that^ as the 
country was overspread with popish errors, he did ill in 
|»etending to be a teacher of religion, if he were uniable to 
oppose those errors. 

■ These thoughts made deeper impressions upon his mind 
every day ; and being at length extremely unhappy, he 
wrote to Bishop Tonst^ then in the Tower, giving Mm an 
account of his situation. The voierable prelate advised 
Gilpin to provide a trusty curate for his parish, and to 
spend a year or two in Germany, France^ and Holland ; .by 
which means he might have an opportunity of conversing 
with men oelebratwl for learning, both papists and pro- 
testants. Mr. Gilpin having long earnestly desired a 
conference with learned men abroad, was much pleased with 
the advice. And as to the expense, Ton^tal observed, that 
Ills living would do something towards his maintenance,,and 

• fhls lenDoii is pablfehed with Oarietoo and GilpiD's i4fe of Benuaf 
n^y ftai ii me tttly tJiiDf !■« nwr pnUiriifdt 

ffS LIVES OF ttlE 

he wmild make up all deficienciei. Thii, however, did nol 
rpinove the clifficultj firom his mind* Mr. Gilpin^t Tiews of 
the p'tstoral office were so correct, thai ho thought noexcme 
eoukl justify nonresidence for so considerable a time as he • 
intended to be abroad. He, theretbre, could not think of 
supporting; himself with any part of the income of hia liTiiig. 
Yet he was resolved to go abroad ; and if he stayed oaljr a 
short time, he would rely on the frugal management fif the 
little money he possessed, and leave the rent to the biaiiop^s 
ffonerostty. He accordin^rly n signed his living, and set out 
' for London, to receive his la&t wders from the bishop, and 
to embark for the continent. 

The account of his resijcrnation got to London before 
himself; and Tonstal, anxious for his kinsman to thrive ia 
the world, wafc much concerned about it. <^ Here are your 
friends," said his grace, ^^ endeavonrine (o provide for yoo, 
and yon are taking -every method to frustrate their eiidca- 
vours. But be warned ; by these courses you will presenliy 
brintf yourseU to a morsel of bread.^* Mr. Gilpin begged 
the bishop would attribute what he had done toa sorapulons 
conscience, which would not permit him to net otherwiseL 
<< Conscience!" replied the bishop, ^^ why, you might 
have had a dispensation." ^^ Will my dispensation," an- 
swered Gilpin, '' restrain the tempter, in my absence, fiora 
endeavouring to corrupt the people committed to my caie? 
Alas ! I fear it would be but an ill excuse for the- harm done 
to my flock, if I should say, when God shall call me to an 
account of my stewardship, that I was absent by diqiensa- 
tion." This reply put the bishop a little out of humour. 
But after his temper cooled, this instance of Mr. Gilpin*s 
integrity raised him still higher in the prelate's esteem. 
Nevertheless, Tonstal would frequently chide him for his 
qualms of ccmscience, as he called them ; and often tdd 
him, that if he did not look better to his own interest, he 
'"would certainly die a beggar." 

Before his departure, the bishop entrusted him with his 
Treatise on the Eucharist, in manuscript, desiring him to in* 
' spect the printing of it at Paris. Upon his arrival in Holland, 
•he travelled to Mechlin, to see his brother Georoe, there 
prosecuting his studies. Afterwards, he went to Lbuvain, 
resolving were to abide. He made frequent excursion^ to 
Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels, and other places, where he 
usually spent a few weeks with person* of repirtation^ both 
papists and protestants. But Louvain being the principal 
place for students in divinity, was his chief lesidencCi, Heiia 


mm&ci tte iticat celebrated drvinei on both aideft of Urn 
question resided ; and the most important topics in diTioitjr 
were discussed with great freedoou 

Mr. Gilpin's first busine^ was to get himself introdaced 
io men eminent for kaming ; to whom his own address and 
attainments were no mean recommendation, and supplied 
the place of long acquaintance. He attended upon aU 
public readings and disputations. He committm everjr 
thing material to writing; re-examine^ all his own opinions; 
proposed his doubts to friends in private ; and, in every 
respect, made the best use of his time. Hereby, he began 
to obtain more correct views of the doctrines of the re- 
formation ; he saw things in a clearer and stronger light, 
and felt ^eat satis&ction in the change he had made. 

Whilehewas thus prosecuting his studies, and making con- 
aiderable impravement in useful knowledge, he was suddenly 
alarmed, together with numerous other protestants in thoso 
parts, by the melancholy news of the death of King Edward, 
and the accession of Queen Mary. This news, however, 
was attended with one favourable circumstance, which was, 
the release of Bishop Tonstal from the Tower, and his restora- 
tion to his bishopric. Soon after, Tonstal finding a rich 
living vacant in his diocese, made the ofier of it to Mr. . 
Gilpin; supposing that by this time he mi^t have got 
over his former scruples. But Mr. Gilpin still continued 
inflexible in his resolution not to accept any benefice 
without discharging the duties of it. He, therefore, gave 
the bishop his reasons for not accepting his kind offer, in 
the following letter, dated from Louvain, November S2, 

; f^ Right honourable and singular good lord, my duty 
'< remembered in most humble manner. Pleaseth it your 
/^ lordship to be informed, that of late my brother wrote to 
<^ me, that in any wise I must meet him at Mechlin ; for he 
<< must debate with me urgent afiairs, such as could not be 
<< dispatched by writing. When we met, I perceived it 
M was nothing else but to see if he could persuade me to 
^ take a benefice^ and continue in study at the university ; 
>< which if I had known to be the cause of his sending for 
f < me, I should not have needed to interrupt my study to 
*< meet him. For I have -so long debated that matter with 
^ learned men, espedally with the holy prophets, and most 
,^ ancient and godly writers since Christ's time, tiiat I trust 
•^^so long as I iiave to five, never to burden my oonscienoe « 
^^iritb MviDg abeaeici^ aiKllyiDgff^ My brother 


<<8aid, ihat yoar lordship had written to hiiQ^ that jra 
<< would gladly bestow one on me ; and that your lordship 
<< thought, and so did other of my friends, of which he 
€i was one, that 1 was much too scrupulous in that point. 
<< Whereunto I always say, if I be too scrupulous, as I 
*^ cannot think that I am, the matter is such, that I had 
^ rather my conscience were a great deal too strait, than a 
^< a little too largp. For I am seriously persuaded, thai I 
^^ sliall neyer offend Grod by refusing to have a benefice^ 
^' and He from it, so long as I judge not evil of others; 
^< which, I trust, I shall not ; but rather pray God dail^, 
^< that ail who have cures may discharge their office in ms 
^^ sight, as may tend most to his glory and tlie profit of his 
^' Ciiurch. He replied against me, that your lordship would 
<^ ^ive me no beuefice, but what you would see dischaigied 
^^ in my absence, as well or better than I could discharge it 
<< myself. Whorcunto I answered, that I would be sony^ 
<< if I thought not that there were many thousands ia 
<< England, more able to discharge a cure than I find mysel£ 
<< And therefore 1 desire they may take both the core and 
<< the profits also; that they may be able to feed both the 
<< body and the soul, as I think all pastors are bounden. 
<< As tor me, I can never persuade myself to take the or^/Ef^ 
<^ ^nd another take the pains : for if he should teacii and 
^' preacli as faithfully as ever St. Austin did, yet I should 
^' not think myself discharged. And if I should strain my 
f ^ conscience horein, I strive with it to remain here;, or in any 
f f other university, the unquietuess of it would not suffar 
^' me to profit in my study at all. 

<^ I am here, at this present, I thank God, veir well 
^ placed for study among a company of learned men, joining 
<^ to the friers minors ; having free access at all times toa 
^' notable library among the friers, m«i both well learned 
^' and studious. 1 have entered acquaintance with divers 
^^ the best learned in the town ; and for my part was never 
<^ more desirous to learn in all my life than at presentw 
^^ Wherefore, I am bold, knowing your lordship^s singular 
^< good will towards me, to open my mind thus rudely and 
'^ plainly unto your goodness, most humbly beseeching yos 
^< to suffer me to live without charge, that I may study 
" quietly. » 

f' And wh^'reas I know well your lordship is careful how 
'^ I should live, if God should call your lordship, \mng 
<< now aged, 1 desire you will not let that care trouble von. 
^ For it I haiLncMyther fthift, I could get a leptaMdup^-I 


^ knowy shortly^ either in this oniTersity, or at least in somo 
<< abbey hereby ; where I douUl nqt lose aj)y time ; and this 
^^ kind of life^ if God b^ pleased, I desire before any 
^^ benefice. And thus I pray Chri^ nlways to have your 
<^ lordship in blessed ke^i^g. By ypur lordship's humbfai 
^^ scholar and chapU^^, 

" BEaNAAD Gilpin." 

The bishop was not offended with this letter. Th« 
tuiaffected piety which it discovered disarmed all resent^ 
ment, and led him rather to admire a behaviour, in which 
the motives of conscience shewed themselves so much 
superior to . those of interest, f < Which of our modem 
'< gaping rooks,^' exclaims Bishop Carleton, <^ could endea<* 
^^ vour with greater industry to oHcin a bc»iefice, than this 
^< man did to ixooid one !" Mr. Gilpin having got over this 
afiair, continued some time longer at Louvain, daily im- 
proving in religious knowledge. And having remained 
about two years, he went to P^s ; where his fint care was 
the printing of Tcmstal's book, which he performed entirdy 
to the bishop's satisfaction, and received his thanks for it. 

Mr. Gilpin having spent three years on the continent, 
"was fully satisfied in all his former scruples. He was firmly 
convinced of the errors and evil tendency of popery ; and of 
the truth and importance of the doctrines of the reformation. 
Therefore, in me year 1556, he returned to England, 
though the persecutions of Queoi Mary were carrying on 
with unabating fury. Tonstal received his kinsman with 
great kindness ; and soon after his arrival, gave him the 
archdeaconry of Durham, io which the rectory of Ekisingtcm 
was annexed. He immediately repaired to his parish, 
iHi»% he preached with great boldness against thie vices^ 
errors, and corruptions of the times ; also, by virtue of his 
office as archdeacon, he took great pains to retbrm the 
manners ^ the clergy. His free and open reproo£s soon 
loosed the malice oi proud ecclesiastics, who used every 
method in Uieir power to remove so inconvenient a person. 
It socm became Uieir popular clamour, that he was aa 
enemy to the church; a scandaliser m the clergy; a 
inreacher of dariinable doctrines ; and that if h&was spared 
much longer, religion must sufier from the heresies he was 
daily propagating.* Indeed, a charge of heresy, consisting of 

• Mr. GilpiQ^in » letter to hit brother, makes the foUowisf obierv*- 
iiOBs^** Aificr I entered upon the partonafe of Eaaingtoii, and bigao ta 
f* pMipb/* tayi be, ** I toap proenred oiany mighty and grievooiadvena'- 
**rl«iffjrlhirtIfir«aebedi^EM«it|^«naUiMMda^^ Sameiaid^ 


ftirfcen nfticles, wai soon drawn irp agaiiut him ; ami be 
was accused in feral before the Bishop of Durham. Bat 
the bishop, who was much aoquainted with the world, 
easily fomul a method cf dismissing the cause, so as fo 
protect his nephew, without endangering himself. The 
malice of his enemies, however, could not rest ; and they 
created him so much trouble, and on account of the 
extreme fittigue of keeping both his places, he begged 
leave of the bishop to rrsign either the archdeaconry or his 
parish. But the bishc^ observing that the income of the 
former was not a sufficient support without the latter, and 
that he was unwilling they shoidd be separated, Mr. Gilpia 
ibereforp resigned them both. 

The bishop soon after presented him to the rectory of 
Houghton-^e-Spring, in the county of Durham. The living 
was viiluabie; Imt the duties of it were propoitiomdily 
laborious. The parish contained no less than fimrteea 
villages ; and the instruction of the people having been so 
exceedingly neglected, popery was arrived to its fidl 
growth of superstiiiou. Scarcely any traces of tme clurisp* 
tianity were mdeed left. Nay, what little lemained^ was 
even popery itself corrupted. Here all its idle cerenoidcs 
were carried to a greater extent than in most ether placei^ 
and were looked upon as the very essentials of reUgioik 
And how these baroarous pec^le were excluded finom all 
means of better information, appears from hence, that 
tbrongii the neglect of the bishops and the justices of peaos^ 
King Ed ward^s proclamations for a chans;e of worship, had 
not been even heard of, in that part of the kingdom, at the 
time of his deaths Such was the condition of the parish of 
Houghton, when first committed to the care of Mr. GKIpin. 
He was grieved to see ignorance and vice so lamentably 
prevail ; but he did not despair. He implored the assist- 
«nce and blessing of God, and was much encouraged. The 
people crowded about him, and heard him withjp«at 
attention. They perceived him to be a very diwieat 
teacher from those to whom ihry had been accustomed. 

After the acceptance of Houghton, Tonstal urged him to 
accept of a stall in the cathedral of Durham ; tdlinff faim^ 
that there did not exist the same objection against this as 
against the archdeaconry, it being altc^ether a sinecwe; 

*^ an who preached that doctriae becane heretictiOOB after. OlheffV fonndl 
^ great faalt, for that I preached repentance and lalvatloo by. Chriit | 
** and did not make whole lefnions, as they did, about trannibitiiBtiaiioB) 
.^ pargatary, boly-water, inagci, prayere- to laintt, ami mdl Ufee.'* ■• 

61LPJN. S3S 

and that he cobU hare no reasonable piHenoe for 
it But Mr. Gilpin resolving not (o accept it, told iH 
bishop, that by ms bounty te had already more weaitt^ 
than he was afraid, he could ^ve a good account of. He» 
th^efore, b^ged that he might not hare any additional 
charge; bat thit his lorddi^) would bestow hts piefcsment 
4^n some one who stood in greater need of it. 

Mr. Gilpin now lived retired, and gave no immediiiB 
offence to the diergy. The experience be had of thrir 
^mper^ made him mose cautious not to offend them^i fib 
was, indjsed, more cautious than be afterwards approved* 
For in future life he often taxed his bdiaviour, at this 
period, with weakness and cowardice. But all the caution 
he could use availed nothing. He was soon finmally 
accused a second time before <£e Bishop of Durhani ; vtIm' 
again found means to protect htm. The maUce of hit 
^emies, however, succeeded in. part. From this time^ 
Tonstal^s favour towards him visibly declined ; and to shew 
his dislike of heresy, and of his kinsnum^s conduct, he 
struck him out of his will, though he had before made him 
his executor. The loss gave Mr. Gilpin very little Hneasi* 
pass. His heart was not set upon the thiogs of this woild. 
It was no less than he expected, n(^ more than he had 
provided ibr. He was, indeed, sorry to see the bishop dis* 
gusted ; and would have giv^ up any thin^, except hii 
conscience, to have satisfied him. ' But a good conscaeace, 
he was assured, was the best fiiend in the world ; and he 
was resolved not to paigt with that, to please any man \spaa 

His ^emies, in the meMi time, were not silenced. They 
were so exceedingly enmged by their second &ilure^ that 
they ca^^ised ihiriy*two articles, expressed in the strongest 
terms, to be exliibited against him, before Bonner, bishop of 
Xiondon. H^e they went the right way to work. Bonner 
was a man exactly suited to tiieir purpose, nature having 
fonned him for an inquisitor. The fierce zealot at once 
took fire, extolled so laudable a concern for religion, and 
proniised that the heretic should be at the stake in a foit- 
night Mr. Gilpin, who was no stranger to the burning 
zeal of the Bishop of London, received the account wim 
great composure, and immediately prepared for martyrdom, 
liayin^ his hana on the dioulder of a favourite dbmeis^ic, 
lie sai^ '' At length they have prevailed against me. I am 
^< accused to the Bishop of London, from whom there wiH 
^< be no escaping. God forgive theuc inalice» and tS^y^ ^oie 


^ strei^h to undergo the trial." He then ordeied his 
•ervant to provide a lone mrment, in which he might go 
dboentlj to the stake, and desiied it might be got leaajr 
with all expedition ; << for I know not,*^ said &y '^^ how 
^ so(m I may haye occasion for it."* As soon as he was 
apprehended, he set out for London, in expectation of the 
fire and faggot. Bnt on his journey to the metropolis, we 
aie informra, that he broke his leg, which unayoidabl j 
detained him some time on the roM. The persons con^ 
ducting him, took occasion from this disaster inalicioudy to 
retort upon him a frequent obseryation of his, yic. << That 
nothing happens to us but what is intended for- our good." 
^d when Uiey asked him whether he thought his broken leg 
was so intended, he meeU^ replied, that he had no doubt 
<tf it.' And, indeed, so it soon appeared in the strictest 
sense. For before he was able to trayel, Queen Mary died, 
and he was set at liberty. Thus he again escaped out of 
the hands of* his enemies. 

Mr. Gilpin haying obtained this proyidential deliyerance^ 
returned to Houghton through crowds of people, express* 
ing the utmost joy, and blessing God for his happy 
r^ase. The following year he lost his friend and relation 
Bishop Tonstaljt but soon procured himself other friends. 
Vpcm the deprivation of the popish bishops^ the Eaxl of 
Bedford recommended him to the patronage of Queen 
Elizabeth, who offered him the bishopric of Carlisle ; and 
according to Wood, he was much pressed to accept itt 
The Bishop of Worcester, his near relation, wrote to him 
expressly for this purpose, and warmly urged him to accept 
the offer, declaring that no man was more fit for such kind 
of preferment.^ After all, Mr. Gilpin modestly refused. 
No arguments could induce him to act contrary to fjie 
dictate of his conscience. The accounts given us by 
Bishop Nicolson and Dr. Heylin of Mr. Gilpin*s behaviour 
t>n this occasion, are extremely disingenuous : they both 
ascribe it to his lucrative motives. The former intimates 
that the good man knew what he was about, when he 
refiised to part with the rectory of Houghton for the 
bishopric of Carlisle: the latter supposes that all his 

* Biog. Britan. vol. y\\. Sap. p. 72. 

f Bishop ToDstal was one of the politest scholan of the a|;e, and a 
man of the inost amiable character. He published a book, entitled JDt 
jirte Supputandit which wa^ the first boolc of arithmetic ever printed ia 
£flgland, and passed through many editions.— Gran^o*, roL K p. 96. 

t AtbeniB Oxon. vol. i. p. 593. 

^ fuller^f Church Hilt. b. iz. p. 63. ' 

GJLPIN. 255 

scruples would have rdnished, might he have had the old 
temporalities undiminished. Both these writers seem to 
jhave been very little acquainted with Mr. Gilpin's cha^ 
IFacter. He considered hi^s income in no other light^ than 
that of a fund to be managed for the public eood. The 
bishop^s insinuation, thererore, is contradictea by every 
action in Mr. Gilpin's life:. and Dr. Heylin's is most 
notoriously false,, for the bishopric was offered him with 
the old temporalities undiminished.* 

It is certain that Mr. Gilpin was reckoned .amcHig tfat 
nonconformists of his time; and though he had several 
reasons for rejecting the dfered preferment, that which 
prevailed most with him, was his disaffection to some 

Soints of conformity .f It was his fixed opiuion, that no 
uman invention should take place in the church, instead of 
a divine institution. The excellent Bishop Pilkisrgton^ 
who succeeded Tonstal at Durham, connived at his non* 
conformity ; and excused him from subscription, the use of 
the habits, and a strict observance of the ceremonies.:^ Bat 
the bishop could screen him only for a season. For upon 
the controversy about the habi^ about the year 1566, be 
was dejuived for noncpnfiMrmity ; ^ but it is extremely 
probable he did not continue long under the ecclesiastical 
censure. The year after he was offered and nominated to 
the lH8h(q[>ric of Carlisle, he was offered the provostship of 
Queen's college, Oxford ; but this he declined also. His 
heart was set on ministerial usefulness, not ecclesiastical 

Mr. Gilpin continued many years at Houghton without 
farther molestation, discharging all the duties of his function 
in a most exemplary manner. When he first undertook 
the care of soub, it was his settled maxim to do all the 
good in his power; and accordingly his whole conduct 
IRTits one direct line towards this point. His first object 
was to gain the affections of his people. Yet he used no 
aervile. compliances : his means, as well as his ends, were 
good. His bdiaviour was free without levity, obliging 
without meanness, and insinuating without, art. He coa* 
descended to the weak, bore with the passionate, and com^ 

£Ued with the scrupulous. Hereby he convinced them 
ow much he loved them; and thus gained th»r higk 
esteem. He was unwearied in the instruction of thoset 

^^^Biog. BritaD.Tol. vii. Sap. p.72. * 
t MS. Remarks, p. 117. { Keal'i PoriUni, toI. i. p. 9ik, 

S Calanjr'f AccouBti ¥ol. I. Pref. 


under his care. He was not satisfied wiih fbe advice he 
gave them in public, but taught them from house to house ; 
and disposed nis people to come to him with their doubf» 
and difficulties* And even the reproofs which he gave^ 
evidently proceeding from friendship, and given with geii- 
tleness, very seldom save oflfence. Thus, with unceasing 
asriduity , he was employed in admonishing the vicious, and 
encouraging the wdl'^cusposed. And in a few years, by 
the blessing of God upon his endeavours, a greater change 
was leffiscted throughout his parish, thau could have brai 

Mr. Gilpin continued to dischar^ the duties of his 
ministerial function in the most conscientious and laboridus 
manner. Notwithstanding aU his painful industry, and Urn 
larffe scope of labour in his own parish, he thought the 
sp&re of his exertions were too confined. It grwoed kb 
righieous soul to behold in aU the summndiog parishes s6 
much ignorance, superstition, and vice, occasioned by the 
^lameful neglect of the clergy. The ignorance and pufafic 
vices in that part of the country, were very remarkaUb 
This appeals from the injunctions of Archbidiop Gtkidal 
in J570; among which were the following: — ^^Thstnb 
^ pedlar shall be admitted to sell his wares in the chmch 
^ porch in divine service. — That parish clerks shall be aide 
<^ to read. — That no lords of misrule, or summer ioids and 
^ ladies, or any disguised persons, morrioe-dancets oc 
*< odiers, shall come irreverenfly into the church, or jiaj 
^< any imseemly parts with scoffs, jests, wanton gestOR^i 
^ or ribbakl talk, in the time of divine service.'** Such was 
the deplorable condition of the people. Therefore, to su 
as far as he was able, what was manifestly wanting in 
he used regularly every year to visit the most _ 
parishes in Northumberland, Westmoreland^ CumbeHaUd^ 
and Yorkshire : and that his own people might not suffer, 
he was at the expense of keeping an assistant. Even m 
those wild parts of the country, he never wanted aa 
audience ; and was the means under Grod of rousing mam 
to a sense of religion, and the great importance of then 

There is a tract of country on the borders of N<Nf4hamlMr^ 
land, called Reads-dale and Tyne-dale ; which, of aU othor 
jdaces in the north, were the most barbarous. It was 
inhabited by a kind of desperate banditti, who Uv^. cbiic0ty 

* Biog. Britan. vol. vii. Sop. p. IS, r 

GILPIN. 257 

by phindier. In this wretehed part of the country) where 
no one would tren trayel if he could avoid it, Mr. Gilpin 
never failed to spend some part of the year, labouring for 
the good of their souls. He had fixed places for preaching^ 
and punctually attended. If be came where there was a 
church, he made use of it ; but if there were none, he used 
to preach in bams, or any other large buildings, where great 
crowds crif people Were sure to attend. In these itinerating 
excuniiohB, nis labours were always very great, and he often 
endured the most amazing hardships. 
• This excellent servant of Christ sometimes gave incon- 
testible evidence of his firmness in reproving the vices pf 
the greatest as well as the poorest. .Having at one time 
fliade the requisite preparations for hiis journey to Reads- 
dale and Tyne-dale, he received a message from Dr. Barns^ 
bishop of Durham, appointing him to preach a visitation 
sermon on the following sabbath. He therefore acquainted' 
th6 bishop with his engagements, and the obligation he was 
fitader to fulfil them, begging his lordship at that time to 
excuse him. As the bishop returned no answer, he cbn- 
oliided that he was satisfied, and set out on his journey. 
But, upon his return, he was greatly surprised to find 
himself suspended. After some time, he received an order 
to meet the bishop and many of the clergy, when the bishop 
ordered Mr. Gilpin to preach before them. He pleadea 
Mb suspension, and that he was unprepared ; but the bishop 
immediately took- off his suspension, and would admit of no 
excuse. Mr^ Gilpin then went up into the pulpit, and 
preached upon the high charge of a christian bishop. In 
the sermon, after exposing the corruptions of the clergy, he 
boldly addressed the bishop in these words : — '' Let not 
<^ your lordship say, that these crimes have been committed 
^ by others, without your knowledge; for whatever either 
*^ yoarself shall do in person, or suffer through your con- 
^* nivance to be done by others, is wholly your own. 
^ Therefore, in the presence of God, angels, and men, I 
*^ pronounce you to be the author of all these evils. Yea, 
^ find In- that strict day of general account, I will be a 
^^ witness to testify against you, that all these things have 
^ COToe to your knowledge by my means ; and all these 
^ fliin riiall bear witness thereof, who have heard me speak 
« to yofu this day." 

Tms great freedom- alarmed all who wished well to Mr. 
Gilpia. They said, the bishop had now got that advantage 
over him which his enemies had long sought to obtain. And 

VOL. I. s 


when they expostulated with him, he said, " Be not afraid. 
The Lord (lod ruleth over all. If God may be glorified, 
and his truth propagated, God's will be done concerning 
me." Thus he assured them, that if his discourse answered 
the purpose he intended, he was regardless what might befall 
himself. Upon his going to the bishop, to pay his compli- 
ments before he went home, the bishop said, ^< Sir, I 
purpose to wait upon you home myself;" an4 so accoia- 
panied him to his house. As soon as Mr. Gilpin had 
conducted him into the parlour, the bishop suddenly turned 
round, and seizing him by the hand, said, ^' Father Gilpin, 
'' 1 acknowledge you are fitter to be the Bishop of Durham, 
^^ than I am to be the parson of your church. I ask 
^' forgiveness of past injuries. Forgive me, father. I know 
<< you have enemies ; but while I Uve Bishop of Durham, 
^^ be secure : none of them shall cause you any furth^ 
« trouble."* 

The benevolence and hospitality of Mr. Gilpin were the 
admiration of all the country. I^trangers and travellers 
found a cheerful reception at his house. All were welcome 
that came : and every sabbath, from Michaelmas to Easter, 
he expected to see all his parishioners and their families. 
For their reception, he had three tables well covered : the 
first for gentlemen, the second for husbandmen and farmers, 
and the third for the labouring poor. This kind of Iiospir 
talitv he never omitted, even when losses or scarcity 
rendered its continuance rather difficult. He thought it 
was his duty ; and that was a deciding motive. Even when 
he was from home, the poor were fed, and strangers enter- 
tained, as usual. Every Thursday throughout the year, a v^ry 
large quantity of meat was dressed whdly for the poor ; ai^ 
every day they had as much broth as they wanted. Twenty- 
four of the poorest were his constant pensioners. Four timfis 
in the year a dinner was provided for the poor in general, 
when they received a certain quantity of corn and a sum d 
money ; and at Christmas they had always an ox divided 
among them. Whenever he heard of any persons in distress, 
whether in his own parish or any other, he was sure to 
relieve them. As he walked abroad, he frequently brought 
home with him poor people, and sent them away clothed as 
well as fed. He took great pains to acquaint himself with 
the circumstances of his neighbours, that the modesty of 
sufferers might not prevent their relief. But the money bdst 

* Wood says, that Bisliop Barns was a constant favoarer of pnritenisas. 
'^Athente Oxdn, vol. i. p. 607. 

GILPipr. 259 

laid out, in his opinion, was that which encouraged industry, 
fie took great pleasure in making up the losses of those who 
were laborious. If a poor man had lost a beast, he would 
send him another in its room : or if the farmers had at any 
time a bad harvest, he would make them an abatement in 
their tithes. Thus, as far as he was able, he took the mis- 
fortunes of his parish upon himself, and, like a true 
shepherd, exposed himself for his flock. 

In the distant places where he preached, as well as in his 
own neighbourhood, his generosity and benevolence were 
continually manifested, particularly in the parts of Northum- 
berland where he preached. Upon the public road, he 
never jpassed an opportunity of doing good. He was often 
known to take off his cloak, and give it to a poo^ traveller. 
^^ When he began a journey to those distant places," it is 
said, '^ he would have ten pounds in his purse ; and at his 
coming home, would be twenty nobles in debt, which he 
would always pay within a fortnight after." 

Among the many instances of Mr. Gilpin^s uncommon 
lM»ievolence, was the erection and endowment of a public 
^lanunar school. His school was no sooner opened, than 
it began to flourish ; and there was so great a resort of young 
people to it, that in a little time the town could not accom- 
modate them. For the sake of convenience, however, he 
fitted up his own house, where he had seldom fewer than 
twenty or thirty children. The greater part of these were 
poor children, whom he not only educated, but clothed and 
maintained. He was also at the expense of boarding many 
poor children in the town. He sent many of his scholars to 
flie university, and devoted sixty pounds a year to their 
support during their continuance there. The common 
allowance for each scholar was ten pounds annually ; which 
to a sober vojath was at that time a sufiicient support. And 
lie not only procured able teachers for his school, but took 
a very active part himself in the constant inspection of it. 
To increase the number of his scholars, one method which 
he used was ^rather singular. Whenever he met with a 
poor boy upon the road, he would make trial of his abilities 
Dy asking him questions ; and if he was pleased with him, 
would provide for his education. Among those educated 
at his school, and sent to the university, were Dr. George 
Carletoii, afterwards bishop of Chichester, who published 
Mr. Gilpin's life ; Dr. Henry Airay, and the celebrated Mr. 
Hi]|ph Broughton. 

Towards the close of life, Mr. Gilpin went through his 


man, be not discouraged ; Til let you have that horse of 
mine," pointing at his servant's." " Ah ! master," replied 
the countryman, ^' my pocket will not reach such a beast as ' 
that." " Come, come," said Mr. Gilpin, " take him, take 
him ; and when I demand the money, then shalt thou pay 
me ;" and so gave him his horse. 

The celebrated Lord Burleigh being once sent into 
Scotland, embraced the opportunity on his return to visit 
his old acquaintance at Houghton. His visit was without 
previous notice ; jet the economy of Mr. Gilpin's house 
was not easily disconcerted. He received his noble guest 
with so much true politeness, and treated him and his whole 
retinue in so affluent and generous a manner, that the 
treasurer would often afterwards say, " he could hardly 
have expected more at Lambeth." During his stay, he 
took great pains to acquaint himself with the order and 
regularity of the house, which gave him uncommon 
pleasure and satisfaction. This noble lord, at parting^ 
embraced his much respected friend with all the warmth cf . 
affection, and told him, he had heard great things in his 
conmiendation, but he had now seen what far exceeded all 
that he had heard. <^ If Mr. Gilpin," added he, <^ I can 

^ ^^ ever be of any service to you at court or elsewhere, use 
'< me with all freedom, as one on whom you may depend.*' 
When he had got upon Rainton-hill, which rises about a 
mile from Houghton, and commands the vale, he turned 
his horse to take one more view of the place, and having 
fixed his eye upon it for some time, he broke out into this 

* exclamation : " There is the enjoyment of life indeed ! 
** Who can blame that man for refusing a bishopric ? What 
" doth he want, to make him greater, or happier, or mcxe 
^' useful to mankind ?"* 

Dr. Richard Gilpin, an excellent and useful divine, ejected , 
by the Act of Uniformity in 1662; and Mr. WiUiam 
Crilpin, author of " The Lives of eminent Reformers," were 
both descendants of Mr. Gilpin's family .f 

John Copping. — This unhappy man was minister near 
Bury St. Edmunds, a zealous puritau of the Brownist per- 
suasion, and a most painful sufferer for nonconformity. In 
the year 1576, he was brought into trouble by the commis- 

* Biog. Britan. vol. tu. Sap. p. T5. 

-f Pftlmer'8 Noncon. Mem. to), i. p. 388.— ^Granger*! Biog. Hist vol. i. 
p. 163. 


Fary of the Bishop of Norwich, and committed to prison at 
Bury. He is said to have mauitained the following 
0|)inions : " That unpreaching ministers were dumb dogs. — 
That whoever keeps saints' days, is an idolater. — That 
the queen, who had sworn lo keep God's law, and set forth 
God's glory, as appointed in the scriptures, and did not 
perform it, was perjured." And it is added, that for the 
space of six months, he liad refused to have his own child 
baptized ; " because," he said, ^' none should baptize his 
child who did not preach ;" and that when it was baptized, 
he would have neither godfathers nor godmothers. These 
were the great crimes alleged against him ! Mr. Copping 
having for th( se offences remained in prison two years, and 
still refusing to conform ; December 1, 1578, he underwent 
an examination before Justice Andrews, when the above 
false and maUcious opinions^ as they are called, were* proved 
agaij]st him.* The good man continuing steadfast to his 
principles, and still refusing to sacrifice a good conscience 
on the altar of conformity, was sent back to prison, where 
he remained nearly five years longer. What shocking bar- 
barity was this \ Here Mr. Elias Thacker, another Brownist 
minister, was his fellow prisoner. The two prisoners having 
suffered this long and painful confinement, were indicted, 
tried, and condemned for spreading, certain books, said to 
be seditiouisly penned by Robert Brown against the Book 
of' Common Prayer. The sedition charged upon Brown's 
book, was, that it subverted the constitution of the esta- 
blished church, and acknowledged her majesty's supremacy 
only in ci'cil matters, not in matters ecclesiastical. The 
judges took hold of this to aggravate their offence to the 
qiieen, after they had passed sentence upon them, on the 
statute of 33 Eliz. against seditious libels, and for refusing the 
oath of supremacy. Having received the sentence of death, 
they were both hanged at Bury, in the month of June, 
1583. Such, indeed, was the resentmtmt, and even the 
madness, of the persecutors of these two servants of Christ, 
that, previous to their death, all Brown's books that could 
be lound, were collected together, and burnt before tlieir 
eyes.f Under all these barbarities, the two champions for 
nonconformity continued immoveable to the last, and died 
sound in the faith, and of holy and unblemished lives. But, 
to hang men for spreading a book Avritten against the church 

• Strype*! AnnalSy Tol. ii. p. 5S?, 533. f Ibid. vol. ill. 


dilj, appeared extremely hard, especially at the very time 
whea Browli himself was pardoned and set at liberty. 

Thomas Unoerdown was minister of St. Mary's church 
in Lewes, in the county of Sussex, but was brought into 
trouble for nonconformity. By a special warrant from 
Dr. Longwortb, visitor to Archbishop Whitgift, dated 
November 18, 158S, he was summoned to appear in the 
ecclesiastical court at Lewes.* Upon his appearance in 
the court, he was immediately required to subscribe to 
Whitgift's three articles. He signified his readiness to 
subscribe to the first and third of those articles, but, 
hesitating about the second^ he was immediately suspended. 
At the same time, Mr. William Hopkinson, vicar of Sale- 
burst, Mr. Samuel Norden, minister of Hamsey, Mr. 
Thomas Hely, minister of Warbleton, with many cihers in 
the same county, were cited and suspended, for refusing 
anbscription, though their refusal was not out of contenrpt, 
but beoiuse to them some things appeared doubtfuLf 

These ministers having received tne ecclesiastical censms, 
ventured to lay their case at the feet of the archbishop. 
They i^ypeared before his grace at Lambeth, Deoember 5th, 
in the same year; when they entered upon the fiollowing 
conference : 

Underdown. We are become suitc»8 to your lordship, 
out of the diocese oS Chichester, being urged thereunto by 
the hard dealing oS Dr. LongwcMih ; who hath suspended 
us from the exercise of our functions, for not subM^ribing 
to certain articles, pretended to be sent by your lord* 
ship; and to 'request your favour to be released from the 

* Dr. Loo^orth lent the foUowiof warrant or citation to all tbe 
liiinitten within the archdeaconry of Lewet, requiring them to appear 
before bira: — *'-Tfic«e are to command you in her miyelly't muM, to 
^* appear personally in St. Michael's charch in Lewes, tbe SOtb day of tbia 
*' present November, between the bonrs of eight and ten o'clock in tb# 
** forenoon, then and there to perform all soch duties and injonctioas, ai I 
** am to impose upon you, from tbe Archbishop's grace of Canterbary, ai 
*^ appeareth by a special letter directed to me in that behalf. Pail y^a 
'* not hereof, upon pain of the law which will necessarily ensue upon the 
** dofoult which you shall commit in these premises. Fh>m hemt^f 
^ No? ember llB, 168S. 

'* Signed your loTing friefidf 


M8, M^giiter^ p. S96. 

H- Ibid. p. 895, 896.— Strype'a Whitglft, p. 188, IS9< . . 


Archbisliop. I am so far from releasing you from your sus« 

r^nsions, that I declare it to have been orderly done; and 
approve and justify the same, and shall further proceed 
against you unless you subscribe. 

U. My tdrd, we have subscribed to the first and third 
articles, but desired respite for the second. And though we 
have used the Book of Common Prayer, so far as concerned 
our ministry, we cannot with a good conscience, subscribe 
to every particular in that book. 

A. If you use that to which you will not subscribe, you ' 
dissemble. And how much respite would you have, after 
the exercise of twenty-five years ? . 

U. Every thing in the book doth not pertain to our 
ministry ; and in some things we are left io our liberty ; 
but this subscription bindeth us io give our full consent to 
the whole, and thus abridgeth us of the liberty which the 
book alloweth. 

A. What do you dislike in the Book of Common 
Prayer ? 

U. We do not say dislike^ my lord ; but there are many 
things doubtfuly and about which we are not yet resolved. 

A. What are the points doubtful, which you wish to 
have resolved ? I will endeavour to satisfy you, if you will 
be satisfied. 

U. We desire to know what book your lordship would 
have us to subscribe imto. For there are many copies, 
which difier in many points of great weight; and those 
which have been printed last, have most declined to super- 

< A. I mean the book which is now used for divine service 
and administration of the sacraments in the church of 

U. That is not the book established by law, according io 
1 Eliz., but difiereth in more points from the book oit 5 
Edward VI. than the law of the land alloweth. 
A. And what is the difference ? 

U. They differ in the following points and some others : 
The kalenders are not the same; the first lessons on all 
saints' days are appointed out of the apocrypha : the kalender 
appoints the saints' eves to be observed by lasting : it puttetb 
in the popish saints : it prescribeth a number orholy-days : 
and it omitteth the advertisement after the commuhiou, tip 
avoid the popish adoration in kneeling at the sacrament. 
A. The kalenders are not of the 3ubstance of ,t)ie boo^. 
U. They form a principal part of the book^ and have a 


chief iiiierest in the directions there given : and the statnte 
calleth it a part. 

A. What other doubts have you which you wish to be 
resolved ? 

U. The book prescribeth certain parts of the apocrypha 
to be read in public worship, which contain gross errors, 
both in doctrine and practice; and leaveth out some part» 
of canonical scripture. 

A. All the apocrypha is not appointed to be read, but 
those parts which are most edifying. And the ancient 
fathers permitted tliem to be read in the church. 

U. TSoi some detached parts only, my lord, but whote 
books are appointed. 

A. What errors in doctrine and practice do they contain ? 

U. Raphael "ma keth a lie, Tobit v. 15. 

A. If this be a lie, then the angels lied to Abraham, by 
seeming to have bodies and to eat, when they had no bodies 
and did not eat : And Christ, when he seemed to intend 
goins farther than Emmaus : And God, when he destroyed 
not Ninevah. 

U. The cases are not alike. — Again, the devil is said ft> 
have loved Sara, Tobit vi. 16., which is fabulous. 

A. Is it strange to you that the devil should love men 
and women ? Do you think the devil doth not love ? 

U. In Ecclesiasticus xlvi. 20. it is said, that Samuel 
preached after he was dead. 

A. It is controverted whether this were Samuel or some 
evil spirit. 

U. What writers are of this opinion ? 

A. What point of faith is it to believe it was Samuel ? 

U. A principal point, my lord; for Rev. xiv. 13. it is 
said, that the souls of the righteous are in the hands of 
God, and rest from their labours ; which is not true, if 
they be at the call of a witch or sorcerer, to do those 
things which while they lived, they would not have done; 

A. Cannot the Lord dispense with them, and alloW them 
to come, being called ? 

U» He dispenseth with things according to his word. 
And, surely, he would not condemn such abominations, and 
encourage them. 

A. It is no matter whether we believe the one or the 
other. What is your next error? Ate there any other 
feults in the apocrypha ? 

U. There are many others, which at this tinie we 
remember not» 



A. Is there any other reason why you will not subscribe 
to the Book of Common Prayer ? 

U. Yes, my lord, there are many others. For if we 
subscribe to the book, we subscribe to the massing 
apparel : as copes, vestments, tuuicle, &c. 

A. Wbatever you are discharged from by any article or 
injunction^ you are not required to subscribe unto it in the 

U. Who then shall interpret how far our subscription 
shall extend ? 

A. That will I and the other bishops do, who know best 
what the book and subscription meaneth. 

U. But, my lord, we dare not subscribe without protesta- 

A. I will have no protestation. You are not called to 
rule in this church of England ; and you shall not rule, but 
obey. And unless you subscribe, you shall have no plaoe 
in the ministry. Is there any other thing which hinderdJi 
your subscription ? 

U. The rubric requireth that after the reading" of the 
Nicene creed, an homily shall be read, either one already- 
set forth by public authority, or hereafter to be set forth ; 
and we think it is absurd to subscribe to the use of thingb 
not yet published. 

A. You need not trouble yourself about that. Have yoa 
any thing else ? 

U. If we subscribe, we must subscribe to private baptism, 
and the baptism of women, directly contrary to the word of 

^A. Though baptism were unlawfiilly performed, yet 
being once performed, it is not to be repeated ; and seeing 
it has the seal of the prince, it may not be condenmed^ 
though not pertbrmed by an ordinary minister. 

U. We acknowledge the necessity of baptism, and that 
he who administereth it, does not make the sacrament better; 
yet from the words of Christ, " Go teach and baptize,^' it 
appears that he who administers this sacrament should 
be a minister of the word. 

A. Whosoever shall say it is of the substance of the 
sacrament, that he who baptizeth must be a minister, I will 
proceed against him as an heretic. I say, moreover, it is 
not lawful for women to baptize ; yet if they do baptise^ 
their baptism is valid, and ought not to be set aside. 

U. Seeing the sacrament is not saving, but the seal of 
God's promises, there is no need of th^oi to baptize. 


A. If I lia4 a ebild dying without baptism, I shaald be 
doubtful of its salvatioQ. 

U. We think, my lord, that it is not the sDoitf of baptism, 
bat the caniempt of it, and tiiat not (^ his friends, but the 
person himBeli, that doth condemn. Yet we belie?e and 
teach the lawfulness and necessity of childrens' baptimiy and 
that it ought to be performed by ministers. 

A. The book doth not speak of women ; and it is called 
pmaie because of the place, not the persons. 

U. The circumstances of it can aomit of no other 8ense» 
For it may be administered when there is not time to say 
the Lord's prayer. 

A. There may not be so much tin^e after the minister is 

U. We know that the baptism of a certain nobleman, by 
the midwife was allowed and defended by the Book of 
Common Prayer. 

A. You should havie complained of this abuse, that the 
parties might have been punished. 
. U. Your lordship knoweth the opinion of most persons 
upon this point, and that they practise accordingly. 

A. It is not the fault of die book, if in this case, it l^ 

U. The practice was condemned ia the CQnvocatiai^ 
when your lordship was prolocutor. 

A. True: and you are to take away the superstitioii 
attached to it, by preaching against it. — ^Haye you any other 
thinff to mention ? 

U. We object against private communion. 

A* Strang indeed ! Do you not think it Jawfid for two 
to conunumcate alone ? If there were only two persons 
together in time of persecution, or in a wilderness, or in the 
world, would you have them not to conununicate i 

U. Such communion, if the church were there, would 
not be private. But we live in a time of gospel light and 
peace; therefore, the communion which your loidslup 
defendeih, savours too. much of the popish housel. 

A. The minister is not compelled to do it, but osif 
•suffered if he will. 

U. But if we subscribe, we must subscribe unto this m 
a convenient order appointed by the book. We baye 
many other things ; but we fear to be tedious. There aie 
many others who are suspended, and are waiting yonr 
lordship's pleasure. 

A. Why did they not all x^xne? I would hay€,»d<i« 

vonrM to Atirfy them. You iseem to te Dobet aiid discreet 
men. I would not have you depend on any yain fancies ; 
but be ruled and enjoy your places, which, withdut this 
subscription^ you shall not hold. 

U. if our ministry have been useftil t6 sOrils^ tre thank 
God for )t ; and we desire to keep our places, if it may Ito 
done irtth'peace of conscience. 

Hdy. tt we may subscribe with a good conscience, it i« 
what we desire. But, my lord, if we Subscribe to' the 
i>ook, do we not subscribe to the translation of the Bible, 
trhtch the book appointeth to be read ? That translation is 
ibulty and incorrect in many places. ' 

A. Mention si>me place; 
' H. In the Psalms.* 

The first day's conSefeiice thus brdke off; but by ofdeir 
6[ the archbishop, they all attended the ilext mornm^; 
when they appeared before the archbishop, the bishops dT 
London, Salisbury, and Rochester, and the dean c€ West* 
Minster. The archbishop having rehearsed the sutetance of 
what had passed the preceding day, with some enlar^ 
ment upon the deoirs i^cmg zeomeny the. Bishop of Lonmn 
spoke as follows : 

Bishop. If vou had read either divinity or philosophy, 
it would not be strange io you that the devil should ldv# 

U. My lord, we have not learned any such divinity. 

A. You must subscribe. It tirill be much to your ad* 

Hopkinson. We cannot subscribe, myvlord, without pro- 
testation. And we have not so far examined every point, 
tiiat we can subscribe at present, tberrfore we desire longer 

B. What respite would you have, after the use of the 
book twenty-five years? If you be not skilful in the 
knowledge of it, in so long a time, it seems as if you had 
Bot used it much. 

Hopk. There are many things in the book which bdoftg 
fiot to us, or to our ministry, therefore we desire favour in 
tiiis subscription. 

A. You shall subscribe or you shall enjoy no place is 
the ministry. And because you are the first who have 
been thus far proceeded against, in this ca«e, you ihall bt 
made an example to all others. ^ 

• MS. Regiitcfy p. 997—40}. 


Hopk. If your lordship will deal thus hatdly with us, 
we must give up our places. 

A. If you do give ibeiu up, I can furnish them with as 
■uflicieut men as you are, and yet conformable. 

B. Rochester. There are many learned men who are now 
in want of livings. These will fill up thdr places. 

A. You of Sussex have been accounted very disorderiy 
and contentious ; and her majesty hath been informed, of 
you : and I mean to proceed strictly with you. 

U. My lord, the ministers of Sussex have been as wdl 
ordered as any in the kingdom, until one Shales came 
among them, and broached certain points of popery and 
heresy, which hath been the cause of all those troubles. 

A. It would have been a wonder, if you had not been 
quiet, seeing you have all done as you pleased, without the 
least controul : the devil will be quiet so long. Why do 
Tou not accuse the man ? and you shall see how I will deal 
with him. ' 

B. Roches. What were his points of popery and heresy ? 
. U. My lord hath been informed of these things already. 

; .A. I remember you found fault yesterday with hoiy- 

D. Have we not as good reason to maintain the holy-days 
crtablished by law, as you have to make them when you 
please ? 

Hopk. We make no holy-days. 

B. What do you else, when you call the people together 
unto sermons on working-days ? 

Hopk. When we have sermons, the people go to work 
before sermon, and return to work after sermon, as .on other 
days : but to do this on the )ioly-days, they might be pre- 
sented and punished, as hath been lately witnessed. 

A. I see whence you haye most of your doubts. Mr. 
Cartwright and I might have been better employed, espe* 
cially he, who began the contest.* If you have any more 
doubts, propose them now, seeing there are so many of the 
bishops to answer them. 

H. In the rubric before confirmation, salvaticm is ascribed 
to baptism. For whosoever is baptized, is said to be 
undoubtedly saved. 

A. Is there any such thing in the book ? . 

H. Yes, my lord, those are the words. 

* This staiemrnt is incorrect. Mr. Cartwright did not begin the con- 
test; bat Whitgift himself engaged first in the controversy. — See Art. 


A. Let US see the book. 

Hartwell. They are the last words of the rubric. 

A. The meaning of the book is to exclude the popish 
opinion of confirmation, as if it were as necessary as baptism. 
Therefore, those who have been baptized have all outward 
tilings necessary to salvation, even without confirmation. 

H. The words may be taken in another sense, and, there- 
fore, may not be subscribed without some deliberation. 

Dean. I wonder you do not subscril)e, seeing there is 
nothing in the second article which is not in the third, and 
you are willing to subscribe the third. 

U. We have subscribed to the third already ; and seeing 
all things contained in the second are contained in the third, 
we desire you to be satisfied with that subscription. 

B. Not so. 

Norden. How do your lordships understand these words^ 
^' Receive the Holy Ghost, for the office of a priest ?" 

A. Not imperatively, but optatively ; and this speech is 
much the same as that other, " I baptize thee," &c. 

B. We cannot give the Holy Ghost. 

B. Roches. Do you not think, that when we use these 
words, we dp communicate something ? 

U. I think not, my lord. For persons return from you 
no better furnished, than when they came unto you, if we 
may form our opinion from their practice. 

A. We hope you are now resolved, and will now sub- 
scribe. You are unlearned, and only boys in comparison 
of us, who studied divinity before most of you were boni. 

U. We acknowledge our youth, my lord, and have no 
high opinion of our learning. Yet we hold ourselves 
sufficiently learned to know and teac^ Jesus Christ, as the 
way of salvation. 

. Hopk. If we subscribe under such interpretations, our 
subscription may become dangerous to us hereafter^ whepi 
no interpretation may be allowed; therefore, we desi]» 
some protestation. 
. A. I will admit no protestation. 

' , ]>spui.. Come, Mr. Hopkinson, subscribe. My lord urill 
ikvo^r you mueh, and help you against your adversaries. 
, . Hoidk. P^e must be better advised, Mr. Dean. 

Al Gro into the garden, o( elsewhere, a^d consider, of tbis 
nu^sr, and letam here again. 

diyinfta l |^P| p lyiJBfid for. some time, after Con- 
or ^th^mmves^ 'they returned and consented 


to subscribe, on oondition that their sabscripfion shfNdd 
not be required to any thing against the wont of Gkid, or 
contrary to the analc^y of faith ; and that it should not be 
extended to any thing not already contaim'd in the Book of 
C^ommon Prayer, .^ao, to avoid ail cayilling, Mr. Under- 
down protested, that the book of consecration did not belos^ 
to them, and that they could not subscribe to it ; yci he 
acknowledged the ministiy of the church to be lawful. To 
these conditions the archbishop and bishops agreed; and the 
ministers accordingly subscribed. Afterwardb, Mr. Under- 
down having requeued that the cross in baptism might not 
be urged, the conversation was briefly renewed, ai mlowa : 

A. You must use the cross, or the statute will reach 

Hopk. Because it is intended as a significant sign^ and is 
a new mystery in the church, we take it to be contrary to 
the second commandment 

A. Hemember, it is required in the rubric. 

N. Itseemeth hard that the child must be asked whether 
it bdieve, and will be baptized. 

A. The child is not asked, but the godfathers. 

N. The godfathers and godmothers are several ; thciel bi e^ 
if this were the meamng of the book, the number should be 

U. There are in our county many more of our bi e tlu c a 
suspended for not subscribing. We beseech you that tliey 
amy enjoy the same bendit, if they will subscribe as we 
have done. 

A. I am content 

B. Roches. Mie there any more who have refused I 
v. Yes, my lord; there are above /iveiily in all. 
B. Are there so many in your county ? 

German. There are some who have subscribed,- Md are 

£oatly troubled in mind for what they have done. What 
> tou think they had best do ? 

A. Let them come to me, and I hope to vaiuty tiiemu* 
In the conclusion of t^ above ccmference, Mr. Under- 
down and his brethroi were dismissed, when th^ returned 
hoHie; tad December 11th, being assembled in open eoufi 
at Lewes, they were publicly released firom 
WMVe the business ended. 

• MS. Regbter, p. 401-406. 


Mr. Sakberson was minister at Lynn in Norfolk, and 
troubled for his nonconformity. In the year 1573, h6 was 
charged, toffether with the people of the town, with having; 
impugned the Book of Common Prayer. This was, indeed^ 
a sad crime in those days.* February 8th, in that year, the 
following articles were exhibited against him in the eccle- 
siastical court : 

1. ^^ That he had called the curate of the place, a dumb 
dog^ and a camelion priest. 

2, ^' That he saia the curate would not say the morning 
prayer, but would bid the popish holy-days, and say the 
popish service (meaning the common prayer) for those days. 

.3. '^ That, January 17th, he declared in the pulpit, that 
they who formerly employed their labours, and their goods, 
for the benefit of their poor and afflicted brethren, were now 
become judges over them; they sat in judgment upon 
them ; and, like the Galatians, had received another gospel. 

4. " That he exhorted the people to pray unto God, to 
change the heart of the queen's majesty, that she might set 
forth true doctrine and worship. 

5. '' That he said the apostle Paul would have contention 
for the truth, rather than sutler any inconvenience to enter 
into the church of Grod . 

6. " That, January ^th, he said, that if either bishops, 
deans, or any others, or even an angel from heaven, preached 
any other doctrine than that which he then preached, they 
should hold him accursed, and not believe him. 

7. " That he called the appointed holy-days, Jewish 
ceremonies ; and the churching of women, Je^h purifica- 
tions ; and said, that many persons made the' queen's laws 
their divinity. 

8. ^^ That, February 7th, he said in his sermon, that 
tinpreaching and scandalous ministers were one principal 
occasion of the present dearth." f 

Upon the examination of Mr. Sanderson, though we do 
not find what penalty was inflicted upon him, one Francis 
.Shaxton, an alderman of the place, accused him of having 
delivered these opinions and assertions in two of his sermons, 
and even said he heard- them, when, in fact, he was in 
London at the very time when the sermons were preached. 

* *' On Christmas-day last," says the Bishop of J^orwich, in his letter 
to Archbishop Parker, ** some of the aldermen went to church in their 
scarlets, and soro^ would not ; some opened their shops, and some shut them 
up ( some eat flesh on that day, and others eat fish.'* Surely, then, it WH 
liif h time to punish these rebeUioni people ! — Strype^t Parktr, p. 4SI2^. 

f MS. Register^p. 191. 

VOL. I. T 


In the rear 1583^ Mr. Sanderson's name is among thoM of 
the Norfolk divines, being upwards of sixty in all, who were 
not resolved to subscribe to Wbitgift's three articles.* 

John Hill was minister at Burj St. Edmunds^ and, for 
omitting the cross in baptism, and making some trivial 
alteration in the vows, was suspended by the high commis- 
sion. Not long after receiviiu^ the ecclesiastical censure^ 
he was indicted at the assizes ror the same thing. Upon 
his appearance at the bar, having heard his indictment rind, 
he pleaded guilty. Tlien said Judge Anderson, befim 
whom he appeared, what can you say that you should not 
suffer one year's imprisonment ?f Mr. HiU replied, << the 
law bath provided that I should not be punished, seeing I 
have been already suspended for the same matter, by the 
commissary." Upon this, the judge gave him libett^ to 
produce his testimonial under the hand and seal of the 
c<nnmissary, at the next assizes. Accordingly, at the next 
assizes, his testimonial was produced and read in open coort^ 
when his discharge as founded thereon according to law 
bein^ pleaded by his counsel, he was openly acquitted and 

Notwithstanding his public acquittance in open court, at 
the Lent assizes in 1583, the good man was summoned again 
by the same judge, and for the same crime. When he appeared 
at the bar, and heard the charges brought against hiinadf, 
he ereatly marvelled, seeing he had been alref^y discharged 
of the same things. He was obliged to attend upon the 
court many times, when being known to be a diyine of 
puritan principles, nothing more was done than he was 
always lK)und to appear at the next assize. At "bauglbj 
however, the judge charged him with having complaued 
cf* their hard usa^, And, surely, he had mat reaaoo fir 
so doing. To this charge Mr. Hill repued^ <'I liitve 

• MS. Register, p. 436. 

f Sir Edmund Anderson, lord chief Justice of the eofflBiOB p' 
most furious and cruel persecutor of the puritans. He mi in JotlgMat 
vpon Mary, Queen of Scots, in October, 1586; and the next 

at the trial of Secretary Davison, in the star-chamber, for illBim tte 
warrant for the execution of that princess. His decision on that Mce fSkU 
was, ** That he had done justum^ nonjwte ; he had done what waiiMtIa A 
** unlawful manner, otherwise be thought him no bad man.*' -^'nb vat> 
excellent logic," says Granger> '* for finding an innocent Ban gallty. ttH 
upon theqoeen*s •nfer, and no-ordar^ he was obliged to ind Wat '| ^~ ' 
upon pain of being deprived of hii office.'^-^ilio^. HIK. toL L ft p 

J. BILL— N. 6R0WN. 875 

spoken no imtruth of your honours/' Anderson then shewed 
him the copy of a supplication, demanding whether he had 
not set his hand to it; and Mr. Hill answering that hp 
thought he had, the angry judge said, ^* we shewed you 
favour before in accepting your plea, but we will shew you 
no more." Mr. Hill then replied, " I hope your lordships 
will not revoke what you have done, seeing you have 
discharged me of this matter already." The judge then 
answer^, " that which we did, we did out of favour to 
you." Here the business closed, and Mr. Hill was sent to 
pri^n, being charged with no other crime than that of 
which the same judge had acquitted him. He continued in 
prison a long time ; but whether he was ever restored to his 
ministry, is very doubtful.* 

Nicholas Brown, B. D. — This learned divine was 
feUow of Trinity college, Cambridge, and one of the 
preachers to the university, but dissatisfied with the disci- 

Eline of the national church. In the year 1573, he wa« 
rought into trouble for two sermons which he preached in 
the university. For the erroneous and dangerous doctrines 
supposed to be contained in these sermons, he was several 
times called before the heads of colleges, and, after repeated 
examination, was kept for some time in a state of confine* 
ment. Dr. Whitgift, afterwards the famous archbishop^ 
was a leading person in these severe proceedings. 

Upon Mr. Brown's appearance before his learned judges, 
he was required to retract his dangerous positions ; which, at 
first, he utterly reftised; but after waras, it is said, he 
complied. These dangerous positions were contained in 
the two following articles : '^ That in his two sermons, he 
uttered doctrine and reasons tending to infringe the order 
Knd manner of creating and electmg ministers, and the 
te^boaen now used in the church of England. — And that no 

C»ts made in the time of popery ought to have any 
ction in the church of Eiigland, except they be called 
aifresh."t These doctrines, said to have been delivered in 
Iiis sernbons, contain all the crimes with which he was 
accused even by his enemies. He was, therefore, required 
to make the following recantation, in the place, and before 
(he cc^Qgr^ation, where he had delivered the sermons : 
^' MTEereas, I preaching in this place, the Sunday befinre 

• MS. Register, p. SU . f Sirype'i Parker, p. 391, S9t. 


<< Christmas, and January 25, last past, was noted to hsLim 
<< preached ofiensi vely ; speaking as well against the manner 
<< and form of making and ordering of ministers and deacons 
<< in the church of J^ngland, as by law established : also, 
<< against such priests as were made in the time of King 
<< Henry and Queen Mary, saying that they were not to m 
<< admitted into the ministiy without a new calling. I now 
<< let you understand, that I never meant so. For I do here 
<^ acknowledge and openly protest, that the manner and 
<^ form of oidering ministers and deacons in the church of 
<^ England, now established, is lawful and to be allowed. 
<< Also, that the priests made in the time of King Heniy and 
^^ Queen Mary, now allowed, and now exercising any 
^^ function in the church, are lawful ministers of the woia 
^' and sacraments, without any new ordering, otherwise than 
" is prescribed by the laws of this realm."* 

Bfr. Brown renised to comply with the above tyrannical 
requisition. He would not defile his conscience by doiitf 
that which was contrary to the convictions of his own mind. 
He considered it to be his duty to obey God, rather than 
men, though they were the spiritual rulers of an ecclesias- 
tical estabushment. He was, therefore, detained in prison 
a considerable time, but afterwards obtained his release. 
Notwithstanding this, bis troubles were not ov^r. After 
his deliverance from prison, he was repeatedly convened 
before the vice-chanceUor and heads of^ colleges. On one 
of these occasions, the vice-chancellor coounanded him to 
deliver another sermon in St. Marv's church, on a particular 
day, and at the usual hour of public service, requiring him 
to read openly and distinctly a paper, which the vice- 
chancellor should deliver to him. He also charged him << to 
accomplish the same humbly and charitably, without any 
Jlouting^ girding^ twisting^ or overthwariing any man, and 
without using any words or gesture tending to the discredit 
of any person, or to the stirring up or maintaining of any 
contention or dissention.^f That which the learned eccte-^ 
siastic delivered to him, and commanded him to read befixe 
ithe public congregation, was a kind of revocation of his 
opinions ; but he remained inflexible, and would not OHnply 
with the tyrannical imposition.]: 

, On account of the cruelty with which he was treated, he 
presented his distressing case to Lord Burleigh, the cmui'*^ 
cellor, who warmly espoused his cause, and sent a letter .to 

• S(rype*8 Parker, p. 891, 398.— Bakrr*8 MS. CoUec. yol. iv. p. 55, 50^ 
f Ibid, f ol. iii. p. 395, 396. t Ibid. p. 389, 400. 

N. BROWN. 277 

the vice-chancellor, dated June 26, 1573, in which his 
lonlship wrote as follows : — " Mr. Brown was with me," 
says he, " five or six days past, to entreat me, that by my 
means to you and others, he might forbear the execution of 
, a certain order by you as vice-chancellor prescribed, te 
pronounce a certain declaratory sentence^ in a sermon to be 
made by him now at the commencement. In which matter 
I had no disposition to deal ; yet by the importunity of his 
sorrowful petition, and purpose not to offend in any such 
cause wherewith he hath been charged, I did with my pen 
write suddenly a few lines, to shew my inclination to have 
him favoured, and so dismissed him. Since which time, 
he is this day returned to me with a letter from Sir Thomas 
Smith, the queen's majesty's principal secretary, whereby 
you shall see how I am entreated to procure more favour 
for him. And yet without hearing you and others, who best 
know his cause, I dare not precisely require any alteration 
of your orders, but do recommend the party, who hath a 
eood report, to be as favourably ordered, as he may find 
Sis repair to me hath in some measure relieved him, without 
hurting the public cause of good order."* 

This pacific address from the treasurer proved ineffectual. 
The tyrannical vice-chancellor and his reverend colleagues 
refused to observe the generous instructions of the chan- 
cellor. Mr. Brown still remained under their ecclesiastical 
oppressions; and on account of the cruel usage he met 
with, be again laid his distressing case before Burleigh, 
July 6, 1573; but whether with any better success, we 
h^ave not been able to learn.f 

' The year following, a puritan divine of the same name, 
and no doubt the same person, was concerned in Undertree's 
sham plot, when many letters were forged in his name. 
After examination, his innocence, with that of his brethren, 
was made openly and perfectly manifest.^ Upon Mr. 
Brown's removal from the university, he became minister at 
Norton in Suffolk, wherp he was afterwards molested for 
nonconformity. For, in the year 1583, on the publication 
of Whitgift's three articles, he refi|sed subscription, and, 
with many others, was immediately suspended. How long 
he continued under the ecclesiastical censure, or whether 
he was evw restored, we are ynabJle to ascertain.^ 

♦ Strype's Pftrker, vol. xxix. p. 371, S72, 

f Ibid. Tot. iv. p. 56. % Ibid. p. 466. 

S MS. Register, p. 436, 437. 


Richard Crick, D.D. — ^He was chaplain to the Bishc^ 
of Norwich, and much commended for his learning and 
sobriety. In the year 1573, he preached at Paurs cross ; 
sind having in his sermon commended Mr. Cartwri^t's 
leply to Whitgifi, a special messenger was sent from Arch* 
bishop Parker to apprehend him. Though at that time hd 
escaped the snare, he afterwards fell into the hands of the 
high commissioners, by whom he was deprived of his pie* 
ferment in the church at Norwich.* 

Dr. Crick being silenced, and many of his br^ren in 
the same diocese, they united in presenting a supplication 
to the council, that they might be restored to their beloved 
ministry, and allowed again to preach the glad tidings of 
the gospel. This suppucation was dated September 85, 
1576 ; a further account of which is ^iven in another pIaoe.f 
Afterwards, he and many of his brethren, being the sumced 
ministers in that diocese, presented their humble submissioOi 
to their diocesan, dated August 21, 1578. In thip suboiiis* 
sion, they request to be restored to their ministry, promisiiig 
to subscribe to the articles of faith and the doctrine of Ae 
sacraments, according to the laws of the reakn. TUtj 
profess, at the same time, that the ceremonies and goveni- 
pient o£ the church are so far to be allowed, that no man 
ought to withdraw from hearing the word and leceiyii^ 
the holy sacraments, on account of them. They also ofir 
to the bishop, their reasons for refusing to subscribei 
requesting to nave their difficulties removeo, without wbidh 
ijxey could never subscribe in the manner required.^ Thif 
excellent divine, therefore, remained a long time under 
deprivation. Though he was afterwards restored to his 
ministry, yet, upon the publication of Whitgifl;'s three 
articles, he was again suspended, with many othei8| fiH 
refusing subscription.^ 

Anthony Gilbt.— This pious and zealous noncon- 
formist was bom in Lincolnshire, and educated in Chrui's 
college, Cambridge, where he obtained a most exact know- 
ledge of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages. He 
constantly laboured to promote a further reformation ; and 
having published his sentiments of the habits, cerononics. 
and corruptions in .the church, more openly than many <» 

• Strype's Parker, p. 481, 4S7. 

f See Art. John More. ^ Ibid. 

§ MS. Register, p. 437. 

CRICK--«ILBY. . S79 

bis brethren, he is represented by some of our historians^ as 
a fiery and furious opposer of the discipline in the church 
of £ngland.« 

Upon the accession of Queen Mary, ^d the cfHrnoence^ 
ment of her bloody persecution, he became an exile in a 
foreign land. He , was among the first who retired, to 
Frankfort, where he was deep^^ involved ia the troubles 
ocicasioned by the officious interference of Dn Cox andliis 
party. When the order of church discipline, highly 
este^ned by many, was presented to the whole congregation, 
and rejected by the zealous episcopalians, '' Mr. Gilby, with 
a godly grief, as was openly manifest, kneeled down, before 
them ; and with tears in his eyes, besought them to promote 
the desired reformation, solemnly protesting, that, in this 
matter, they sought not themselves, but the glory of God 
only : adding, t&t he wished the very hand which he theii 
held up, might be struck off, if godly pea,ce and unity 
could thereby be pr6moted."f Such was his truly generous 
spirit ; and such his fervent zeal for the peace and unity of 
the church! Upon the unkind usage at Frankfort, Mr. 
Gilby ranoved to Geneva. Afterwards, he united with his 
brethren in writing a letter to those who still remained at 
F^nkfcMt, defendmg- the lawfulness of their di^rtur^ 
against the slanderous reports of those who sti^atized them 
as schismatids. This letter, signed by eighteen persdns, 
among whom was the fkmous Mr. John Fox, breathes la 
inost (kmdescendin^, humble, and healing spirit. (^ During 
Mr. Gilby*s abo& at Geneva, he assisted Coverdale^ 
Sftmpson, and other learned divines, in the translation of the 

After the accession of Queen Elizabeth, our divine 
returned from exile, and was greatly admired and beloved 
by all who sought a thorough reformation of the Englisb 
church. He is, indeed, exceedingly reproached by several of 
our bigotted historians. Dr. Bancroft says, that Mr. Gilby, 
with the rest of the Geneva accdmplices, urged all states by 
degrees, to take up arms, and reform religion themselves by 
force, rather than suffer so mi|Ch idolatry and superstitton 
to remain in the land.|| Another peevish writer, with ati 
evident design to blacken his memory, says, " That iii 
6bedience to John Calvin, the supreme head of GerievJ^ 

• FuUer's Worthies, part ii. p. 167. 

•f- Troubles at Franbfclord, p. SO. t I^i^* P« ^'^^ 

^ See Art. Coverdale. 

I Bancroft's Dangerous Posidons, p. 02. JBdit 1640. 


doth his dear subject and disciple Anthony Gilby, and 
4>ther8 of that fraternity, shoot their wild-fire afaiiist the 
statutes of England ; by which they shew their schism 
and madness, more than their christian prudence."* This is 
wholly the language of misrepresentation and abase. 

Notwithstanding these calunmies, Mr. Gilby enjoyed the 
fiEiyour of several of the nobility, men of excellent character 
and high reputation. The Earl of Huntington, who was his 
constant friend and patron, presented him to the vicarage of 
Ashby-de-Ia-Zouch in Leicestershire; where, through the 
blessing of Grod on his ministry, he was made exceedingly 
useful. Here he obtained a distinguished reputation, 
when the worthy earl used to style him Father Cfilby.f 
Bishop Hall, who probably had some acquaintance with 
him, denominates him '^ a reverend and famous divine;"^ 
and he is said to have lived at Ashby '^ as great as a bishop." 
He was highly esteemed by some of the learned prelate, 
as well as many of the moi^ celebrated divines of the age, 
with whom he held a friendly correspondence. The mU 
lowing is the copy of a letter, which he received firora tlw 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry :^ 

" To my loving friend and brother in Christ, Mr. Gilby,' 

" at Ashby. 
. <* With my hearty commendations to you Mr. Gilby. I 
^< received your lett^ but now and heretofore, to the which 
^< I proposed to have made some answer by this time ; bat 
<< either lack of convenient messenger, or some other present 
*^ business, have stayed ; and, therefore, these are in £sw 
*^ words to signify to you, that such reports as you have 
^< heard of me, touching Stretton, were untrue, (I thank 
^< Almighty Grod) and so saying to my brother. Augustin 
^^ added these words, that I marvelled much if you did 
"judge as you wrote. Notwithstanding, I was not dis- 
f^ pleased with your writing, but accepted the same as 
** friendly and lovingly as I can any man's writing. 

^1 It is plain that many enormities remain uncorrected, 
*^ either for lack of knowledge thereof, or else through the 
^ corruption of mine officers, or otherwise through n^li- 
^ gence or for^tfulness of myself; yet when I have proof 
f^ of them, I ei&er call tiie offenders myself, oiP charge min^ 

• Foulis* Higt. of Plots, p. S6. 

f NicboU's Hist, of Leicestershire, toL ii. p. 026. 

} Life of Bp. Hall prefixed to his Works. 

§ Baker's MS. Collec. vcrf. zzzii. p. 434. 


*< officers with the same. Concerning that evil man, Sir 
^' William Kadish, I engage to have him called as soon as 

" I can, to answer his doings and such sayings as . 

" Touching the person of Stretton, I will do that whicli 
^' lieth in me to displace, for the which I have given charge 
" divers times to mine officers. I would not have my 
*' brother Dawberry to do any thing touching the same ; for 
" the matter will not pass through at Lichfield. I will then 
^' send you word, and use your counsel. And thus omitting 
^^ all other matters, till we shall have occasion to meet 
*^ together, I commit you and good Mrs. Gilby (whose 
*' health and happiness I wish) to the goodness of Almighty 
«* God ; this 12 day of Nov. 1565. At Eccleshall-castle. 
" Your loving friend and brother in Christ, 

" Thomas Coven, and Lichfield." 

The above letter, justly deemed a curiosity, shews at 
once the great intimacy and familiarity which subsisted 
betwixt Mr. Gilby and the bishop, and the high esteem and 
respect in which our divine was held by his learned diocesan. 
Mr. Gilby was a celebrated scholar, and a most profound 
i\nd pious divine, and admirably qualified for the transla* 
tion of the holy scriptures. The famous Dr. Lawrence. 
Humphrey, with whom he held a frequent correspondence, 
liad the highest opinion of him. Several of the doctor^s 
letters to Mr. Gilby are now before me, one of which, though 
very, short, it will be proper here to insert; which is as 
follows :* 

" To his worshipful and good friend Mr. Ant. Gilby. 

<^ Salutation in Christ Jesus. Albeit your days are evil 
<* and your time short ; yet I pray you be occupied in the 
<< gift which God has betowed upon you, in translating the 
*^ prophets, and conjoin somewhat^ also out of the Rabbins 
<« or Chaldee Paraphrast, that may be a testimony of your 
^ industry, and an help for your son. We must do what we 
*^ may, and what we cannot must leave to God. The Lord 
" be merciful to us, Commend me to your good wife. 

<^ Oxon. March 5, 

'^ Yours in the Lord, 

<^ Lawrence Humphrey." 

« This letter appears to have been addressed to our divine 
towards the close of life, but there is no particular year 

• Baker's MS. CoUec. toI. x^zii. p. 4S1. 


specified in the date. Several other letters firom Dr. 
Thomas Sampson, Mr. Thomas Wilcocks, and other 
celebrated divmes, addressed to Mr. Gilbj, are now before 
me. Such of them as are particularly iUuhtrative ci the 
history of the times, will be found inserted in their pjoper 

The high respect in which Mr. Gilby was held, was no 
screen a|?auist the persecution of the tyrannising ecclesias* 
tics. Therefore, m the year 1571, Archbishop Parker 
binding the clergy to a more exact conformity, by wearing 
the habits and observing the ceremonies, commanded 
Archbishop Grindal of i ork, to prosecute him for mm- 
cofiformity. But Grindal, who^ towards the dose of life, 
was averse to all severe measures, signified to his brother df 
Canterbury, that as Mr. Gilby dwelt in Leicestershire, and 
out of his province, he could not proceed against liim ; and 
so referred his case to the omunissioners in the south. 
Hence it is extremely probable that be was now summoned, 
with several other learned divines, before Parker and his 
colleagues at Lambeth ; but of this we have no certain in* 
formation.* It appears, however, prettv evident that he 
was silenced from his public ministry, either at this, or at 
some other time, f 

Mr. Gilb^, according to Fuller, stands first on the list of 
learned writers, who received their education in Christ's 
coUe^, Cambrid^.} He was author of a work, entitled 
<^ A V iewe of Antichrist, his Lawes and Ceremonies in oar 
English Church unreformed," 1570. The first part of tiiif 
humorous piece is called ^^ The Book of the Gcraeraticm of 
Antichrist the Pope^ the revealed Child of Perdition and 
his Successors;^' and is so singular faud curious, that^ fin 
, the satisfaction of the inquisitive reader, the substance of it 
IS here transcribed. The ecclesiastical goiealogy is ex^ 
pressed as follows : 

The devil begat darkness. Darkness begat ignorance. 
Ignorance begat error and his brethren. Enor wsjoi fiee» 
will and self-love. Free-will begat merit. Ment befltit 
forgetfulness of the grace of God. Forgetfulness (rf* %8 
giiice of God, begat transgression. Transgression begat 
mistrust. Mistrust begat satisfaction. Satisfaction b^at 
the sacrifice of the mass. Sacrifice of the mass begat 
popish priesthood. Popish priesthood b^at st^rstilion. 

• Strype^ Parker, p. S^.— Grindal, p. Ua 
i- Nichols's Defence, p. 21. Edit. 1740. 
t FuUer's HUU •f Can^p^ 98. 

GILBY. 283 

Superstition begat hypocrisy the king. Hypocrisy the 
king begat lucre. Lucre begat purgatory. Purgatory 
begat the foundation' of pensions, and the patrimony of the 
church. Pensions and patrimony begat the mammon of 
iniquity. Mammon begat abundance. Abundance begat 
fulness. Fylness begat cruelty. Cruelty begat dominion 
in ruling. Dominion begat ambition. Ambition begat 
simony. And simony begat the Pope, and his brethren the 
cardinals, Tvith all their successors, abbots, priors, arch- 
bishops, lord-bishops, archdeacons, deans, chancellors, 
commissaries, officials, and proctors, with the rest of the 
Tiperous brood. 

The pope begat the mystery of iniquity. The mystery 
of iniquity begat divine sophistry. Divine sophistry begat 
rejection of the holy scriptures. Rejection of the holy 
scriptures begat tyranny. Tyranny begat murder of the 
saints. Murder begat despising of God. Despising of 
God begat dispensation of offences. Dispensation begat 
license for sin. License for sin begat abomination. Abomi- 
nation begat confusion in matters of religion. Confusion 
brought forth travail of the spirit. Travail of the spirit ^ 
brought forth matter of disputation for the truth ; by which 
that des(dator, antichrist the pope, hath been revealed, and 
all other antichrists shall in due time be revealed. And 
they are antichrists, who make laws for the church, contrary 
to the truth, and deprive, iniprison, and banish the members 
of Christy both preachers and ottiers, refusing obedience 
thereunto.-— Most of the points in this curious genealogy, 
lire supported by an appropriate portion of scripture.* 
Thou^ Mr. Toplady styles the au^or, " a very acrimo- 
nious puritan ;'' jet he adds, " that as far as matters of mere 
doctrine were concerned, it is in perfect harmony with the 
creed of the church of England."f 

As Mr. Gilby was a zealoui^ opposer of the ecclesiastical 
corruptions, and constantly desirous to obtain a more pure 
reformation, he could not escape the severe animadversion 
of the contrary-party. For having said, '' that the habits 
and ceremonies used in the church of England, were carnal, 
, beggarly, antichristian elements,*' Dr. Nichols has treated 
him with much scurrility and abuse. But, surely, if the 
apostle might call the Jewish ceremonies carnal^ when God 
himself had appointed them ; why might not Mr. Gilby say 

* Parte of a Register, p. 56, 57. 

f Toplady's Historic Proof, ¥ol. ii. p. S56. 


the same of the popish ceremonies, which he neyer appointed i 
If the one callea Jewish ceremonies, weak and beggarly 
elements ; why roiffht not the other call the popish ceremo- 
nies, beggarij/ and antichristian pomps ? The celebrated 
Bishop Ridley, once a zealous defender of the ceremonies, 
when the surplice was forced upon Kim, bitterly inveighed 
against it, calling it foolish^ abominable, and not JU for a 
plaj/er on the stage. The excellent Bishop Jewel called the 
garments, relics of popery. Why then is Mr. Gilby so 
bitterly censured for saymg, they were popish fopperies, 
Romish relics, rass of antichrist, and dregs of disguised 
poperf/?* Mr. CSlby publicly declared, adds the aboYe 
writer, " that if he was suffered to preach some time longer, 
\ye\ng so conceited of his popular eloquence, he would 
shake the very foundations of the Lnglish church."f 
Whether he was, indeed, thus conceited of his own superior 
eloquence, and whether he ever made any such declaration, ii 
is not now very easy to ascertain. If Dr. Nichols had any 
authority for what he has asserted, he would certainly have 
done his own cause no injury, but have conferred a favour 
upon the public, by bringing it forwards. However, ad- 
mitting the twofold charge, it reflects no great degree oi 
honour upon the rulers of the church, that so eloquent, 
learned, pious and useful a divine, should be condemned to 

This worthy servant of Christ appears to have lived to a 
very great age, but we cannot learn the particular time of 
his death. The last of the letters addressed to him, that we 
have seen, is one from Dr. Sampson, dated March 8, 1584 ; 
when he must have been living.t 

His Works. — I. An Answer to the Devilish DetectioD of Stephen 
Gardiner, Bishop of Wincbester, 1547. — 2. A Commentary on the 
Prophet Micah, 1551. — 3. An Admouilion to England and Scotland^ 
to call them to Repentance for their Declension and Apostacy firom 
the Truth, 1557.— -4. A Viewe of Antichrist, &c. already mentioned. 
^-6. A Godly and Zealous Letter written to Master Coverdale, "NL 
Turner, M. Sampson, M. Doctor Humphrey, Mr. Lever, M. Crowley, 
and others that labour to roote out the Wcedes of Poperie, 1570.— 6L 
A pleasant Dialogue between a Soldier of Berwick and an English 
Captain, wherein are largely handled and laid open such Reasons as 
are brought for Maintenance of Popish Traditions in our Englisb 

* Peirce*8 Vindication, part ii. p. 8, 9. 
+ Nichols's Defence, p. 21. Edit. 174a 
i Baker's MS. Collec. vol. zzzii. p. 449. 

EDWIN. 285 

John Edwin was a man of great learning and piety, a 
zealous and constant preacher, and many years vicar of 
Wandsworth in Surrey, but was prosecuted for noncon- 
formity. He was cited before the Bishop of Winchester ; 
and, upon his appearance, April 30^ 1584, be underwent 
the followuag examination : 

Bishop. Where do you dwell ? 

Edwin. At Wandsworth in Surrey. 

B. Where were you brought up ? 

E. For the most part at Wandsworth. 

B. What in no school ! 

E. Never in ainy public school, only some time at 
Rochester. Ihave lived at Wandsworth forty-two years, 
and have been vicar of Wandsworth twenty-five years, 
during which time, I thank Grod, I have not been idle. 

B. Where were you made minister ? 

E. I was made minister when Dr. Parker was created 
Archbishop of Canterbury, by the Bishop of Bangor, who, 
by the command of the archbishop, made me minister in 
Ek)w-church, London. 

B. Do you use to catechize ? and how do you perform it ? 

E. I catechize every Lord's day before evening prayer, 
and in the midst of evening prayer. 

B. Have you not subscribed ? 

E. No. 

B. Why not ? 

E. My Lord, I perceive that you wish us to signify our 
allowance o£ the Book of Common Prayer. There is no 
cause why I should be called in question for this matter ; 
for I use the book, and do not refuse it, and I speak not 
against it. These are manifest proofs that I allow of it. 

B. Many of you who say so, will not confess what you 
have done, neijther what you will do. Therefore you must 

E. I consider it a grefeiter allowance to use a thing, than to 
subscribe unto it. 

B. So you think.and say it is unreasonable and unlawful, 
to require you to subscribe. 

£. Do you g^her this^ xny lord, from what I have said ? 

B. No. 

E. Then all is well. 

B. But you must sujbfscribe, or shew some cause why you 
^11 not. . * 

E. My lord, if no excuse will serve, but I must subsbrtbt^ 


or sbew iome eame whr I lefbse, I will diew jonr loidsiiip 
three reasons: As, 1. There are some thinst in the Book 
€S Conmioo Prayer agaaut the word of God, and, there- 
fine, repugnmd to the word of God. — 9. My next raioii-^ 

B. Nay, sUq;>; letus talk of the first 

£. I like yoar order well. And to prove what I hate 
said, 1 refer ^ou io the words of the rubric, befiMne flie eftoe 
of confirmation, where it is said, << That no man diall flunk 1 
any detriment will come io children by deferring flidor ( 
confirmation ; he shall know for trtdh^ that it is. eertmm ( 
hy God^s wordy that children being baptised have off thmp \ 
ntceuary io ialvaium, and be undoubtedtjf saoedT J 

B. Vou must not take it as the words import. 

E. No, my lord ! Is it not your pleasure thai weahould 
subscribe to the things in the book ? Or, is ityonrpieasure 
that we should subscribe to your interpretation of those 

B. Yon must subscribe io the sense of what is contained 
in the book. 

£. If we must subscribe to the sense, then must yott 
amend your article. For your article, to which you leqiaire 
us io subscribe, saith, that there is nothing in the Bode of 
Common Prayer repugnant to the word of God. 

B. If you were to subscribe to the gospel, would you sub- 
scribe to the words, or the sense ? 

E. I would subscribe to the words * 

B. You lie. 

E. My lord, I beseech you let us have good words. I say 
again, we must subscribe both to the xtords and to the sense* 

B. But I say nay. For where Christ saith^ << I am flue 
door," will you subscribe to the words ? 

E. My lord, mistake me not. I say we must subscribe 
to the sense and the words; and where the wotds are 
figurative, we must subscribe to the sense. But wben the 
words and sense are the same, and Without any figure^ ihcn 
we must subscribe to both. 

B. What think you of the words di dirist, c^ MV fiillier 
is the husbandman," and, ^^ the word was made flew ?** 

E. If you compare Gen. i. with the words going befine 
those you have mentioned, you will see that we must iUb^ 
scribe to the sense of the words. 

• Here, as Mr. Edwin attempted to proceed, hU gimoe nddealj aiid 
psMiosfttely intempted lila. 


B. <^ The word was madeflesb :*' I am sure you idll not 
say, the Grodhead of Christ wm made flesh; 

£. No, my lord, and I am as sure you will not say, that 
the manhood o£ Christ was made fleshy without his God^ 
head. But, my lord, allow me to prove my assertion. 

B. Tell me, what is the English of verbum ? 

£. I can prore out erf" the Greek, tb« Hebrew, and the 
Syriac, that the word verbum^ as near as it can be rendered 
in English, signifieth a thing. Allow me to prove my 

B. I confess we must subscribe both to sense and words. 

E. Then in this we are agreed. 

B. In the place you cited from the book, the meaning is, 
that those who are baptized, and therewith receive the grace 
of that, sacrament, being of the number of the elect, are 
undoubtedly saved. 

£. I beseech your lordship to read the words of the 
book, and let it be seen how you can give it that interpreta* 
tion. But I wish to mention a second reason, and that is 
the administration of the communion to an individual-person 
in private. How doth this agree with ihe word ot God, 
and with the word communion ? 

B. The doctrine contained in the sacrament, belongeth 
to wise and learned men to determine. You had oest 
exercise yourself in catechizing, and 1^ tliis alone. 

E. My lord, you must bear with me. For I think God 
lequireth it at our hands, that we learn and teach all things 
revealed in his holy word. 

B. In some parts of Saxony, there are various articles of 
religion prohibited from being taught ; and we ought to be 
content and thankful for the liberty we enjoy. 

E. I cannot, without tears, remembor the marvellous 
benefits we enjoy by the freedom of the gospel, which I 
fliay Grod may never be interrupted. I mustj also, call to 
inind, and I do also remember, the innumerable comfbrti 
and benefits we aijoy under the government of our most 
gracious Queen EUzabeth, whom, I beseech God, long to 
continue and bless. But are these sufficient reasons for us to 
yield to any thing agamst the word of God? 

B. The ecmununion in private is a single coauntmion. 
£. How can the words single and communion be made to 

B. I do not say they can. 

E. Why then do you join them togetilier f 


B. In the time of Justin Martyr, being two hundred 
years after Christ, the sacrament, in time of persecution, 
was carried from house to house, because the people dare 
not come together. And on one occasion, the sacrament 
was sent by a boy to a sick man, who earnestly d^ired 
to receive it. 

£• But, my lord, your bringing forward the example of 
primitive chnstians is to no purpose. Our question is^ 
whether the Book of Common Prayer containeth any thing 
repugnant to the word of God. And, my lord, I .think no 
^;ood man will deny that the two places I have mentioned 
are repugnant to the word of God. 
. B. VV^hat ! do you condemn all who have subscribed i 
Do you say they have all acted wickedly ? 

£. You misunderstand my words. What I speak, I 
speak with consideration, and I know what I say. 

B. What o'clock is it ? 

£. We have not yet done. I told you I had three 

B. I have had more ado with you than all the rest. 

E. You have not yet finished with me. As I said, I have 
three reasons ; and I trust you will hear them before jrou 
• proceed against me. 

B. What are your other reasons ? 

£. If you will promise that we shall examine them, I 
will mention them ; but if not, it is unnecessary. 

B. I had rather persuade many learned men than you. 

£. I speak not of learning, but of conscience ; and my 
conscience, without persuasion, will not yield. Hitherto in 
my ministry, I have enjoyed a good conscience, founded 
upon the word of God; and, my lord, with as good a con^ 
science, by the help of God, will I be removed from it, 
or I will not be removed.* 

Here the examination broke off, and the good man de- 
parted most probably under suspension or deprivation. His 
two other reasons for refusing to subscribe, which he designe4 
to have mentioned, were, '' That in the Book of Common 
Prayer, there are some things contrary, to the laws of the 
realm. — And that there are some things which maintain 
and encourage some of the grossest errors and heresies of 
popery. ''f 

• MS. E^ister, p. 576—579. f Ibid. 

BRAYNE. 289 

Edward Brayne was a learned divine of Cambridge, 
and greatly harassed for refusing subscription to Whitcift's 
tliree articles, accounting them contrary to scripture and the 
dictates of his own conscience. Haying received two 
canonical admonitions, he united with his brethren in the 
diocese of Ely, in writing the following peaceable letter to 
the archbishop, dated March 12, 1684 : — " Whereas two 
canonical admonitions are already passed upon us, for refusing 
to ikibscribe to things, some of which we know not, and 
others we greatly doubt. We are, therefore, bold to offer 
onr humble supplication unto you, as well as crave youf 
lordship's favour that a longer space of time may be granted 
ns, endeavonring and prajrmg daily with our whole hearts 
for the peace of the church. Wherefore, if it shall please 
your lordship, we wish either to be freed from all sufa^crip* 
tion, excepting to her majesty's authority, and the articles 
of reli^on, as by law required, or to give us so long a 
time, that we may sufficiently consider the subject, and be 
persuaded that we ought to subscribe ; or if, at length, we 
cannot subscribe, to submit ourselves to suffer punishment, for 
the peace of the church. In the mean time, we condemn 
not those who have subscribed, and we desire that they may 
not condemn us. Thus if it shall please Almighty God to 
move your lordship to have compassion on our troubled 
consciences, we shall praise God and manifest our thankful- 
ness to you."» 

It does not, however, appear that this letter had any 
good eSddoii the mind ana ccmduct of this severe prelate. 
His grace remained inflexible. Therefore, May 24, 1584, 
Mr. Brayne and his brethren presented a supplication io 
the lords of the council ; in which they protest their aversion 
to popeiy, and their inviolable loyalty to the queen, haying 
alieaay sworn obedience to her authority, and subscribea 
the articles of religion, and were ready to do the same 
amin, if required. That they abhorred all error, heresy, and 
sdiism, and made use of the Book of Conunon nayer, 
and endeavoured bpth in doctrine and conversation, 
to maintain a conscience void of offence towards God and 
men. And that being commanded to subscribe to many 
things not required by law, they humbly crave their lord- 
ships to accept of the following reasons for their refusal, 
and to be a means of releasing meai from the subscription 

• 3ilS. Register, p. 3S3, 334. 
VOL. I. U 


<< Some things," say they, <^ appear io us repugnant to 
the i¥ord of God; as tlie allowance of an unlearned 
ministry, reading the apocrypha in the service of GodL 
private baptism, and the government of the church. And 
to us many things appear very doubtful, some of whicti it 
is impossible for us to practice with a good conscience. 
Yet, as we judge not others in the practice of them ; so we 
desire that we may not be judged by them, but left to our 
liberty in not subscribing. There are other things to the 
use of which we have subscribed, because they are tolerated 
*for a time, and imposed upon us by the laws of the church ; 
yet we see not how they agree with the word of God^ and 
cannot approve of them. But if we ofiTend against any 
law of the church or statute, we humbly crave such favour 
and clemency as is not contrary to law; but if this 
cannot be obtauied, we submit ourselves to the censures of 
the law, still avowing our peaceableness both in church and 

^' We, tlierefore, must humbly on our knee& beseech 
your honours, that we may be freed from the subscriptioa 
now urged upon us ; or have so much time allowed us to 
examine and consider the case, as your wisdoms shall 
think fit ; or we must give up our places for the peace of 
the church. For we most humbly confess before God and 
the elect angels, that to subscribe as now required, we 
should act contrary to the doctrines ol* faith and repentance 
which we have taught among the people of our charge : 
We should subscribe to some thmgs against our consciences, 
to many things with a doubtful conscience, and most oiT all 
with an ignorant conscience; from all such dealing the 
Lord ever preserve us. We commend to your wise consi- 
deration the indignity and reproach which is likely to be 
cast upon us and our ministry, being accounted disloyal 
and seditious against her majesty; but we much more 
comn)end io you our doubtful, fear^l, and distressed con- 
sciences, and the miserable state of our poor and distressed 
people hungering after the word of life, who, when they are 
deprived of us, almost despair of having a learned and 
godly ministry. If they might have better than ourselves, 
we should rejoice, and be much more content. We bless 
the Lord, that the people of our charges are free from 
heresies and seditions, and most of them from gross crimes, 
and all, so far as wc kno^, are faithful subjects, and many 
of them are known and approved christians. But what 
may befall them when they are left a^ sheep without 



a shepherd, we leave to your honoured wisdoms tor 

" We have only to add our humble apology for now 
soliciting the favour of your honours. We have forbcMrne 
applying to you as long as we possibly could, and perhaps 
till it is too late, as three ciEmonical admcmitions have already 
passed upon us, and our deprivation is threatened ; which 
sentence, two of us have ahready tasted. . We have used 
nutans by our ri^t worshipful and some r of her majesty's 
justices, with the Archbishop of Canterbury, who have 
used their earnest suit for us with the archbishop, both by 
their letters and private conference; but hitherto to no 
purpose. Such dealing may seem favourable to them who 
treat us thus, but to us it seemeth very hard. Our release 
from this hard dealing by your kind favour, will provoke 
us to pray for your honours' present peace and prosperity^ 
and that when you have done with all things Jiere, you may 
receive the crown of glory."* 

Notwithstanding this supplication, or Uieir letter to the 
archbishop, in the month of July this year, Mr. Brayne 
was cited to appear before his grace and other high com- 
missioners at Lambeth. Having attended several times 
according to appointment, and, being required tp take 
the oath ex ojficio^ to answer the interrogatories of the 
court, he refused, unless he might first: see diem, and write 
down his answers with his own hand. His grace refusiof 
to grant him the favour, immediately gave his canoniciu 
admonitions, once, twice^ thrice; and caused him to be 
registered for contempt, and suspended iCrcun his. ministry. 
<^ ^ut," says the good man, <^ God knoweth how far con- 
tempt was from my heart, and, I trust, my words and 
behaviour will witness the same.*'+ But guilty or not 
guilty, the tyrannical archbishop cut Urn off from all 
public usefulness in the church of God, 

Mr. Brayne being silenced from his.beloved work, wrote 
a very appropriate letter, dated July 6th, to the Lord 
Treasurer Burleigh, giving him an account of the hard 
treatment he had met with. In this letter, he eaiiiestly 
solicited the treasurer's kind favour and interference ; but 
whether it proved the means of procuring his restoration, 
appears ex;tremely doubtful, t The treasurer, indeed, used hi$ 
utmost endeavours. He applied to the archbishop, signifying 

• MS. Register, p. 455~4ftt. 

t Strypc'i Whitfiift, p. 163. + IbiU. p. \U. 


Ids diflsatisfiutioQ with his lordship's urgioff ministen, hy 
his method of examination, to accuse themsdves ; and then 
to punish them upon their own confessions. He farther 
observed, ^^ that he would not call his proceedings caotiaug, 
but they were scarcely charitable. That he womd not 
offend his grace ; and was content that he and the Biahop 
of London, might use Mr. Brayne as their wisdcMns dioala 
think fit. But when by eyamining him, it was only meant 
to sift him with tmtni^'four articles, he had cause to 
pUy the poor man.^'* I^ch was the wisdom, the bcddncss, 
aod the sympathy tX. this celebrated statesman; but his 
gmeious efforts appear to have been without effect.f 

Barnaby Ben ison was minister in London, a diyine of 
good kaminff , and suspended and imprisoned for several 
years, by Bisiu^ Aylmer, on pretence of some irv^ularity 
m his marriage. The bishop charged him with being 
married in an afternoon, and in the presence of two or three 
hundred people, by Mr. Fidd^ a nMconfcmnist. For this 
singular crime, in the year lar9, he was committed to the 
Gatehouse, wh^e he continued till towards the close of the 
year 1584. Mr. Strype, with a design to blacken his 
memory, observes, << that he studied for some time at 
Geneva ; and upon his return to England, vras fraught with 
^novation and disobedirace.*' He undoubtedly was dis* 

• Strype*! Whitgift, p. 160. 

:^ Lord Burleigh was a decided friend to the persecuted poritaiM, and 
•fken scnetied them from the Inhomaa proceedings of the prelates^ or 
frocared their release from bonds and iroprisoDoient. On acooaat of his 

Seat abilities, indefatigable application, amazing capacijty for basiness, and 
imoTcable integrity, he is desenredly placed at the head of onr fii^^llsh 
Statesmen. His capacity for business appears from the following passage 
in his life : — ** Besides all business in council, or other weighty oaases, and 
** inch as were answered by word of mouth, there was not a .day Ui term 
** wherein he received not threescore, fourscore, or a hundred petitions, 
^ which he commonly read that night, and gave every man an answer tlie 
^ next morning as he went to the haU. Hence tlie excellence of his 
M memory was greatly admired ; for when any of these petitioners told 
<> him their names, or what countrymen they were, he presently entered 
*'into the merit of his request, and having discussed it, gave him irfs 
** answer.'* This was his practice towards persons jn aU circumstaDces. fie 
would answer the pooreatf as well as others, from hi3 own mouth. Wliea 
at any lime he was forced to iieep his cliamber, or his bed, he ordered that 
poor suitors should send in their petitions :Sealed ; aod upon every pelitioa 
he caused his answer to be written, and subscribed it with his own hand. 
*' He was prayed for by the poor, honoured by the rich, feared by tlie 
*'bad, and loved by the good.*'— — i^ipf. Mrittm. vol. ill. p. Sl^l. 
Edit. 1778. 


obedient to the tyrannical proceedings of the bishops. Out* 
auth<Nr adds, '^ mat be fixed his station in London, refused 
to go to chiurch, gathered conventicles, and sought tp 

Siromote schism and confusion in the dty. That the 
ishop finding in him unspeakable disobedience, and h^ 
refusing the oath usually tendered by the high com^ 
mission, (meaning the oath ejo officio j by which he would 
have become his own accuser,) was committed to prison. 
And/' our learned historian asks, << what could the bishop 
haye done less T'* 

It is not yery difficult to find out many t|iingB, whiph hif 
lordship might not haye done less than this, eyen admitting 
that Mr. Benison was descrying of punishment Four or 
fiye years* confinement in prison is a penalty of no smalt 
magnitude^ and ^>pears greatly dispropoitiidnate to any 
crime with which he was chdiged. And, indeed, Mtv 
Stiype himself intimates as mm^ in the yery next woids^ 
<< But,*' says he, << it seems the bishc^ oyershot himself 
and did not proceed so circumspficily in the imprisonment of 
him for so' long a time. For Mr. Benison's cause being 
brought before the lords of the council, the bishop was 
judged to haye dealt too hardly with him ; for which^ there^ 
fore, he received a reprimand."f 

Mr, Benison having sufiered so long a confinemalt in 
prison, applied both to the queen and councit; sttid in the 
statement of his own case, he declares concerning his mar* 
riage, the irregularity of which was the crime alleged 
against him, ^^ That he had invited only forty persons to the 
solemnity, and only thirty attended: that he was married 
in the morning, and'acQpiding to law : that when thief bishop 
sent for him, chargiilg him- with seditiim, he cleared himself 
to his lordship's satl^actton ; but that after he went home^ 
he gave a private order under his pwn hand for him to be 

Sprdbended' and sent to the Gatehouse; and tl^ he was 
^re shut up in a dungeon eight days, without knowing the 
cause |[^ his imiMris<mment.*' Moreover, when Mr. BenisoQ 
"^iras first apprehended and carried to prison, he was 
plundered of a great part oi his household furniture; his 
valuable library was utterly spoiled and taken away, and 
he suffered great losses in various other ways4 Dr^ 
Hammond, a^d his faithful frifsnd Mr. John Fox, lyho yfcif^ 

« Strype*s Aylner, p. 809, 2(0. f Ibid. 

% ](bid. p. 211^218. 


Ijoth at the wedding, and witnessed the whole proccc^ng-, 
went to the bishop, and assured him, that he was faultless 
in those things charged against him. But his lordship 
remained inflexible, and would not release him without 
such bonds for his good behaviour and future appearance, 
as the prisoner was unable to procure. Mr. Benison, in 
his letter to the queen and council, concludes in the fol- 
lowirio^ moving language : ♦ 

^^ 'fhus I continue," says he, " separated from my wife 
before 1 had been married two weeks, to the great trouble of 
her friends and relations, and to the staggering of the patient 
obedience of my wife. For since my imprisonment, his 
lordship has been endeavouring to separate us, whom God, 
in the open presence of his people, has joined together. 
Wherefore, I most humbly beseech your godly honours, 
for. the everlasting love of God, and for the pity you take 
upon God's true protestants and bis poor people, to be a 
means that my pitiful cry may be heard, and my just cause 
with some credit be cleared, to the honour of God and her 
majesty, whom for ever I esteem more than all the bishop's 
blessings or bitter cursings : and that I, being now half 
dead, may recover a^in to get a poor living with the little 
learning which God has given me, to his glory, to the 
discharge of some part of my duty, and to the profit of my 
country." This was Mr. Benison*s impartial statement of 
his own case ; upon the reception of which, the lords of the 
council were so moved, that they sent the bishop the follow- 
ing letter :+ 

"Hampton-court, November 14, J584. 

" Whereas, Barnaby Benison, minister, has given us to 
^understand, the great hinderance he has received by your 
^ hard dealing with him, and his long imprisonment for 

* which if he should bring his action agaiiist you of fethe 
^ imprisonment^ he woula by law recover damages^ which 
^ would touch your lordship^ credit. We have, therefore, 

<< thought fit to require your lordship to use some consi- 

* deration towards him, in giving him a reasonable sum of 

* money to repay the wrong you have done unto him, 

* and to supply the hinderance he hath incurred by your 
^hard dealing with him. Therefore, praying your 
^ lordship to aeal with the poor man, that he may have 
^ occasion to turn his complaint into a good report unta 

^ • MS. Register, p. 591. + Ibid. p. 580, 


^ us rf your charitable dealing. We bid you farewell. 

" Bromley, Chan. Faancis Knolles, 


^^ Amb. Warwick, Walter Mildmay, 

^' Fft. Bedford, Christ. Hattoij, 

" Robert Leicester, Fr. Walsingham." 
f^ Charles Howard, 

Upon the bishop's reception of the above letter, he 
returned this answer : — " I beseech your lordships to 
^* consider, that it is a rare example thus to press a bishop^ 
" for his zealous service to the queen and the peace of the 
** church, especially as the man was found wortliy to be 
^* committed for refusing to go to church, an|i other mstances 
" of nonconformity, to say nothing of his contemptuous 
" behaviour towards me. Nevertheless, since it pleaseth 
^f your lordships to require soine reasonable sum of money, 
H I pray you consider my poor estate and great charges, 
^ together with the greeU vaunt the man will make of his 
^ conquest over a bishop. I hope, tliereforo^ ypur lordships 
^ will be favourable to me, and refer it to myself, either to 
f^ testo w upon him some small benefice, or otherwise to help 
^ hun as opportunity offers. Or if this shall not satisfy the 
5^ man, or not content your lordships, leave him to the trial 
f^ of the law, which, I hope, will not be so plain: for him as 
*f he taketh it. Surely, my lords, this and the like must 
** greatly discourage me in this poor service of mine in the 
^^ conuriission ; wherein, if I seem remiss, I pray you impute 
^ it to the troubles and infirmities of old age."» 

The manner in which the bishop answered the accusations 
agamst him, is a sufficient evidence that his conduct could 
not be defended. What reparation Mr. Benison obtained 
Ipr the injurious treatment he received, or whether any, 
does not appear. But he was certainly too wise to go to 
law with ^ bishop of the high commission court, who having 
but little conscience, exercised much cruelty ; and who, 
notwithstanding his poor estates and great charges^ left 
behind him at his death several very large estates, properties 
out upon mortgage, and above sixteen thousand pounds in 
money. f These were immense riches in those days. Mr. 
jBtrypet represents Aylmer's ill treatment of Mr. Benison as 

« MS. Register, p. 589. 

+ Strype*s Aylmer, p. 172, 194.-rNe^'8 ParHans, yol, i. p. 334. 

J Strype's Aylmer, p.' 205. 


the slander of his enemies; as if his lordship bad dealt witli 
him only according to bis deserts; but what degree of 
justice tnere is in this representation, the foregoing state- 
ment oSbdbi will best determine. 

William Negus was minister at Leigh in Essex, but 
suspended by Bishop Ajlmer in the ye^r 1584. Mr. N^us 
gives us the following account of this ecclesiastical censure : 
-r-^^ The cause of my suspension,*' says he, ^' was this : being 
convened before the bishop at Waltham, and he demanding 
whether I had worn the surplice since my coming to Lei^ 
my answer was, that I had it not, so I had not refused it. 
There was none offered me, nor was there a surplice in the 
parish. He then inquired whether I would wear it, when 
there was one provided. My answer was, that I desired his 
favour to proceed in my ministry, untU a surplice was 
procured ; and that he knew my unwillingness to wear it. 
He was not satisfied with this answer, but urged me to say 
that I zDouUL, at that I would not wear it But I abiding by 
my former ansi^rer, and desiring that I might be accepted^ 
he thus concluded : ^ Seeing you will not promise to wea^ 
it, we suspend you until you do prmnise.' "* The good 
man was thus silenced for refusing to wear the clerical 

Having received the episcopal censure, twenty-eight of 
his paririiioners, who subscribed themselves his^ hungry 
sheep now without a shepherd^ signeda most affectionate ara 
pressing letter, earnestly beseeching him to wear the sur« 
plice. Though they wished that the linen garment wero 
utterly abolished, they anxiously desired him, for the sake 
of their advantage, to conform. But he found it impossible^ 
with a good conscience, to wear that garment in the public 
worship of God, which to him appeared wholly founded in 
superstition, and the very bad^^ of antichrist; and so he 
quietly submitted to be deprived.f 

John Stroud was minister first at Yalding, then at 
Cranbrook in Kent. He was a man of good learning, most 
exemplary piety, peaceable behaviour, and a faithful^ 
laborious, and very useful preacher ; but was repeatedly 
persecuted for nonconformity. He entered upon his troubles 

• MS.Ilfsi8ter, P.6S8. f Ibid. 


about the yeax 1567. Having had in his possession the 
Book of Ecclesiastical Discipline, he was cited before the 
chancellor to the Bishop of Kochester ; and confessing the 
&ct, that such a book had been in his hands, the chancellor 
said, " it contains treason, rebellion, and heresy," and, im- 
mediately committed him to prison. Mr. Stroud observing 
that he hoped he was not deserving of such hard usage, 
wished to sive sufficient security, but his offer was utterly 
disregarded. Upon his release from prison, he was for« 
hidden to preach, and even to teach children, within the 
parish of Yalding or elsewhere, and commanded to depart 
out of the diocese in forty days. This unfeeling and 
inhuman sentence was sent to the churchwardens of Yalding, 
with a strict command to see it fully executed. But an 
impartial statement of his case being laid before the Arch* 
bishop of Canterbury, the cruel sentence was in part reversed. 
By. the license, and under the seal, of the archbishop, he 
obtained liberty to continue a twelvemcHith ; when he re* 
turned to Yalding, hoping to proceed in his ministry 
without further molestation. 

His liberty, however, was of very short continuance. For 
in a few months, he was cited, with several otliers, to appear 
at Rochester; and the citation was ordered to be read pub* 
licly in the church at Yalding. Ujpon his appearance in 
the court, the churchwardens were first called and examined; 
The chief article of their examination was, " whether any 
child or children had been baptized in their parish, when 
the order prescribed and appointed in the Book of Common 
Prayer was not in all points observed ; and whose children 
they were, who were godfathers and godmothers, and 
whether they answered according to the form required in 
the said book?"' But the churchwardens were too wise to 
accuse their own minister, and they were all dismissed. 

Afterwards, both minister and churchwardens were again 
hroug)it into the bishop's court, at Rochester. The church* 
wardens were first examined as before; and in addition to 
the former interrogatory, their examination was extended 
to the following articles : — " Whether any one preached at 
Yalding without a license ? — Whether any preached who 
were forbidden, and commanded to leave the diocese ?--- 
Whether any such preachers have any unlawful or suspected 
books, leading to the contempt or derogation of the Book 
of Conunon Prayer, or of any orders, rites, or ceremonies 
of the church, as by law established ? or who hatli in any 
public meeting or private conventicle set forth any such 



books, or anj (locfrine therein contained ? — And whether 
they knew or had heard, that Mr. Stroud had obi^rved or 
done any of the things above named?" 

Mr. Stroud being next called, and required to take the 
oath ex officio^ *io answer the. inquiries of the court, he. 
refused tin he knew those inquiries. The following inter- 
rogatories were then read to him : — " Have you now, or 
have you had in time past, any printing-press and letters, 
and where are they ? — Have you printed any contentious or 
rebellious books, and when, and where, and how long since, , 
and what is become of them? — Have you any suspected or 
unlawful books leading to the contempt oi the Book of 
Common Prayer?" — Mr. Stroud refused to answer these 
interrogatories, which were evidently designed to make him 
accuse himself, and told the chancellor that these things 
belonged iq her majesty's commissioners, and not to him. 
Upon this, the angry and cruel chancellor pronounced upon 
him the sentence of exconununication, which he commanded 
to be publicly announced in the church of Yalding.* 
He, also, received the sentence of deprivation from the 

The good man being thus cast out of the church, and 
reduced to extreme poverty, was obliged to condescend to 
the low office of corseting the press, and of publishing 
books to obtain a livelihood. But evei) in this occupation, 
'he was not suffered to enjoy quietness. For, having pub- 
lished Mr. Cartwright's Reply to Whitgifl, he was sum- 
moned, November 25, 1573, before the Bishop of London 
and other high commissioners, when he underwent the 
following examination : 

Mr. Stroud being asked what became of Cartwright's 
books after they were printed, said he delivered thirty-four 
of them to the Bishop of London ; but the rest were dis- 
yiersed abroad. And being asked how he dared to print 
them a second time, seeing the queen's proclamation was 
against him, he said they were printed before the queen's 
proclamation came out, or he would not have printed them; 
upon which, the bishop thus addressed him : 

Bishop. Are Mr. Cartwright's books good and lawful, or 
not ? And will you defend them ? 

Stroud. As there is no book without its faults, the booik; 
of God excepted ; so will I not affirm that this book is 
altogether without faults ; but to defend it I will not. He 

• MS. R«gUter, p. 191—194. 

STROUD. 299 

is of age to defend himself. And as for the book, I think 
your lordship will not utterly condemn it. 

B. I confess there is something in it godly. It is a very 
evil book that hath no good thing in it. But I say the 
book is wicked, and is the cause of error and dissention in 
the church. 

Catlin. Wilt thou condemn the Book of Common Ptaiyer ? 
Is it antichristian ? 

S. For these five years, I have not served in any church ; 
Jbut when I have attended, I have resorted to common 
prayer, which, if I had condeinned it, I would not have 
done. Yet if I should allow of all things in our ministry, 
I should allow of those things which his lordship has 
denied. For he said, in his sermon at Paul's cross, ^^ that 
there were certain evils in Our ministry." 

B. Indeed, I said there were. Yet ought they not to be 
r^noved by private, but by public authority. 

S. That is granted. But are those things to be removed f 

B. Though they may be removed, they are such things as 
cannot ofiend the church ; and every true christian ought 
lo bear with them until they be removed. 

8. I have borne with them, or I should not have resorted 
to'the church, as I have done. 

B. Have you been a minister, and now given it up ? 
Every one laying his hand to the plough, ought not to look 
back, without some special cause. 

S. About five or six years since, I was called before my 
ofdinary, who told me I must subscribe, or lose my living, 
and be discharged from the ministry. Accordingly, I 
refusing to subscribe, he deprived me of my ministry. 

C. Wilt thou receive the communion according to the 
ortler prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer ? 

S. I have never refused to receive it according to the . 
word of God ; and where I have resorted, I have received it 
more than six times in the year. 

Goodman. Name one church where thou hast received 
ihe communion. 

S. You seek to injure me. 

G. Nay ; we seek to save thee. 

5. I have refused to attend upon idle shepherds ; and, as 
you said they were dumb dogs, there can be no good 
received from them. Therefore, I beseech you to endeavour 
to get them removed. 

6. Why, every member of the church of Christ is a 


B. Shall Mre thai receive no conmranicm ? 

Dyer. What sayest thou of the order of baptism ? Witt 
thou have thy child bwtized according to the cnrder fire- 
scribed in the Book of Common Prayer ? 

S. I have no child to baptize* 

D. Dost thou condemn the order of the sacrament of 
the Lord's supper, the order of churching women, the 
burial service, or the ceremonies of the church ? 

S. If I had condemned them, I would not have resorted 
to the church, as I have done. 

B. Thou wUt then agree to these three things : — 1. ^^ That 
thou hast offended against the law in printing Cartwright's 
book. — 2. That Cartwrighfs book is neither godly, nor 
lawful. — ^3. That thou dost not condemn the Book o( Com- 
mon Prayer, but wilt receive the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper, according to the order prescribed." 

S. I say as I JEave said before,; if I had ecmdemned the 
Book of Common Prayer, I would not have mcHted to the 
church, as I have done. 

Garret. But wilt thou subscribe ? 

S. I will.^ , -f. 

Upon Mr. 3troud's submission to subscribe, ha retumelT 
to his beloved exercise, and became minister at CninbnKdk- 
But his troubles were not ended. For, upon the translntioa 
of Whitgift to tiie see of Canterbury, nis ncmccNufonnitj 
exposed him to the displeasure of the new archbishop, ww 
deprived him of his ministry, and commanded him to leave 
the country. But the good man was so universally bdoved^ 
that multitudes of persons in Kent signed petitions to the 
archbishop, earnestly soliciting his continuance. In <Hie of 
these petitions, they address his lordship as follows : 

^^ We know, most reverend father, that Mr. Stroud has 
been- several times beaten and whipt with the untrue reports 
of slanderous tongues, and accused of crimes whereqf h9 
has most clearly acquitted himself. Most of us have heafdr 
him preach Christ truly, and rebuke sin boldly, and have 
seen him hitherto applv to his calling faithfully, and livf> 
among us most peaceably : so that, Dy'his dihgence and 
doctrine, not only has our youth heea instructed, and 
ourselves have been confirmed in true religion and learning; 
but we are daily allured by his holy conversation and 
example, to a christian life, and the exercises of charity. 
And no one of us, most reverend &ther, hatli hitherto heard 

« MS. Register, p. 194—195. 

STROUD. 301 

from his own mouth, nor by the credible relation of others^ 
that he has publicly in his sermons, or privately in conver- 
sation, taught unsound doctrine, or opposed the discipline^ 
about which, alas ! there is now so great a controversy* 
And as he hath given a faithful promise to forbear handling 
any questions concerning the policy of the church ; so we 
think in our consciences, he has hitherto performed it. 

<< In consideration of these things ; and that our coontnf 
may not be deprived of so excellent a labourer in the Lord a 
barvest ; that the enemies of Grod's truth, the papists, may 
Bot have cause of joy and triumph; and that tlie man 
himself may not be thus discouraged and wounded to the 
heart, in receiving condemnation witliout examination: 
We, therefore, most humbly beseech your grace, for the 
poor man's sake, for your own sake, and for the Lord's sake^ 
either to take judicisd knowledge of his cause, that he may 
be confronted by his adversaries ; or, of your great wisdom 
and goodness, to restore him to his liberty of preaching the 
gospel aniong us. So we shall heartily thank God, and 
shaU continually pray for you."* 

Besides the above petition, signed by many worthy 
^rsons, another was signed by iwenti/'four ministers and 
others ; a third by Gfeorge Ely, vicar of Tenderden, and 
his parishioners ; a fourth by Thomas Bathurst, minister of 
Stap}eherst, and his parishioners; a fifth by William 
Walter, vicar of Gouldhurst, and parishioners ; a sixth by 
Hatthias Water, minister of Frittenden, and parishioners ; 
a seventh by Anthony Francis, minister of Lamberhurst^ 
and pari8hi<mers ; an eighth by Alexander Love, minister 
of Rolvenden, and parishioners; a ninth by Christopher 
Vinebrook, minister of Helcorne, and parishioners ; a tenth 
by Matthew Walton, curate of Benenden, and parishioners ; 
an eleventh by, William Cocks, minister of Marden, and 
parishioners; a twelfth by William Vicar, minister of 
Tisehurst, and parishioners ; and a thirteenth by William 
Hopkinson, minister of Salehurst, and his parishioners.f 

So high a reputation had Mr. Stroud among persons of 
true piety, and holy zeal for the protestant religion. All 
these petitions, signed by numerous .persons respectable 
both for learning and piety, were presented to Whitgift ; 
but whether they proved the happy means of procuring hi« 
lordship's favour, is extremely doubtful. Mr. Stroud was 
a man of most exemplary pi^y, and universally bdofody 

• MS. Register, p. 196, 197. t IbM. 


and a moat excellent and peaceable divine, but continually 
molested and vexed in the ecclesiastical courts. 

John Browning, D. D. — This learhed divine was 
senior feUow of Trinity college, Cambridge, and afterwards 
domestic chaplain to the £an of Bedford, but was deprived 
of his fellowship for his puritanical opinions. Having 
di^vered a sermon in St. Mary^s church, in which were 
contained certain heretical opinions, as they were called, be 
was convened, February 1, 1572, before the heads of c<rf- 
leges, and commanded to abstain from preaching, till he 
should be purged from his dangerous heresy. Under these 
circumstances, he looked upon it to be his duty to obey 
God, rather than men, and therefore refused to obey their 
command, and still continued in his beloved work of 
preaching; on which account he was cast into prison for 
contempt. Whatever were the pretended charges of his 
enemies, his principal' cicime was his nonconformity .« 

Dr. Browning having remaiined for some time in prison, was 
at length released, upon giving bond of two hundred marks, 
and obtaining two sureties bound in forty pounds each, foii. 
hifi appearance to answer such charges as should be allegedT 
ag;ainst him, and to abstain from preaching till further leave 
should be granted.f Being called before his spiritual 
judges, they resolved, '^ that if the said John Browning 
shall fi-om'time to time appear and answer, when and 
wheresoever he shall be lawfully called within the realm of 
England, to all such matters as shall be objected unto him, 
touching certain words uttered by him in two sermons, for 
which he hath been convened before the said vice-chancellor, 
until he shall be lawfully discharged ; and also shall abstain 
from preaching, until he shall be permitted or called by the 
said vice-chancellor, or his deputy, or successors: And 
fiirther, shall behave himself quietly and peaceably towards 
the queen^s majesty, and all her subjects, and especially 
within the university of Cambridge, that then the i^ecog- 
nizance to be void and of no effect, or else to stand and 
remain in its full power and strength."}: TJie day following, 
Dr. Bying, the vice-chancellor, sent a statement of his 
crimes, with an account of the above proceedings, to Lord 
Burleigh the chancellor.^ v . 

• Baker's MS. CoHec. vol. W. p. 55. 

+ Strype's Parker, p. 390.— Whitgift, p. 46.-'AnDals, vol. ii. p. 189» 

t Baker's MS. Collec. vol. iiU p. 392. \ Ibid. vol. iv. p. 55. 


Dr. Browning himself, after his release firom prison, ap* 
peared before the chancellor, subscribed a submission with 
Lis own hand, and was so far acquitted that he was sent 
back to the university, and the vice-chancellor and heads 
w^re urged to re-admit him to his former office and prefer- 
inent , But this will best appear in l^urleigh's own words, 
addressed to the vice-chancellor and heads, which were as 
follows : — " Haviilg received from you a declaration of two 
errors committed by this bearer, John Browning, in his 
sermons, one of them containing matter of heresy, and the, 
other tending to sedition, I have caused him to be further 
examined hereupon, in the presence of Sir Thomas Smith, 
her majesty's principal secretary ; and finding as well by 
the relation of Mr. Secretary, as by his own confession 
subscribed with his hand, that he utterly abhorreth them 
both, and affirmeth that he hath been much mistaken in the 
same, I thought it best, for preserving the university's 
leputation, and for the reverence of the church of Grod, 
wherein he is a minister, to suppress the memory and 
notice of the said errors, especially that which may be 
drawn to an interpretation that he should be justly thought 
seditious and ownsive. Therefore, my advice is, that 
you should receive him again into his place; and if he 
shall willingly acknowledge before you the same doctrine, 
and misliking of the foresaid errors, whereof I mean to send 
you his confession under his hand, and then he may con- 
tinue quietly among you."* 

Though he returned to his office in the college, and to his 
public ministerial exercise, his troubles were not over. Having 
taken his doctor's degree at Oxford, two years earlier than 
he ought to have done, brought upon him many fresh 
trials. For this singular offence, which some deemed a 
mere trifle, and others accounted a very grievous crime, he 
was deprived of his fellowsliip, and in effect expelled from 
the university. This oppressive^ilfntence was inflicted upon 
him in « most clandestine and illegal manner by Dr. Still, 
and even above four years after taking his degree at Oxford. 
This was done a long time after Dr. Still had signified his 
approbation of his taking the degree, by allowing him 
to deliver public lectures in the chapel, according to the 
statute of the university, and by allowing him to be incor- 
porated in the same degree at Cambric%e. He also con- 
firmed to Dr. Browning his fellowship and place in th« 

' ' * Baker'i MS. CoUec. toI. zxix. p. 368. 


coflege, not only by suffering him quietly and peaceably 
to enjoy it, with all the privities tlierccrf*, for more than 
Ibree years, but also elected him by his own yoice to be 
senior bursar of the college, and to be vice-master for two 
years by two separate elections.* 

Moreover, Dr. Stiirs conduct was in many particulars 
most shameftil. He proceeded against Dr. Browning with 
mat injustice and innumanity. Not content with Ulegally 
depriving him of his office and benefice, he would not snmf 
him to mne in the hall of the colle^, nor any one to eat or 
drink with him. When Dr. Browning kept his chamber in 
the collie, this inveterate enemy would not permit any of 
his friends or acquaintance to come to him, or converse 
with him ; and those of his fnends who had any private 
intercourse with him, he strictly examined by threatenings 
and oaths to confess what had passed, with a view to accuse 
them from their own mouths. He also complained in this 
case to a foreign judge, expressly contrary to the statute of 
the college. And thougn he caused the name of Dr. 
Browning to be struck out of the buttery, he commenced an 
action oTjBSOO against him, merely on supposition that Ik 
had done the same by him. He, moreover, procured a 
restraint of Dr. Brownioff's liberty, by watching him and 
keeping him in his chaim[)er for some time as in a priscm. 
Not satisfied with these tyrannical proceedings, he assaulted 
Dr. Browning's lodgings in a most violent manner, and 
broke open his doors, and dragged him out of his chambet, 
to the ^reat injury of his body ; notwithstanding the Earl 
of Beaford by his letters had previously required all pro- 
ceedings against him to be itoyed, till the cause should be 
heard. To finish the business, this cruel oppressor of 
the Lord's servants prohibited Dr. Browning's pupils, ser- 
vants and friends, from coming near him, or bringing him 
any thing to eat or drink, intending to starve him to death.t 

During these ri^orous^^d illegal proceedings, the Eeui 
of Bedford, as intunated above,t wrote to the Chancellor 
Burleigh, desiring his lordship not to give his consent to 
the sentence pronounced upon Dr. Browning, till after he 
had heard both parties. He spoke, at the same time, in 
high commendation of his character; that he had good 

• Baker's MS. Conec. vol. iv. p. 45, 46. f Ibid. 

} Francis Earl of Bedford was a celebrated statesman, and a constant 
friend to the persecuted puritans. At his death he left twenty pounds to 
be given to a number of pious ministers, for preaching twenty sermons at 
Cheney, Woburh and Mdshbum.— -ifS. ChronQlogy, vol. ii. p. 373. {22.) 



experience of his sound doctrine, his useiiil preaching, and 
exemplary conversation, saying, that hU deprivation was 
hard dealing.* If his deprivation of his feiiowship waa 
hud dealing, what must all the other proceedings have 
been ? These tronbles came uptHi him ui the year 1581 : 
bnt we do not find that this. persecuted servant of Chrirt 
obtained any lelief. 

Stbphek Tdrner was minister of Arlington in Sussex, 
bat much troubled for nonconformity. Alwut the year 1584, 
being convened before his ecclesiastical judges, andrequired 
to subscribe to Whitgift's three articles, he refused, sayings 
that he was willing to subscribe as far as the laws of the 
lealm required. With an evident design to ensnare liis 
conscisice, or accuse him upon his own confession, he was 
asked whether the Book of C<nnmon Prayer contained any 
tiling contrary to the word of God ; when be observed, that 
he was not bound by law to answer such an inquiry. Also, 
when he was asked whether he would, use the form of prayers 
and administration of the sacraments, as prescribed, and no 
other, he replied, that he did not consider himself bound 
by law to answer. He was then suspended from his 
ministry.f Having remained a considerable time under the 
ccclesiutical censure, be sent the following certificate to 
ir^t»in persons of quali^: '^ These may certify your 
honoun, that I, Stephen Turner, minister of Arli^jton in 
%i«KX, have been suspended from my charge this year and 
t cnarto', for refiising to subscribe, no other matter being 
|||4 to my charge, "t 

John Wabd was a. celebrated puritan divine, and many 
years the laborious minister of Haverhil in Suffolk, Afler- 
mid>, he appears to have become minister of Writtle, neur 
dbdintford, m Essex ■, but, about the year 1584, he was 
ioBpewled by Bisliop Aylmer, for not wearing the surplice. 
Du accminl of bis nonconformity, though he v/as a most ex- 
~"*'"!iit and peaceable man, Aylmer drove him from one place 
''■er, uy which means he was exceedingly haraoed, 
t suScred to continue long in any one ntoatiiBi.^ 


He subscribed the <^ Book of Discipline,"* and Haitid 
mth his br^ren in their endeavours to promote tin 
desired lefonnation of the church, meeting with.^ than 
in their private associations. + This persecuted servittt 
of Christ died at Haverhil, where his renuuns were tntennedi 
Upon his grave was a nionumei^ inscription : eraded 
to bis memory, of which Fuller gives the fottoining 
translation : t 

Grant some of knowledge greater store. 

More leanied some in teaching; 
Yet few in Ufe did lighten morey 

None thnnderedmore in preaching. 

Bfr. Ward was an excdlent divine, of whom the fiunods 

Dr. William Whitaker had the highest opinion, and used 

to say, << Give me John Ward for a text. S Mr; Richaid 

Rogers, the worthy puritan minister of Wethersfield in 

Essex, married his widow. Mr. Ward hadfour sons in the 

ministry. Samuel and Nathaniel were puritan divines (tf 

^Ustinguished eminence. Mr. Ward, the ejected nmicoii- 

jfomust, was most probably his son. 


Edmund Rockrbt, B. D. — ^He was feUow of Queei^s 
college, Cambridge, and a person distinguished for leaiAiny 
and abilities, but was brought into many troubles on aoconnt 
of his nonconformity. He was a man of great reputattdn, 
and, in the year 1569, was chosen one of the proctoiv of tte 
university .f The year following, he was convened hdiate 
the ruling ecclesiastics, and required to enter into a haai^^ci 
forty pounds, to appear from time to time before the vice- 
chancellor or his deputy, until such matters should be 
determined and ended as were and shoutd-be laid against 
him. After appearing several times befoljb the'vioe-^ 
chancellor. Dr. Whitgm, and the heads dT collies, it wu 
decreed, ^^ that he Miould remain, continue, and qidflil|r 
ke^P his chamber as a true prisoner, till the nu^tteiB dbjetj^ 
agi^inst him should be endra.''«« 

It appears very probable that he continued under ccii^ 

\. J 

* Keal'sParitana, vol. i. p. 423. 

i Baker*! MS. Collec vol. zv. p. 70. ....', 

% FuUer*8 Worthies, part iii. p. 70. S Firrnln*! Rcftl Chriitiw, MT. 

\ Palmer's Noncon. Men. vol. iii. p. 284. 

1 Fuller's Hist, of Cam. p. 141. 

«« Baker's MS. CoUec. toU iii. p. 377,578.- 

ROCKilETf. 30» 

fiiifisne&i a long tinie : for towards the dose of th^ yeai^ 
1571, he was again several times brought before the vice-' 
dnbcellor and heads of colleges ; when ^< Dr. Whitgift 
willed him to acknowledge and confess his fault, and openly 
to' revoke his rashness in the same place, and before mi 
same company^ where he had given the offence ;^' and ill 
tfae«€on(clasion, he was required to make the following public 
recantation : 

<^ For as much as on Sunday, being the S6th of No- 
<< vembeV, in this place before vou, I disorderly stood up, 
<^ (after fliat Dr. Chadderton, having conunandment frcmi 
^' the vice-chancellor, had given warning that we should 
^' not speak against such statutes as the queen's majesty had 
<' sent to the university,) and spoke words tending to the 
^^ Qomplaining ^f such things 'as were then by our master 
<< spoken, to the discreditmg of some about the queen'i 
<^ majesty ; saying, that godly princes might be deceived by 
<^ hypocrites and flatterers, as David was by Shebna, or 
^ su^like ; and to tlie derogation of the said statutes, and 
<^ ^Condemnation of some of them, saying, that they tended 
<* td ■ the impairing of the liberty and privileges of the 
** university, and mat some of them were directly aigainst 
^^ Grod's word. I therefore acknowledge my rashness and 
<' indiscreetness in so doing, and am heattily sorry for them| 
^' desiring you to think as it becometfa dutiful subjects to 
^' think OT the queen's majesty, her counsellors and laws, and 
<' r e v ere n tly obey the same, as I for my part intend to do'^ 
^^ God willing, to the uttermost of my power. In witnesd 
^< whereof, I nave subscribed this confession with my own 
^ hand, and deliver the same here in your presence, to 
** our nuister, to be by him also delivered to Mr^Vice- 
** chancellor. "• 

From, the above, we see the crimes with which ItfiC 
Rockrey was charged, together with the proceedings of thes6 
ndm^'ecclesiastics. He seems to have refused making this 
iteabUition. He would not defile his conscience, Inf 
rabscrilnng that which appeared to him contrary t6. trutt^ 
as well as a tyrannical invasion of christian liberty.^ Though 
lie was several times summoned before his superiors, it is 
proMi>kf, our author adds, that he still continued in the same 

Mr. Rockrey scrupled wearing the habits, for which, 
'* e above troubles, he was deprived of his fellowship, 

• Baker's MS. CoUec. toI, iii. p, 383> 3SS. ^ Ibid. p. 384. 


and in effect, expelled from the nnivemt j. Lotd Build^^ 
the chancellor, procured hb restoration, with a dispen^tum 
from wearing the habits for a twelvemonth, at the expimtion 
of which, he was admonished three times bj the master of 
the college, to conform himself in wearing tfate appard. But 
he could not with a eood conscience comply, and, there^ne, 
was finally expelled, as an example to keep others ,in a 
state of obedience.* He was one of the pirebendaries of 
Rochester, where he was justly esteemed an admued and 
popular preacher ; but, about the year 1584, was suspended 
Hom his ministerial function, and continued under the 
ecclesiastical censure many years.f 

H. Gray was a puritanical minister in Cambridge, and 
one of the preachers to the university, ^e delivered a 
sermon in St. Mary*s church, January 8, 1586, in whidi. he 
was charged with asserting the following opinions : — ^^ That 
the church of Eln^and doth maintain Jewish music, oontnr^ 
to the word of God, which alone ought to sound in his 
.church. — That it is contrary to the same word, to use. in 
sermons the testimonies of doctors and profane writen^*-*- 
That to play at dice or cards is to crucify Christ.-^That 
there are in this church dumb dogSy Jereboam's priests, aind 
Chemarins, that have place at uie upper end of tlie altar, 
which bj the word should have no putce in the church.— « 
That it is thought there be some among us who send over 
news Us Rome and Rbeims, and would have us aU murdered. 
-^That whoever would, mif ht fill his hand, and be minister 
among us, as in the time of Jereboam ; whereby it comejth 
to pass that some go about the country to offer their service 
for ten pounds a year and a canvas double, — And that we 
celebmte the joyful time of the nativity throughout the land 
as atheists and epicures, "'t 

For these assertions, alleged against him, he appears, to 
have been called before the ruling ecclesiastics, when, Jie 
gave the following answeiii^ to the various accusations :— 
^ Concerning music, I had no set treatise agamst it, l^t 
cmly I made this simile, that set music and its curious notes 
is an imitation of the Jewish music ; and because it isnbt 
understood, it may delight, but not edifjj/: so affiscted and 
curious eloquence, which the people cannot understand, 
kaay affect and delight the outward sense, but it cannot e&ier 

• 8trype*B Annals, toI. ii. p. 434. f MS. Reriitery p. 986. 6S5. 

t Bsker'fMS. Collec.¥oKautt.p.S04. 

GRAY— MOORE. . 900 

and descend into the heart. — Concerning citing of fatheri 
and' profane authors, I did not teach that it was simply 
ludawfol ; but when we are to teach the simple people, and 
to instruct and build the conscience, we are not to stuff our 
sermons with authorities of fethers or sentences of profane 
writers. — Concerning carding and dicing, I spake only 
against the unlawful use of i^ and shewed the abuse of th^ 
cseldlNration of the nativity. — I said that we have dumb 
dogs, and some such as were once Chemarins, when I did 
luyt, neither was it my purpose to, enter any questicm whether 
they miffht, or might not, lawfully be ministers. — ^I said, it 
is tihought there be some among us, who are not of us, who 
lurk here to spy out what is done, that they may give notice 
to Rome ; and they lie among us, that they may point out 
and set forth which of us should first go to the fire, when the 
days o£ mourning for Jacob should come : where I desire 
thfVt my meaning may be thus interpreted, that I did not 
notice particulars, but spake only upon the probable 
suspicion, to stir us up to be diligent in searching wh^her 
there be any papists among us, who are the Lord's and her 
autjesty's enemies. — 1 said, for want of restraint, every man 
may nil his hand, and consecrate himself, alluding to 2 
OhrcNi. sdii. I would have this to be considered, that in 
citing or alluding to any place, every word is not to be 
observed, but the drift and purpose for which it is alleged. 
—I said, that we have some ministers who are not worthy 
to stand in the belfrey, but they sit at the end of the altar. 
I protest tills to have been my meaning, that those who were 
altogether unfit for the ministry, did supply the places of 
those who ought to have been learned ministers."* 

These were Mr. Gray's answers to the forgoing accusa* 
tioDs. But it does not appear what prosecution was entered 
against him. 

Robert Mooas was rector of Guisely in Yorkshire^ 
and prosecuted for nonconformity. January 9, 1586, he 
was cited before the Archbishop of York and other high 
commissioDeni, when twer^jj/ charges were exhibited and 
Jttgravated against him ; but he so judiciously answered 
tSem, and so fiilly proved his own innocence, that he was 
ac<](iuttod by law. Upon the complete failure of the prose* 
ciitibii| the angry archbishop charged Mr. Moore with 

• Bakier'i BIS. GoUec. vol. zzx. p. 80§* 


having said that he could not preachy calling him an old 
doaiins fool. This Mr. Moore denied upon his oath. When 
they &^£d in the proof of this charge also, his lordship was 
pore angry than before; and seeing they could procuie 
lio evidence for any of their accusations, the good man was 
dismissed, and appointed to appear the week following. 

January 16th, Mr. Moore appeared before the archbiahop 
and nine other commissioners, when he was again chatged 
with the same crimes, and they said that how they- could 
prove him guilty. To this he replied, that as he had alneady 
cleared himself'^ of all charges, except that of refusinsr to 
observe in all points the Book of Common Prayer, whic^he 
did not out of contempt, but from conscience ; so, notwitb- 
standing the malice of his enemies, he still stood on.gUie 
ground, and no honest man could prove him guilty. Upon 
fliis, he was immediately threatened with imprisonment and 
utter ruin, if they should proceed against him according to 
Uw. In the conclusion, he was obliged to enter into a bond 
of a hundred pounds to observe the Book of Comoioa 
•Fraver, and was then dismissed. 

The archbishop and his colleagues were aware of the 
fUsgrace that woidd necessarily fall upon their own iiejids 
if Mr. Moore should escape without submission. Tbeieme^ 
Ihey cited him a third time; and upon, his appeavanCi^ 
presented him with the form of a recantation, requifinghiou 
as the condition of obtaining their favour, to ccnfess- and 
rjead the same publicly in his own church. But he abso- 
lutely lefua^ to purchase his liberty at so dear a late^ 
deolaring that he would be cast into prison, and even put to 
death, rather than thus dishonour the Lord by lyin^ against 
the Holy Ghost and his own conscience. He was, Uierefore^ 
again dismissed; but two of his servants were committed to 

From the examination of Mr. Higgins, churchwarden of 
Guisely, before the above commissioners, January 10, 15.86, 
,which is now before me, Mr. Moore is evidently acquitted 
.of the principal charges alleged against him. Tiie 
jUprightness of his deportment, and Uie purity of his 
chaiacter, were thus made manifest, even in the fiatceof his 
jCnemies. He was a zealous, faithful, and labcHraons ministery 
spending his strength and his long life for the salvation (rf* 
• Itisobsorved of our divine^ that he survived n)Mt:of bia 

"^ MS. Resifter, p. T87. -f IbM. pf«;T8B-70a. 


brediren, having lived to a great age. He baptiaed a 
diild after he entered upon the benefit of Guiseley, and 
afienvards baried the same person threescore years of age^ 
being rector of the place sixty-three years. He baQt the 
pvesent stately parsonage house there:* 

Ebward GsLLiBRAND.-^This Icamed and pious cUvtne 
ma fellow of Magdalen college, Oxfiofrd, and a person of 
tiiBtiiigQished eminence among the puritans in that univer- 
flitjr. He was much concerns for a further reformation of 
ihe church, and ever zealous in promoting the desixed 
object. The letters from the classis in Lonoon and other 
fdaces, were conunonly addressed to him, and, by the 
Appointment of the brethren, he usually answered them, 
fllaiiuaiy 12, .1585, he wrote a letter to Mr. John Field, 
aignifyin^ how he had consulted several collies about 
wirch discipline, and a further reformation ; and that many 
mene 'disposed to fevour it, but were afraid to testify any 
flwig under their hands, lest it should bring them into trouble. 
This.letter, which, in the opinion of Dr. Bancroft, tended 
to promote sedition, was the following : — '' I have," says 
JMr. Gdlibrand, ^< already entered into the matters wheveof 
^<;yoa write, and dealt widi three or four of several colleges, 
^f .conoeming those among whom ihey live. I find' mat 
^.meo are very dangerous in this point, generally savouring 
.^xcfinrmation ; but when it comes to the particular point, 
>^. same have not yet considered of those things fbr whidi 
^xithefs in the church are so much troubled. Others are 
^afiatd to testify oay thing with their hands, lest it should 
^^'.breed danger before the time. And many favour the 
^t cause of reformation, but they are not ministers, but 
'^ yoong students, of whom there is good hope, if it be not 
^ cutoff hy violoit dealing before the time. As I hear of 
^ yew, so I mean to go forward, whare there is ainr hope; 
^ and to leant the number, and certify you thereof." The 
aandid reader will easily judge how fax this lettertended to 
piomote sedition, being merely designed to effect by the 
most peaceable :means, a more pure |6farmation of the 
charch»4- He united with many of his brethren in sub* 
scribing the << Book of Discipline."^ 

AprU 7, 1686, Mr. Gellihrand was cited before Arx^hU 

{ • ThorMby'a yicaria Lftodiemls, p. 65. 

f BaiicrofCi IHiiigeroas Positioos, p. 74> 1h, 
^ t NesTi Pari tsiiB, ▼•!• I. p. 4SS. 


Whitgift, Bishop Cooper of Winchester, Bisliop Pien of 
Salisbury, and other high commissioners. When he was 
called before their lordships, and the charges alleged against 
him had been read, the reverend archbishop thus addressed 
him: — ^^ You have spoken against the ecclesiastical stale 
and governors, as confirmed and established by the laws of 
this land. You have inveighed against the swdling titles of 
bishops and archbishops. You are full of pride and ano- 
gancv, and the spirit of pride hath possessed you. And 
you have preached against the Bishop oi Winchester, bjr 
which you have discouraged men fnmi doing good to the 
church." Then said the Bishop of Winchester, << If ^oa 
had read any of the ancient fathers, or ecclesiasncal 
histories, you could, not have been ignorant, that the offioe 
of archbishops was from the time of the apostles, though 
the name be not found in the scriptures. Other churohes 
do not condemn ours, as we do not theirs. This discipUae 
which you dream of, may peradventure be convenient fat 
Goieva, or some such free city, which hath half a domm 
.villages joining to it ; but not for a kingdom. You aie ft 
chilc^ yea, a b^be." 

Mr. GeUilnrand, craving leave to answer for himsdl^ te^ 
plied to these accusations, and said, <^ Concerning pieachhig 
against the Bishop of Winchester, I am guiltless. I wai 
not present at his sermon, nor did I hear m his sermon tiH 
after I had preached, according to my oath already taken.^ 
And being charged with speaking against the consecnitiaii 
of bishops and archbishops, he replied, '^ My words weve 
uttered simply as the occasion offered from a nc^ of Bea 
on Heb. ii. 10. And concerning my exhortation to those 
who suffer persecution for the sale of Christ, it was neces- 
rarily deduced from my text, in which the sufferings ij£ 
christians are called the sufferuigs of Christ.*' Then said 
Dr. Cosin, " Such ifs are intolerwle under the government 
of so gracious a prince. And it is a most grievous thing 
that you have made discipline a part of the gospd.'' 

The archbishop next charged him with havmg made a 
comparison between Jesuits, and nonresidents, saying, <^ Yoa 
make nonresidents worse than Jesuits, and in tms coa»- 
parison there is neither truth, nor charity, nor honesty, nor 
Christianity. I myself have been one of those wh(Hn you 
call nonresidents, and have done more good by preachuigy 
partly in my own cure, and parfly in ouer mens , than you 
will do as long as you live. The church hath not beien 
built by you, nor such as you ; but by those whom you 

GLOVER. 313 

-call nonresidents ! 1" Upon Mr. Gellibrand*s attempting to 
answer, he was interrupted, and not allowed to proceed. 
And when Dr. Cosin charged him with speaking against the 
Imws of the land, he replied, '' I have long been of this 
-Minion, and so have many others, that nonresidents are 
allowed by law." 

Mr. GreUibrand being charged with seducing her majesty's 
fiiibjects, and with bringing the archbishop and bishops into 
:€Mmtempt^ which, it was said, gave much encouragement to 
^papittii; he replied, ^^ I never entered upon any discourse 
«boHt the government of the church, but delivered the true 
sense of the scriptures." When he was urged to a further 
consideration o( the charges brought against him, and to 
stttHnit to the court, he was carried out, until the commis* 
tjoners determined what punishment should be inflicted 
upon him. After some consultation, he was called in, 
mien the archbishop thus addressed him : — << You deserve 
M>t only to be sequestered from your ministry, but to be 
expelled from your house, banished from tlie university^ 
tuid cast into prison; and all this we could inflict upon 
you; but we will not deal thus with you, if you will 
«evdce your errors, and give satisfaction for your offences.** 
'^he good man was, therefore, suspended from his ministry, 
YriUiged to enter into a bond of a hundred pounds, either to 
cevoke his errors in such form as their lordships should 
Uppoint, or to make his appeaiance at Lambeth at any time 
by them to be determined, when they would further proceed 
against him.* But it does not appear whether he recanted, 
or was brought under additional hardships by the relent- 
less prelates. 

Edward Glover was a nonconformist to the church of 
England, as well in doctrine, as in ceremonies. He appears 
to have mixed faith and works in the article of justification, 
and to have denied the doctrine of predestination; for 
which, in the year 1586, he, together with some others, was 
mprdiended by Archbishop Wfaitgifl, and cast into prison. 
These persons, denominated <^ a poor handful of free-will 
men," it is said, could not assemble in a private conventicl^ 
without attracting the rod of ecclesiastical censure, and 
suffering by means of the archbishop, the rigorous penalty 
of imprisonment. But whatever were their character ara 

• M. Resister, p. 801--a0i. . 


^qpinions, they were so far excusable to the Lord Treasaver 
Burleigh, tliat he waimly espoused their cause, and wrote 
a letter to the archbishop in their favour.* In all proba* 
bUity, says Mr. Toplady, Buiieigh's humane application 
to the primate, in behalf of these theological delmquents^ 
procured them a gaol-delivery, and set the Aree-will men 
corporally free. This he conjectures from the letter of thankB^ 
which Mr. Glover afterwards wrote to the treasurer. Mr. 
Glover, says he, lays all the cause of his and his biethiren^s. 
imprisonment, on their dissenting from Luther's dbotrine 
cf justification without works, and from Calvin's dootrine 
0f unconditional predestination ; and loudly compiains of 
die ^ iniquity and tyranny" of their prosecutors: -whi^h 
included a tacit fling at the archbishop himself. 'Had^they 
not just cause to complain both of iniquity and tymniiy i 
And was not the archUshop the very person who exemied 
this cruel oppression ? Without approving of their senli- 
snents, it may be asked, what crreater right iliad he to iMt 
them into prison, merely for difieronoe of irdigions dpiniptt^ 
then they bad to cast him into prison, forthe same caiMie? 
His lordship having the sword in his own hands, wifi affioid 
ho satisfactory answer to this question. But our aolhor 
Airther observes^ << the bishops had just as much r«gard tik 
the fieo-will men, as St. Paul had for the viper he shook 
iillo the fire.'V This representaticm, which contanis too 
much truth, will remain a stigma upon their chamoter^ and 
a reproach to their memory, as long as men are diiqpoied to 
examine the impartial records of lustory. 


John Walward, D. D. — ^He was professcnr of divinjty 
at Oxford, and a man of great learning, but involved in 
much trouble for nonconformity. He was 'Summmed 
liefore the hi^ commission, April 7, 1586, and appeared 
befiwe Archbishop Whitgift, Bishop Aylmer, tiie naliops 
tjf Winchester and Sarum, and other oomi]iissi4mera| at 
fjambeth. And for having taught, that ttie order joS^^ihe 
Jewish synagogue and eldersbip, was adopted into' Ae 
christian church, by Jesus Christ and bis apostles ; ^bjbA 
inserting that the same was designed as a perpetual modal 
tof chfHToh government, he was enjoined a-pid>lic iceanta- 
tkm, and susp^ided from bis public exeroises in^the ooim^ 
aity, till it should be performed. As the wb(de'af--4hts 

• Strype'g Annals, vol. iii. p. 431. 

f Toplady't HUCorio^lPnof, ft>K U.>. jm,40a. ' 

WALWARD. ^ 315 

lir, attested by the hand of Abraham Hartwell, notary 
public, is now before me, it will be proper to trw- 
scribe it. 

. The above commissioners decreed, ^^ That the said John 
Walward shall, upon some Sunday in the afternoon, deliver 
a sermon in the parish church of Alhallows in Oxford, wherein 
he shall not in any way, either covertly or openly, impugn 
any part of the government ecclesiastical now received and 
used in the church of England ; but shall stir up all his 
Jiearers to unity, peace, obedience, and the sood liking of 
the. laws, orders, and present government of this church; 
and shall, also, in such his sermon publicly and distinctly 
read, without any addition, diminution, or alteration, the 
form of words following, signifying that he is so enjoined 
by authority for his demerits." Then follows the form of 
Jus recantation, expressed in these words : 
• *' Whereas I, John Walward, the 22d of February last, 
f^ preaching in this place, amongst other things, did utter, 
^ .^ That tl^ order of a Jewish syna^^ogue governed by an 
Jf^ eldership, which I untruly affirmed to be still observed in 
^ Germany and Spain, was established by Jesus Christ and 
^^ his apostles to continue for ever, to admonish, to suspend^ 
^^ to interdict, and to exconununicate in ev^ry congregaticm : 
f < that the same was practised by the apostles, and long after 
^^ in tljie better times of the church : Uiat those who are put 
<^ in authority, according to the laws of this land, by the 
U bishops and other ecclesiastical persons, to see such 
^^ censures executed, are not sufficiently warranted thereto, 
^^ but are in danger of God's heavy judgment; therefore, 
^^ the pastor of the congregation where the offender d welleth, 
f'hatn an interest, and ought to have a dealing therein.* 
^' And, whereas, I did then also affirm matter to the de- 
*^ praving of the office of archdeacons, and the canons agreed 
>'^ upon in the last convocation, and confirmed by her 
^^nuyesty^s authority: and did avouch a necessary^ sub- 
'f ' stantial, and unalterable platform of government aiod dis^ 
y cipline to have been left by Christ, for hearing, ordering, 
*^ and, determining all cases and causes of censure, which I 
^^ then said ought of necessity to be by Hie miiustinr and 
5^ presbjftery of the congregation wnere the offender 
f< dweUfsth, to the impeaching of her niajesty's authoii^ 
<< ivL G^u8e$. ecclesiastical, to the discredit. of the.ipieaent 
^^ government of tiie church of England wherein I live, to 
*^ the breach of the unity and peace of it, and to an ill 
<< example and o&nce to otbenu And fuith^, whereas I 


promised after my said sermon, if I might be suffered io 
continue my divinity lecture, I would not meddle in any 
matters tending to the disturbance of the peace and unitjr 
of the church, or just offence of any. I did, notwith- 
standing, shew myself the same man I was before, by 
bitter and factious speeches, and complaining that I was 
thus treated, as I thought, without just desert. I do here, 
therefore^ in the sight of God, and you, my brethren, 
frankly acknowledge, my unadvised dealing herein, and 
my oversight in the former points, heartily desiring yoQ 
all to be satisfied with this my unfeigned and humUe 

When Dr. Walward appeared before his ecclesiastical 
judges, he was obliged to enter into a bond of one hundred 

Sounds to make this debasing public recantation ; and in caie 
e failed to perform it according to the order and fonn pre* 
scribed, he should not only forfeit his hundred pounds, but 
within four days appear again at Lambeth, to receive suc& 
censure as his case might deserve. For the better executioa 
o[ the above decrees, a letter was addressed to the viee^ 
chancellor > of Oxford, requiring and authoiizii^ him to 
see that they should in all points be duly executed ; and ill 
case of Walward's failure in complying with them, to brine 
him again before the high commission at Lambeth.f Tl£ 
learned divine was thus debased by the tyrannical prelates ! 
He was compelled to sacrifice the right of private iudgmen^ 
and the liberty of conscience, at the shrine of theur usurped 
jx)wer and authority. 

John Gardiner was the laborious minister of Maiden 
in Essex, but deprived of his ministry, and most cruelly 
treated. His sufferings would have moved the compassion 
of any man, excepting Aylmer, bishop of London. The 
bishop committed him to Newgate for matters scandalously 
laid to his charge seven years before, of which he had even 
been cleared by a r^ular course of law. He requested hiift 
lordship, that he might be bailed ; and if he was found 
guilty, that he might have punishment without- m^x^yl 
The account of his barbarous usage is given in a supplied^ 
tion which Mr. Gardiner sent to the bishop, dated Septeni^ 
ber 7, 1586 ; in which he expressed himself as follows :S 

* SfS. Register, p. 800. f Ibid. p. SOI. S I^i^* P* 199< 



<< To the Right Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop 

^' of London. 
^' My duty in humble- wise remembered, my lord. I am 
** cast into Newgate by your lordship, for a matter which 
<^ about seven years past, was slanderously raised against 
<< me. I was by course of law cleared, and the Lord God 
<< who searcheth the hearts, before whom you and I shall 
^< shortly appear, doth know, and him I call to witness, 
'^ that I was and am falsely accused. I have been extremely 
^^ sick in prison. I thank God, I am amended; but am yet 
^^ so ill, that the physicians say my infection from the prisoa 
^ will be very dangerous. I have a poor wife and five 
<< children, who are in a lamentable case. I had six at the 
^^ beginning of my imprisonment ; but ^ by reason of my 
<^ sickness in prison, and my wife being ccmstrained Ui 
*^ attend upon me, one of my children, for want of some* 
f^body to oversee them, was dirowned in a tub of worti 
^< being two years and a half old. If your lordship havenio 
^ compassion on me, yet take pity upon the widow and 
^^ fatherless, (for in that state are now my wife and poor 
^ infants) whose tears are before the Lord. I crave only 
<* to be bEtiled ; and if I am found guilty of any breach of 
^^ law, let me have extremity without any favour. Your 
^^ lordship's to command in Christ. 

" John Gardiner.'* 

It does not appear how long Mr. Gardiner remained in 
prison, nor what other punisWent he endured. He was 
a member of the presbyterian church erected at Wands- 
worth in Surrey ; and he united with his brethren in sub- 
scribing the " Book of Discipline."* 

Nicholas Standen was educated in the imiversity of 
Cambridge; he became rector of St. Magaret-Pfitten% 
London ; but was deprived, it is supposed, for noncon- 
formity, in 1568.f He was a learned and religious man, an 
Orthodox divine, and ever zealous for a reformation of the 
bhurch; often meeting with his brethren to promote the 
desired object. About the year 1570, he was chaplain tp 
the Earl of Warwick, in his expedition against the rebeUi 
in the noith.t In 1578, he was a member of the presby- 

• FuHer^s Church Hist. b. iz. p. 103.— NeaVs Puritans, vol, i. p. 483. 
' f Newcourt's Repert. Eocl. vol. i. p. 409. 
t MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 373. (8,) 


terian cl^Qrch eifected at Wand8W<nih m Surrey.* Aboni 
two years after this, he was accused of being concerned in 
Und(crtiee's tbam plot; and with Mr/ Bonham, another 
puritan minister, was cast into prison : but upon their et^ 
aminaticm, being found innocent, they were both acquitted, 
and released by order of the council. f Mr. Standen ana 
lit* Bonham were convened before the high commissic^ 
for nonconformity ,> and committed to prison, where tfa^ 
remained a long time. After having endured a shameful 
confinement, togetW with the sickness of the prison, they 
were released by order of the queen, as will appear mate it 
Isree in another placet 

Mr. Standen, with other nonconformable ministers, wroM 
an answer to thi% question, << Whether the ministers, fof 
certain ceremonies laid upon them under pretence of policy 
only, may forsake their mmistry ?'' Upon this question^ he 

S'ves bis opinion with great needoro, particularly agtinst . 
e use of the cross in baptism. He proves with great 
clearness, that the use of the cross in that ordinance is 
wbdly founded in superstition ; that it can answer no good 
purpose whatever, but oftentimes a bad one; and conse^ 
qnenfly, that it ought to be laid aside.^ This divine bein^ 
dways anxious to obtain better r^ulations in the church, 
unit^ with his brethren about the year 1586, in subscribing 
the << Book of Discipline."] 

John Field, A. M. — This excellent divine was a ^ 
sufferer in the cause of nonconformity. Ther^ having 
several persons of the same name, has rendered it ratlieK 
difficult to distinguish them ; yet this Mr. John Field 
appears to have been fellow of Lincoln college, Oxford. 
Wood intimates, that he was afterwards a famous preacher 
at St Giles, Cripplegate, London; but this is rathei 
doubtful.** It is certain, however, that he was the exceOodt 
minister of Aldermary church, in the city. 

The puritans having in vain sought for a further reformat 
tibn from the queen and the bishops, resolved in future to 
apply to the parliament, and stand by the constitution. 
Accordingly, they made all the interest in their powflf 
among the members, and compiled a treatise, setting fordi 

• FdHer's Cbarcb Hist. b. iz. p. 105. f Strype's Parker, p. 466. 
± See Art. Bonham. 

S MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 8T3, (8.) — Parte of a Roister, p. 409.' < 
I Neal'g Poritaos, yol. i. p. 4S3. • • Atbtam t}zoli» tM: U p. 18Sl 

FIELD. Sift 

tileir num^ous srievatiodl in one view. This wt»dia%n 
up by Mr. Field, assisted, by Mr. Thooias Wilcocks, and 
was rervised by several of the brethren. The work waa 
entitled /f An Admonition to^the Parliamoat ;'' with Beza'a 
letter to the £arl of Leicester, and Gualter's to Bishop 
Ftokfaurst, for reformation . of church discipline, annexed; 
It contains the platform of a church ; the manner of electing 
muiiflteis; with their several duties^ and their equality in 
government It then exposes, with some sharp langui^^ 
die corruptions of the hierarchy, and the tyrannical proceed-* 
inga. of the. bishops. The Admonition concludes with a 
petition to both houses, that discipline, more consonant' to 
the word of Gk)d,.and agreeable to the foreign reformed 
charches, may be established by law. Their attempt td 
procure an establishment of their own opinions, Mr. Peirce 
justly observes, was the greatest fault in the book, or in any 
of the attempts which the puritans made. With unan^^ 
swerable evidence they exposed, the corruptions of the 
established ecclesiastical government, and particularly the 
persecution and tyranny by which it. was upheld. But I 
iear^ says he, could they have obtained thdr desire of the 
iiariiament, the pUxtferm which they proposed, must have 
oeen established by some persecuting laws ; which I camot 
find that Christ ever appointed his ministers io use for the 
adiranoement of his kingdcmi. All compulsion-, •andt all 
enfoircing of ecclesiastical discipline, by civil p^alties, is 
qiute contrary to the spirit of Christianity .^^ Mr. Field s^ 
Sir. Wilcocks presented the Admonition themselves to the 
parliament; for which, July 7, ld7S, they were sent to 
prison ; and after examinatipn, they were, by the instigation 
of: the bishops, committed. to Newgate.f Upon this, the 
bof^ already priirted, was suffered to go abroad, and it 
paaaed tiurouffh no less than four editions in about two years^ 
notwitibstandmg all the vigilant endeavours of the bishops to 
suppress it4 

The two prisoners were indicted, and sentenced to suffer 
impraDnment one whole year, which they did accordii%lyi 
Aftki having suffered confinement some months, in |i most 
laatfamme prison, by whicJh their health was greatly 
fanMdr^ tlusy petitioned their - noble friend, the £arl cf 
LmMter, to procure their removal to some other prison^ 
wtaefe they should meet with better usage. Their wives 
SBd> childcen also presented a petition to thesiEune 

« Peirce'9 Vindicatioo, part L p. 84, 85. t MS. Regiiter, p. US. 
t Stryp«*g nirkery p. 847. 


nobleman, earnestly desiring him to move tlie queen t6 
discharge them from prison, on account of their great 
snfferings, and their extreme poverty and want. Bat these 
two prations were without effect.* The prisoners stiU 
remained in close confinement, enduring many ejctreme 
hardships; and though they were committed to prison 
three months previous to receiving the sentence, and 
remained in prison twelve months after conviction, acccndiiig 
to the cruel tenor of the sentence, they could not, even at 
the expiration of that period, obtain their liberty. Under 
these afflictive circumstances, they presented the following 
petition to the lords of the council : 

<< Whereas, nght honourable lords, your poor and daily 
^ orators, John l^eld and Thomas Wilcocks, being indicted 
^ brfore the lord mayor and court of aldermen, in the citV 
<^ of London, upon a statute of the first year of her maje^y t 
<< most happy andgracious reign, entitled < An Act for the 
<< Uniformity of Common Prayer,' &c. were adjudged to 
<< suffer impriscHunent bv the space of one whole year, which 
^ they have already fiiuy endured, according to the eflfed 
<< of flie said statute. And now being given to undenteodL 
^ that they cannot be discharged otherwise than by a special 
<^ order from your good lordships, they most humbly, amd 
^< for Jesus Christ's sake, pray and beseech your hoiiqoi8| 
<< to take pity of their great poverty and extreme necessityi 
<< now come upon them and their poor wives and children, 
<< through their so long imprisonment. And that in yoot 
^accustomed clemency, so ^ciously and continuaHy 
<^ extended towards all her majesty's subjects, you will abo 
<< vouchsafe, in compassion to their great misery, take ardn 
<^ for their cnilargement. And as in duty they are bound^ 
<< so they and theirs will daily pour out their hearty praym 
<<to Almighty God, for his merciful favour, aiid nuMt 
^ gracious protection, to be extended to your lorddiipe fix 
" ever, Amen."f 

During their imprisonment, they also petiticmed the Eiul 
of Leicester, humbly entreating him to be a means of 
forwarding their petition to the council. In. this petitioiiy 
they express themselves thus: — '' This, in all hupiiltty 
^< sheweth unto your honour, that your poor and fiiitlml 
^< orators, John Field and Thomas Wilcocks, upon CMobei 
<< S, 1572, by vurtue of a certain statute made die first ydur 
^^ of her majesty's reign, were convi^pted and committed to 

* MS. Rcgiftefi p. 1 18. f Ibid. p. 1 IT. . 

FIELD. 391 


^< prison, there to continue for the space of one whc^ jear^ 
^< and have now endured patiently all that time, besides a 
^* quarter of a year before conviction, to their great charge 
^^ and utter undoing. May it, therefore, please your honour. 
*< for the tender mercies of God, and in consideration of 
^^ them, their poor wives and chUdrcn, to be a means with 
^ the xegt of her majesty's most honourable privy council^ 
^< to whom they have exhibited their most humble supplica- 
^ tiOD that tbey.may be released -and discharged, and as much 
^ as in your honour lieth, to promote and further the same. 
^^ So they shall be greatly comforted, after this their tedious 
^' and long imprisonment; and they will not be unmindftd 
<^ to pray for your lordship's great and continued pros* 
^ penty."» It does not, however, appear whether they 
were released, or still detained in a state of confinement. 

Dorii^ the imprisonment of these two divines, Dr. 
Whitgift published his "Answer to the Admonition," in 
which he brought many severe charges against its authors: 
aS) "That they were disturbers of good order; enemies io 
the state; and as holding many dangerous heresies." To 
these slanderous charges, they wrote a reply, entitled " A 
blief Confession of Faith, written by the Authors of the first 
Admonition to the Parliament, to testify their Persuasion in 
the Faith, against the uncharitable Surmises and Suspicions 
of Dr. Whitgifl, uttered in his Answer io their Admonition^ 
in Defence toth of themselves and their Brethren." This 
C(»fession was written from Newgate, dated September 4, 
1578, and contains a very judicious and comprehensive 
8tatem^t of their religious opinions, upon the principal 
doctrines of the gospel, f. 

In the month of September this year. Archbishop P&rker 
8^ one of his chapl^ns to confer with the two prisoners ip 
I*^wg&te, most probably with a view to convince them of 
their supposed errors, and bring them to a recantation. 
I)aring tnis conference, they acknowledged themselves to be 
the authors of the Admonition, saying, ^ We wrote a book 
in parliament time, which should be a time of speaking and 
writing, freely, justly craving redress and reformation of 


• MS.* Register, p. lis. 

f Upon Uie holy scriptures, they say, " We hold that they alone ought 
^ Io be preached, and the whole of them preached, and nothing kept back ; 
^ mad that it is not lawfaV for men, or for angels, to add any thing thereto, 
^' or take any thing therefrom. And we affirm, that no antiquity, custom, 
** interpretation, or opinion of men, no,- nor statute or ordinance of any 
^ pope, council, parliament, or prince, may be set against the word of 
^ Oodr^IhUU p. 119--182. 

VOL. I. Y 


many abases, for which we are so uncourtecHisly treated*? 
A particular account of this .confeience is given in another 
place.* ^ * 

There being no prospect of any further rc;formati6n ef 
the church by the legislature, some of the leadipgmritiuiB 
agreed to attempt it in a more private way. ror this 
purpose, they erected a presbytery at WandswiMrth in 
Surrey ; which, bein^ seated on the banks of the TtnuneB^ 
was convenient for the brethren in London. Among the 
members of this society was one Mr. Field, lect^nea of > 
Wandsworth, and undoubtedly this painful suffeijer for 
nonconformity. The formation of this presbjrtery if^ said t» 
have been in Uie year 1572 ; in which case, it must not btve 
been in the month of November, as some have sjuppospd^ 
but previous to the month €j£ July ; for on the seveiith <p 
July, this year, Mr. Field and Mr. Wilcocks wpre committed 
to prison, and remained in close confinement, at lesisA till 
towards the close of 1573. 

Mr. Strype observes, that while these suffeKcrs foe 
conscience were closely confined in Newate, th^y were 
frequently visited by their brethren, Drs. Fulk^ and 
Humphrey, and Messrs* Wyburn, Cartwright,-. Doeriffgi 
Lever, Crowley, Johnson, and Brown. And upoft.tbnr 
appearance before the council, they were told, that unkif 
they could obtain the queen^s pardon, they must be boiiished 
from their country, for the singular crime of disUkiijig ^tbe 
Book of Common Prater ;f though at that time there waa<BO 
law in existence requiring such punishment. Whether they 
ever sought to her majesty for pardon, we are not able to 
learn ; only in 1574, Mr. Field, we. find, was minister of 
Aldermary church, London, t Though he was released from 
prison, his troubles were not over. In the year 1577, he was 
cited before Bishop. Ay Imer, who pronounced him dsimatef 
for having taught children in gentlemens' houses^ ogyitxaij 
to the prohibitions of the archbishop. Bishop Aylmer, 
therefore, recommended that both Mr. Field and Mii 
Wilcocks might be sent into the most barbarous parts of 
Stafibrdshire, Shropshire, Lancashire, or odier places, whera 
iis lordship observed, they might be profitably employed 
in reclaiming people from the ignorance and emm of 

What the bishop recommended was undoubtedly a>i)[um 

• See Art. Wilcocks. + Strype's Parker, p. 413. 

t MS. Ke^ster, p. S85. ^ Strype's Aylm^r, p. 55, 56* . 

FIELD. 983 

moderate kind of punishment than close confinement from 
one year to another, in a filthy, cold prison; and was^ 
indeed, exceedingly moderate for a prelate of his tyrannical 
principles. Accordingly, Mr. Field was silenced or sepa* 
rated nom the people of his charge. The parishioners of 
Aldermary, at the same time, used every efibrt in their 
power to procure his restoration. They applied to the 
Archbishop, as well as to the Bishop of London, but without 
mcceas. They also presented two supplications to tfaeEail 
af Leicester, being one of the councO, to be a means of 
phmnyting his restoration. 

These supplications are now before me, in one of which 
they expr^sed themselves as follows: — " We, in most 
*^ humble-wise, beseech your honour, that whereas of lat^ 
^ we did to our comfort enjoy, one Mr. Field to be out 
f f pfeacher, who laboured painfully amongst us ' for the 
^ space of four years, in preaching the word of God, aiid 
<^ catechizing our youth, teaching obedience both to God 
** and our prince, and keeping us in good order. Whereas 
^^ smce his restraint and inhibition^ we are left as scattered 
^^ sheep upon the mountains, and have none ordinarily to 
^ bieu untous the bread of life, than which a greater evil 
<< cannot cDme upon us. Hearing that God oi his gre^t 
^goodness hath made you the honoured instniment of 
<^ restoring many, we, your humble suppliants, beseech 
** you, even for the cause of Grod, to be a means also for us. 
^ We feel persuaded that, if the matter be fairly examined^ 
*^ there will be no cause found in him why he should 
*^ be sequestered from us. For we are able to witness to 
*^ your honour, even in the presence of Him who seeth all 
<< hearts, that to our knowledge he ever behaved himself 
^^ wisely and faithfully, as became a true minister of Jesus 
^^ Christ. The things urged against him were never hindered^ 
*< impugned, or any way resisted by him, but were duly 
** kept and observed. And seeing that which he received 
*^ was 6ut of out purses," without any burden lipon the 
*^ church whatever, we cannot help feeling ourselves hardly 
^^ treated, that without cause he should be taken from us. 
*^ We have ujsed what means we could with the Archbishop 
'^ and Bishop of London ; but as we could learn of them no 
*f cause of his sequestration, so we could receive no favour^ 
** able answer for his restoration. We beseech your honour^ 
*< therefore, in behalf of ourselves, our wives, our children, 
<< and our servants, so to staiul forth our good lord in this 
^ our necessary and holy suit, as that by your means, he 


^< may be afplin restored : So. shall many bearts be made 
5< glad ; and we shall evermore pray for your honoiir*8 long 
<< and happy state. Your honour's poor suppliants ewet to 
^ command, of the parish of Aldcfrmary, in Londim."* 

How long Mr. Field continued under the ecclesiastical 
censure, or whether he was ever restored to his chaige at 
Aldermary, appears extremely doubtful. 

The next account we meet with of this excellent divine, 
is, that in 1582, he was engaged, with several other learned 
men, in a disputation with certain papists in the Tower ; 
but our information is so extremely scanty, that he is only 
said to have taken an active part m those learned diqpnta- 
tions,f and to have collected and published an accoimt of 
them, after it had undergone the exaihination of the persons 
who engaged. In 1584, we find him brought into other 
troubles^ when he was suspended by the Bishop of Loiidon. 
The cause of his suspension was, his admitting an asaemUv 
of ministers at his house, amcmg whom were several Sootdh 
divines. These divines being disaffected to the hieiarchy, 
the assembly was d^lared to be an unlawful ccmventic^ 
Mr. Fidd was, therefore, suspended from his ministry, finr 
entertaining them, and ihe rest were deprived for renuing 
subscription.^ How long he continued under suspeosioD, 
and whether be was ever restored, is very unc^iam* Jh 
died in February, 1587, when his remains were intinrred in 
Crippl^ate church, London. Mr. Field, a short time.befoie 
|iis death, united with hislnretluenin subscribing the ^ Book 
of Discipline."^ 

His Works. — 1. Prayers and Meditations for the ose of jpiivate 
Families, 1581. — 2. A Caveat for Parsons Howlet, concermn^^ his 
nntimelye FNghte, and Scriching^ in the clear Day Loghte of the Gl^qpel, 
necessarie for him, and all the rest of that darke Brood, and mralefiM 
iCage of Papists, 1681.— 3. Exposition of the Symbol of the Apm^, 
1681.— 4. A godly Exhortation, by occasion of a late Jadgtuent of ^ 
God at Paris Garden, 1683. — ^He published Translations of miuiy of 
Calvin's Sermons, and the productions of other learned men. 

John Huckle was pastor of the church at Aythoip 
Roding in Essex, but prosecuted by Bishop Ayliner^ Sat 
noncomormHr. Mr. Strype is pleased to stigmatize hiiii 
as a bu^ body, an enemy to the peace of the drnrdiy ^ 

• MS. Reg icter« p. 886. 

t Strype's AnoalB, toI. ii. p j047.— Life of FsriLer, p. 819.— ChjUtoofi 
LifeorNoweU,p.278. * 

t Hft. Resiner, p. 460, 568, 619. ^ I^eal't Parityui, ▼•!• I. p.48S: 


transgressor of its orders, an impugner of the common prayerj 
a gatherer of night-oonventicles, and a busy disputer against 
the Athanasian creed ; and, therefore, to reclaim him from 
his dangerous errors, the Inshop suspended him from his 

Upon his suspension, Mr. Huckle laid his case before the 
lords of the council, and procured the following letter, dated 
from Greenwich, May 4, 1584, address^ to the bishop :f 

^< Our hearty commendations to your lordship. 
. " The bearer, John Huckle^minister of the word of God, 
f< hath been here before us, who, with his confession of faith 
^' and solemn protestation, doth seem to detest Arianism, and 
« every other the like heresy with which he may be charged ; 
^ and offereth to subscribe Athanasius's creed, and to testify 
f^ to the world, by any other means, his sincere and un- 
*< feigned belief of the doctrine contained in the same. And 
<< so far as we can find, he is a man clear and sound in 
<< religkm, and no other matter, according to our knowledge^ 
^ can be proved against him. We, therefore, see no cause 
'< why he should be any longer suspended from the exercise 
<f of nis ministry ; and we pray your lordship, that you will 
^< now, upon his recognition, revoke your suspension, and 
f< treat liim virith all convenient favour ; whereby he may be 
^ the better encouraged, and the tnore able to discharge the 
^< duty belonging to him. And so we bid your lonlship 
^ Iiearty farewell. Your very loving friends, 

« William Burghlet, £d. Warwick, 
^' Fr. Kmolles, Fr. Walsinoham, 

^ Charles Howard, Hen. Sydney.'* 

Such was the opinion and commendation of these distin- 
gnished persons, but the bishop was of another mind; and, 
notwithstanding Mr. Huckle*s protestation and readiness to 
subscribe, the hard-hearted prelate refused to restore him. 
This appears from his lordship's answer to the council's 
letter; wherein he says, " If I should restore him, I 
could not answer for it before God, her majesty, my own 
omscience, nor the church of Grod."t Such was the 
sentiment of this relentless prelate ! He was unwilling to 
lescind his own determination, though recommended so to 
do by the greatest persons in the land ; therefore, Mr. Huckle^ 
with many others, who fell into the hands of this lordly 
ecclesiastic, remained under suspension, at least for sevsral 

• Strjpe't Aylmerrp. 108. f MS. Rtglster, p. 584. t IbW. 


years ; and whether he was ever restored, is extreoidjr 
doubtful. In the year 1587, he was among the, suspended 
ministers of Essex, who, to obtain some redress of their 
grievances, presented a supplication to parliament^ an 
account of which is given in another place.* 

John Fox, A. M. — This celebrated man, usually deoor 
minatrd the English Marty rologist, was born of respectable 
parents at Boston in Lincolnshire, in the year 1517* His 
father dying when he was young, and his mother marrying 
again, he came under the gu^irdianship of his father-in-law. 
At the age of sixteen, he was sent to Brazen-nose CQH^e^ 
Oxford; and afterwards he became fellow of Magdafen 
college, in the same university. In the days of his youth, 
lie discovered a genius and taste for poetry, and wrote 
several Latip comedies, upon subjects taken from the 

for some time after his going to the university, Mr..FQi: 
was strongly attached to the superstitions and errors of 
popery. He was not only zealous for the Romish cluuch. 
and strictly moral in his life, but rejected the doctrine of 
justification by faith in the imputed righteousness of Christ, 
and concluded himself to be sufficiently safe by trusting in 
the imaginary merit of his own self-denial, penances, alms* 
deeds, and compliance with the ceremonies of the church. 
Afterwards, by the blessing of God upon his studies, he was 
delivered from this self-righteousness, and led to submit 
himself to the righteousness of Jesus Christ. And by his 
indefatigable researches into ecclesiastical history, together 
with the writings of the fathers, but especially by his 
thorough acquaintance with the holy scriptures, he wag 
convinced of the immense distance to which the church of 
Rome had departed from the faith, and spirit, and practice 
rf the gospel. 

In order to make himself a more competent judge of the 
<»ntroversy, which now began to be warmly discussed 
betwixt protestants and papists, he searched all the ancieiit 
^d modern histories of the church with indefatigaUe 
assiduity. His labours to find out the truth were indeed 9Q 

Seat, that, before he was thirty years of age, he read all thp 
reek and Latin fathers, all the schoolmen, and tibe decrees 
of councils, and made considerable progress in otha 

* See Art. George Giffdird. 

FOX. ^ 

fehnanches of useful knowledge. Daring this close applica^ 
tion, he avoided all kinds of company, and betook himself 
td the most solitary retirement, often spending whole nighti^ 
in his study. At length, from this strict and severe applica-* 
tion, having forsaken his old popish friends, and from the 
ihibioiis manner in which he spoke, when he was obliged i6 
ffive his opinion on religious stibjects, but, above all, from 
Sis sparing attendance on the public worship of the national 
ishutth, in which he had been remarkably strict, he was 
lAispected of alienation from her constitution and ceremonies^ 
and of being infected with heresy. 

■ Ml*. Fox having found the truth, soon became bold and 
csourageous in the profession of it, even in those dark times 
of popery. He chose rather to suffer affliction with the 
people of God in the cause of truth, than enjoy the pleasures 
<rf sin for a season. Being deeply impressed with the 
declaration of our Lord, ^' Whosoever is ashamed of me, 
und of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, 
6f him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh 
m the glory of his Father, with his holy angels;" he deter- 
AHned to venture the loss of all things for the sake of Christ; 
tod, therefore, openly professed himself a protestant. This 
he had no sooner done, than he was publicly accused of 
lieresy, and expelled from the college. His adversaries, 
indeed, thought they dealt favourably in suffering him to 
<Mcape with his life. This was in the year 1345.* Wood, 
by mistake, says, he resigned his fellowship, and left; the 
university, to avoid expulsion.+ 

Mr. Fox being expelled from the 'university, lost the 
fitvbiir of his friends and relations. As he was convicted 
of heresy, they thought it unsafe, and were therefore 
tmwilling, to countenance or protect him. His father-in- 
law, in particular, seized this opportunity of withholding 
from him the estate which his own father had left him. 
While he was thus forsaken and oppressed, God, in the 
hoiir of extremity, raised up an unexpected friend and 
patron, in Sir Thomas Lucy of Warwickshire. This worthy 
person took him into his house, and made him tutor to his 
children. Here he found a comfortable asylum from the 
storm of persecution. While in this situation, he married a 
citizen's daughter of Coventry, but still continued, in Sir 
Thomas's family till his pupils were grown up. Afterwards, 

# . • - • ' ' 

• Life of Mr. Fox prefixed to his " Acts and iMonaments of t]ie 

t AthensB Oxon. vol. i. p« 186. 


with some difficulty, he procured entertainment som^time^ 
at the house of his iather-in-law, and sometimes at the house 
of his wife's father in Coventry, till a little before the death 
of King Henry VIII., when he removed to London. 

For a considerable time after his removal to the metres 
"polis, having no employment, nor yet any prefemmity he 
was again reduced to extreme want. However, by the 
kind providence of God, he was at length relieved, in the 
fidilowinff remarkable manner : As he was sitting one di^ ia 
St. PauFs church, his countenance being pale, his eyes 
hollow, and like a ghastly, dying man, a person, whom he 
never remembered to have seen before, came and sat down 
by him, and accosting him with much familiarity, put a 
sum of money into his hand, saying, " Be of good comfort, 
Mr. Fox. Take care of yourself and use all means to 

})reserve your life. For, depend upon it, God will, in a 
ew days, give you a better prospect, and more certain 
means of subsistence/* Though he could never learn fiom 
whom he received this seasonable relief, within three days 
of that memorable event, he was takea. into the fieunily of 
the Duchess of Richmond, to be tutor to the Earl of 
Surrey's children, whose education was committed to her 

Mr. Fox continued in this honourable fiBmiily, at Ryegate 
in Surr^, during part of the reign of Henry YIIL, the 
whole of Eklward VI., and part of Queen Ma^'s. Bishop 
Gardiner, a most bloody persecutor, in whose diocese he 
found so comfortable and safe a retreat, would have brought 
him to the stake, had he not been protected by the Duke-of 
Norfolk, who had been one of his pupils. Mr. Fox, it is 
said, was the first person who ventured to preach the gospel 
atRyegate; and with deep concern, Gardiner behddthe 
heir to one of the noblest families in Elngland, trained up, 
under his influence, to the protestant religion. Thispre- 
late formed various designs against the safety of Mr. Fox; 
and sought by numerous 8tratag|ems, to effect his ruin. -^The 

food man, who was less suspicious of the bishop, than the 
ishop was of him, was obliged, at' length, to quit his 
native country, and seek refuge in a foreign land. The 
duke, who loved and revered him as a father, sheltered him 
from the storm as long as he was able; and when Mr. Fox 
wa« obliged to flee for safety, he took care to provide 1^ 
- with every comfortable accommodation for the voyage. 

• LifeofMr.JViz. 

FOX. S» 

He set sail from ipswich^ accompanied by his Mrife, tad 
tome other persons, who left the country on a similar 
account. The yessel had no sooner sot ta sea, than atre- 
onendous storm arose, which obliged them to return to port 
next day. Having with great difficulty reached the land, 
Mr. Fox was saluted with indubitable information, that 
Bishop Gardiner had issued warrants for apprehending him, 
and that the most diligent search had been made for him, 
during his absence at sea. He, therefore, prevailed upon ' 
the master of the ship to put to sea again, though the 
attempt was extremely dangerous ; and in two days, they 
arrived at Newport in Flanders. Thus, by the kind provi- 
dence of God, he a second time, narrowly escaped the 

After his arrival in Flanders, Mr. Fox travelled to 
Antwerp, then to Frankfort in Germany ; where he was 
involved in the troubles excited by the officious and unkind 
proceedings of Dr. Cox and his party. f The first settlers 
at Frankfort being driven from the f;lace, Mr. Fox re* 
moved to Basil in Switzerland, to which city many of his 
miow exiles accompanied him. Basil was then one of the 
most famous places in Europe, for printing ; and many of 
the English refugees, who retired thither, procured their 
subsistence by revising and correcting the press. By this 
employment, Mr. Fox maintained himself and his family. 
Also, at Basil, he laid the plan of his '' Acts and Monu- 
ments of the Martyrs," which he afterwards, with immaise 
labour, finished in his own country. Mr, Strype is, how- 
ever, very incorrect when he intimates that our author 
pubUshed his first book while he was in a state of exile, f 

Having mentioned the above celebrated work, commonly 
called Fox's " Book of Martyrs," it wUl be proper to give 
some account of this fruit of his Herculean labour. We 
liave already observed that the author directed his attention 
to this work, during his residence at Basil ; but he reserved 
the greatest part of it till his return to his native country, 
that he might procure the authority and testimony of more 
witnesses. It appears from the author's own notes, that he 
was eleven years in compiling this great work ; and in this, 
-as well as in some others of his labours, Mr. Fox was 
&voured with the particular assistance of ^veral distin- 
guished persons. Among these were Mr. John Aylmer, 

* Life of Mr. Fox. 

f Troablei at Frankeford, p. S0| 47, 50. 

} 8trype*8 Crannieri p. 35iS. 


afterwards Bishop of London;* Mr. Edmund Grindaf^ 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury ; and Mr* Thomas 
Norton, afterwards a celebrated lawyer, member of parlia* 
ment, and a noted puritan, who married the only daughter 
q{ Archbishop Cranmer. From the last of these, our autho)* 
IB said to have derived the grtotest assistance.f It also 

Spears that Grindal, besides his constant counsel and 
vice in the course of the work, supplied our author with 
numerous materials, which, when he had digested and me» 
thodized them, were of great use to him. During Grindal' s 
exile, he established a correspondence in England for this 
purpose, by which means, accounts of roost of the acts and 
sufierings of those who were persecuted in Queen Mary*s 
reign, came to his hands ; and it is said to have been owing 
to Grindal's strict and tender regard to truth, that the work 
was so long in hand ; for he rejected all cinnmon reportis^ 
and relations that were carried over, till more satisfactory 
evidence could be procured. It was by- his advice, that 
Mr. Fox at first printed separately the acts of some parti- 
cular persons, of whom any sure and authentic memoiTs 
came to hand, till materials for a more complete hist<n'y of 
the martjrrs, with their persecutions and sufferings, coidd 
be obtained. In pursuance of this advice, Mr. Fox pub- 
lished at Basil, various histories of the English bishc^ and 
divines, in single pieces, soon after their respective persecn* 
lions and martyrdoms. 

Mr. Fox at first undertook to publish his laborious moi^ 
in Latin ; but by the advice of Grindal, it was printed in 
Latin and English, for more general usefulness. It was 
published in London in 1563, in one thick volume folio, 
with this title, ^< Actes and Monuments of these latter 
perillous days touching matters of the Churcbe, wherein 
are comprehended and described the great persecutions and 
horrible troubles that have been wrought and practised by 
the Romish prelates speciallye in this realme of England 
|uid Scotland, from the yeare of our Lorde a thousand unto 
the time now present," &c. A fourth editicm was printed 
in London in 1583, in two volumes folio, and it was re* 
printed in 1632, in tliree volumes folio. The ninth edition 
was printed in London in 1684, in three volumes folio, witii 
cppper cuts, the.former editions having only wooden ones.| 

♦ Strype'g Aylmer, p. 11. 
+ MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 243 (2), 843 (3.) 

t Biog. Britan. toI. iii. p. 8082, 8083. £dit. 174T.— Wood*8 Athenas 
Oxon. Tol. i. p. 1S7. 


To this edition there is frequent reference in the present 

Several writers have laboured to. depreciate the memory 
erf Mr. Fox, by insinuating that his History of the Martyrs 
contained many misrepresentations and falsehoods. Dr. 
C3ollier, who embraces all opportunities to lessen his reputa- 
tion and undervalue hi^ work, accuses him of disin* 
genuity and ill nature, and says, he ought to be read with 
great caution. He tells us, that a vein of satire and coarse 
language runs through his martyrology, and instances 
the case of the cruel Bishop Garduier, whom he styles 
'< an insensible ass, who had no feeling of Grod's spirit 
in the matter of justification."* He charges Mr. Fox with 
other improprieties and inconsistencies, and adds, ^^ I cannot 

STceive the niartyrologist had any right to Elijah^s sarcasm, 
is zeal without doubt was too much imbittered. He was 
plainly ridden by his passion, and pushed by disaffection^ 
towards profaneness."f It is readily acknowledged, that 
Mr. Fox sometimes discovers too warm a temper ; and it 
was almost impossible it should be otherwise, considering 
the circumstances under which he wrote, and those cruel 
proceedings which he has handed down to posterity. ^ This 
was too common among our zealous reformers, who, it 
must be confessed, were sometimes hurried forwards to 
lengths by no means jutifiable. 

Wood observes, " that as Mr. Fox hath taken a great deal 
of pains in his work, and shewed sometimes much judgment 
in it; so hath he committed many errors therein, by 
trusting to the relations of poor simple people, and in 
making such martyrs as were living after the first edition 
of his book came forth, though afterwards by him excused 
and omitted.''^ Admitting all this, what does it prove? 
It is very .justly observed, that as to private stories, Mr. 
Fox and his friends used the utmost diligence and care, that 
no falsehood might be obtruded on the reader, and were 
ever ready to correct any mistakes that might happen.^ 
Though he might be misinformed in several parts of his 
intelligence ; yet these he corrected, as they came to his 
knowledge. Indeed, these were inconveniences which must 
attend the compiling of so large a body of modem history^ 
m Mr. Fox's chi^y was. Na man is likely to receive, from 

• CoUier's Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 45, 233. f Ibid. p. 43, 375, SS6. 

t Wood's Athenae, vol. i. p. 1S7. 

( Biog. Britan. vol. iii. p. S0S4. Edit. 1747. 


various hands, so large a mass of information, and all 6^ 
found pi rfecl truth, and when di^sted to be found without 
the least trait of error. What is the weight of all the 
objections offered in contempt of the Foxian martyrs, to 
overthrow so solid and immoveable a fabric ? it is com- 

Eiled of so manj undeniable evidences of popish bar- 
irity, that its reputation will remain unsullied to the 
latest period of time. The Act» and Monuments of the 
Martyrs have long been, they still remain, and will 
always continue, substantial pillars oF the protestant church ; 
of more force than many more volumes of bare argu- 
ments, to withstand the tide of popery ; and, like"^ a 
Pharos, should be lighted up in every age, as a warning to 
all posterity .♦ 

The indefatigable Strype passes the following encomism 
cm the work : — " Mr. Fox," says he, "hath done such exqui- 
site service to the protestant cause, in shewing from abundance 
of ancient books, records, registers, and choice manuscripts, 
Ihe encroachments of popes and papelins, and the siout 
oppositions that were made by learned and good men in all 
Mes, and in all countries, against them ; especially under 
King Henry and Queen Mary in England. He hath pre- 
served the memoirs of those holy men and women, tnose 
bisliops and divines, together with their histories, act^ 
sufferings and deaths, willii^ly undergone for the sake of 
Christ and his gospel, and for refusing to comply with the 
popish doctrines and superstitions. And Mr. Fox must 
not pass without the commendation of a most painful 
searcner into records, archives, Und repositories of original 
acts, and letters of state, and a great collector of manu- 
icripts* The world is infinitely indebted to him for 
abundance of extracts thence, and communicated in these 
Tolumes. And as he hath been found most diligent, so 
most strictly true and faithful in his transcriptions. "f 

No book ever gave so deep a wound to the errors, 
fuperstitions, and persecutions of popery ; on which account 
the talents, virtues, and labours of Mr. Fox rendered htm a 
fit object of papal malice and enmity. No man could be 
more hated and calumniated than he wa&. by his enemies. 
His name, together with some others, was inserted at Rome 
in a ^^ bede-roll," or list of persons who were appointed to^ 
be dispatched ; and the particular mode of his death, as by ' 

* . • ■ * 

« Biog. Britao. vol. li. p. 556. Edit. Hia 
i Strype*s Annals, vol. i. p. 839, 941. 

vox. 838 

baming or hanging, pointed out, when the design nf 
invading and over-running England should be accom- 
plished.* By ordeF of Queen Elizabeth, Mr. Fox's History 
of the Martyrs was placed in the common halls c€ 
archbishops, bishops, deans, archdeacons, and heads <^ 
colleges, and in all churches and chapels throughout ti» 

<^ the accession of Queen Elizabeth, our learned divine 
returned irom exile, and was cordially received and cour- 
teously entertained by his noble pupil, the Duke of 
Norfolk;! ^^o maintained him at his house, and settled a 
pension upon him at his death. Afterwards, in 1573, whe? 
this unl;iappy duke was beheaded on Tower-hill, for his 
treasonable connections with the Queen of Scots, Mr. Fox 
and Dr. Nowell, dean of St Paul's, attended him upon the 

Mr. Fox lived many years highly esteemed and favoured 
by persons of quality. Bishops Grindal, Parkhurst, Pilk- 
ington, and Aylmer; also Sir Francis Walsingharo, Sor 
Francis Drake, Sir Thomas Greshara, and many others, 
were his powerful friends. By their influence, they would 
have raised him to the highest preferment ; but, as he coulidi 
not subscribe, and disapproved of some of the ceremonies, 
he modestly declined their offers. Indeed, he was offered 
almost any preferment he pleased, but was more happy in 
liedining them, excepting a prebend in the church of 

For the space of three years after his return from exile, 
Mr. Fox had no preferment whatever : and in a letter to 
his friend Dr. Lawrence Humphrey, he says, " I still 
^^ wear the same clothes, and remain in the same sordid con- 
^' dition that England received me in, when I first came 
" from Germany : nor do I change my degree or order, 
^* which is tjiat of the mendicants^ or, if you will, of tlie 

• Churton^B Life of NoweU, p. S71, §72, 

f Mr. Fox's Acts and Monuments of the IVfartyrs, and Bishop JeweVt 
jleply to Harding, continued to be thus honoured till the time of Archbishop 
]^pd. This domineering prelate no sooner understood that the learnt 
authors maintained, ** That the communion table ought to stand among the 
people in the body of the church, and not altar-wise, at one end of it,'^ 
than he was displeased, and ordered their books to be taken out of tii# 
cbarcbei. — fVood^s Athena, vol. i. p. )87.— -Prynne'f Cant, Doomed p. 88w* 

t Strype*s Annals, vol. i. p. 13^2. 

\ Cburton'i Life of Nowell» P« 1^08. ^ ^ 

j Wood's Athen» Ozon. vol. i. p. 186. 


^friars preachers.^^* Thus did this grave and learned 
divine pleasantly reproach the ingratitude of the times. 
He continued i^ithout the least preferment till the year 
1563, when Secretary Cecil procured him the above pre-i 
bend ; which, with some difficulty, he kept to his death. 
This was all the preferment he ever obtained. 

In the year 1564, the Bishop of London having preached 
tbe Emperor Ferdinand's funeral sermon, in the cathedral 
of St. rauPs, it was ordered to be printed, and to be trans* 
lated into Latin, ^^ by the ready and elegant pen of John 
Fox/'f During the same year, Archbishop Parker attempted 
to force the clergy into a conformity to the established church ; 
for which purpose he summoned all the London miniisten to 
i^pear at Lambeth, when they were examined upcm the 
following question : '' Will you promise conformity to the 
apparel by law established, and testify the same by tiie suba 
scription of your hands ?" Those who refused were inune* 
diately suspended, and after three months, deprived of thai 
livings*t To prepare the way, Mr. Fox was sununoned 
first, that the reputation of his great piety, might give thd 
greeder countenance to their proce^iugSi When they 
called him to subscribe, he took his Greek Testament out of 
his pocket, and said. To this I will subscribe. And when 
the commissioners required him to subscribe the canons, he 
refused, saying, ^' I have nothing in the church but a pre^* 
bend in Salisbury, and much good may it do you, if you 
take it from me.' § His ecclesiastical judges, however, bad 
not sufficient courage to deprive so celebrated a divine, who 
held up the ashes of Smitbfield before their eyes. It oughi 
here to be observed, that Mr. Strype is guilty of a twofcid 
mistake^ when he says, that, in 1566, Mr. Fox had no 
ecclesiastical living; and that though he was no appi^ovet 
of the habits, he was not summoned before the ecclesiastical 

Though Mr. Fox refused subscription and conformity io 
certain ecclesiastical ceremonies, he behaved with great 
moderation, and disapproved of the warmth of the mqre 

* Tbe remains of popish superstitioo were so prevalent in tbe chnrch of 
£ii(;land» especially among the ruling prelates in tbe time of Queen £li£»i 
beth, tbat for many years, tbe eating ofjUth was prohibited, during the weekf 
0f Lent ; yet, in certain cases, dispensations were granted. Accordingty,, 
Ml*. Fox being a man of a weak and siclcly const itation, this fovotfr WaiT 
oanferred apon him by Archbishop Parker ! ! — SttypeU Pttrher^ p.llS, Vl%i 

+ Cbnrton's Life of Nowell, p. 106. % Strype's Grindal, p. 98. 

S Fuller's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 76.—Heylin'f Hi»t, of Refor, p. SS7, 

f Strype's Parker, p. 283. 

FOX. 335 

rigid and zealous puritans. And whilo be expressed his 
dislike of separation, he was exceedingly grieved about 
those things which gave the occasion.* Speaking of Blum- 
field, a wicked persecutor of the pious Mr. HareLson, for not 
wearing the surplice, he said, '^ It is a pity that such baits 
** of popery are left to the enemies, to take christians in* 
^^ God take them away from us, or us from them. ' For God 
^ knoweth they are the cause of much blindness and strif* 
^' among men."+ 

At me above period, .Mr. Fox presented a Latin 
pauj^^ric to the queen, for having granted indulgence to 
sevend nonconformist divines. But in the year 1573, be 
addressed her majesty on a very different occasic^. During 
this year a most severe persecution was raised against the 
anabaptists in London, ten of whom were condemned, eight 
ordered to be banished, and two to be executed. Mr. Fox^ 
therefore, wrote an excellent Latin letter to the queen, in 
which be observes, ^^ That to punish with the flames, the 
bodies of those who err rather from ignorance, than obst^ 
nacy, is cruel, and more like the church of Rome, than the 
mildness of the gospel. I do not write thus,'^ says he^ 
^ irpm any bias to the indulgence of error ; but to save the 
lives of men, being myself a man ; and in hope that the 
offending paries may have an opportunity to repent, and 
retract their mistakes." He then earnestly entreat that the 
fires of Smithfield might aot be rekindled ; but that some 
milder punishment might be inflicted upon them, to prevent, 
if possible, the destruction of their souls, as well as their 
bodies. J But his remonstrances were ineffectual. The queen 
remained inflexible; and though she constantly called 
him Father Fox^ she gave him a flat denial, as to saving 
their lives, unless they would recant their dangerous errors. 
They both refusing to recant, were burnt in Smithfield, 
July 22, 1575 ; to the great and lasting disgrace of the 
reign and character of Queen Elizabeth.^ 

• FtaUer^s Church Hist. b.lx. p. 106.— Strype's Parker, p. 223, 234. 

f Baxter's Second Plea, p. 56. 

% Fuller's Church Hist. b. iz. p. 104, 105. 

^ On Easter Sunday in this year, a congregation of Dutch anabaptists was 
discovered, without Aldgate, London; when twenty-seven persons were 
appr^ended and cast into prison, four of whom, bearing fagots at 
Iniurs cross, recanted their dangerous opinions. The* two who were 
executed were John Wielmaker and Hendrick Ter Woort ; or, as some of 
our historians call them, John Paterson and Henry Terwoordt. Previous 
to their execution, they suffered sixteen weeks imprisonment. The Dutch 
coogregation io London made earnest intercession to the lords of the 
coiugIi, to obtain their pardon \ but all to so purpose. The two unhappr 


Mr. Fox ^as a man of great humanity and unoommm 
liberality. He was a most laborious student, and remariL- 
ably abstemious ; and a most learned, pious, and judicious 
divine, and ever opposed to all metnods of severity in 
matters of religion. But as he was a nonconformist, he was 
shamefully n^lected. ^' Although the richest mitre in. 
ESngland," says Fuller, ^^ would have counted itself pre- 
ferred by being placed upon his head, he contented himself 
with a prebend of Salisbury. And while proud persons 
stretchea out their plumes in ostentation, he usea tl^eir 
vanity for his shelter ; and was more pleased to have worih^ 
than to have others take notice of it. And how learnedly 
he wrote, how constantly he preached, how piously he 
lived, and how cheerfully he died, may be seen at large in 
bis life prefixed to his book/'* And even Wood denomi- 
nates him a person of good natural endowments, a samcious 
searcher into antiquity, incomparably charitable, and of an 
exemplary life and conversation, but a severe Calvinist 
and a bitter enemv to popery.f 

This celebrated man, having spent his life in the most 
laborious study, and in promoting the cause of Christ toA 
the interests of true religion, resigned hb spirit to God^ 
April 18, 1587, in the seventieth year of his age. His 
death was greatly lamented; and his mortal part was 
interred in the chancel of St. Giles's church, Cripplegate^ 
Lcmdon; where, against the south wall, was a monumentu 
inscription erected by his son,t of which the following is a 
translation : 

In memory of John Fox, 

the most faithful Martyrologist of our English Church, 

a most diligent searcher into historical antiquities^ 

a most strong bulwark 

and fighter for Evangelical Truth ; 

who hatii rcTived the Marian Martyrs 

as so many Phoenixes, 

from the dust of oblivion, 

IS this monument erectec^ 

in grief and affection, 

by his eldest son Samuel Fox. 

He died April 18, An. Dom. 1587, 

in his seventieth year. 

Aico mmt perfbme Smilbfield with their ashes. It is, however, eztreneW 
mrprisiog that Falter attempts to paHiate, and even to justify, the cn^el 
barbarity exercised upon these unhappy men. — 8trppe*t jinnaUf, a^ 
BSO.—Brandft Hitt. of Re for. vol. i. p. S15. Edit. 1780.— l^i/lsr*f CImM 
Hiff. b. iz. p. 105. 
• Fuller's Abel Redi^lus, p. 381. f AthensB Ozod. vol. 1. p. IMl* 
X Stow's Survey of London, b. lit. p. 8S. ...*.. 

fOX. SS7 

- M)r* Fox, during his residence at Basil, preaching to his 
fellow exiles, confidently declared in his sermon, <^ Now is 
the time for your return to England, and I bring you the 
news by the command of Gh)d. For these words he was 
sharply reproved by some of his brethren ; but, remarkable 
as it niay appear, they afterwards found that Queen Mary 
died the very day preceding the delivery o£ this sermon, and 
flQ. a way was men for their return home.* 
I It.waa Mr. Fox who had the memorable interview with 
MiB. Honiwood, often related by historians. This pious lady 
yms imder most, distressing doubts and fears about the salira* 
tion.of her sou],,and her sorrow became so grievous, that she 
jiDVak ia despair. This so afiected her bodily health, that 
she appeared to be in a deep consumption, and even on the 
yery brink of death, for about twenty years. In vain did 
the ablest physicians administer their medical assistance; 
and in vain did the ablest ministers preach comfort to h^ 
tool. At length, Mr. Fox was sent for; who, on his 
arriyaj, found her in a most distressed and languishing 
(Condition. He prayed with her, and reminded her of the 
jbithfiilness pf Grod.'s promises, and of the sufferings of Christ 
for her soul. But all he could say appeared ineffectual. 
Not in the least discouraged, he still proceeded in his 
jdifiCQurse, and said, ^f You will not only recover of your 
bodily disease, but also live .to an exceeding ^reat age ; and 
jwhich is. yet better, you are interested in Christ, and will go 
to heaven when you die." She, looking earnestly at him 
as he spake these words, with great emotion, answered, 
.^< Impossible ; I am as surely damned, as this glass wiU 
break," and immediately dashed a Venice glassy which she 
had in her hand, with great violence to the ground ; but the 
^ass received not the smallest injury. The event, indeed^ 

J roved according to the words of Mr. Fox. Though Mrs. 
[oniwood was then sixty years old, she recovered from her 
sickness, and lived the rest of her da^s, being upwards of 
thirty years, in much peace and comfortf 


• FuUer'i Abel Red. p. 380.— CUrk's'Marrow of Eccl. Hist. p. 793. 

f Mn. Honiwood, in the days of Queen Mary, used to visit the prisons, 

' and to comfort and relieve the confessors. She .was present at the burning; 

of Mir. John Bradford in Smithfield, and was resolved to see the end of bis 

^luffBTings. But the press of the people was so great, that her shoes were 

trodden off her feet ; and she wa3 obliged to go barefoot from Smithfield to 

'St. Martinis, before she could procure a new pair for money. This excel* 

leot lady had three hundred and sixty-teven children lawftiUy descended 

from her : sixteen from her own body, one hundred and fourteen grand- 

childreny two hundred and twenty-eight great-grandchildren, and nine 

VOL. I. Z 


Mr. Fox was unocHnmonlj liberal to the poor tnd dis* 
tressed, and never refused giving to any who asked fee 
Jesus's sake. Being once fukcd whether he nmembend 
a certain pocNr man whom ifi used to velieve,- he said, 
^< Yes, I remember him, and I forget loords and ladies to 
lemember such." — ^As Mr. .Fox was going one daj finxa 
the house of the Bishop of London, he found many 
b^gingatthegate; and having no money, he L 
lefurnra to the bishop and borrowed five pounds, wl 
he distributed amon^ the pow people. Auef scmia* tisD^ 
the bishop asking lum for the money, Mr. Fox said, '^I 
have laid it out for you,, and have pud it where yod owri 
it, to the poor that lay at your gate;" when hife loirdslip 
thanked hun for what he had done.* 

As Mr. Fox was gomg one day along the. stnetk* ift 
Londmi, a woman oT his acquaintance rnst-lnm-^aaduto 
they discoursed together, she pulledout her Bible, and wiUi 
loo much forwarmiess, told him she was. going 16 jhsar 4 
sermon; upon which, he ilaid to her, <<If jKm dMIl be 
advised by me, go home again«'' Bat, said shd^ thea whos 
shall I go to church ? To which he immediatdy 'lapfied, 
« When you tdl no body of it.*** 

Mr. Fox, it is said, used to wear a strait cap, ooveriojr 
his head and ears; and over that, a deepisa ■ downed^ 
shallow-brimmed, slouched hat. His portrait is taken with 
his hat on, and is supposed toi have been the firet £bigUBl 
engraving with a hat^ 

Hia WoBKS.r-1. Dc Christo Triainpbante,.155l.— & Be 

sea excommaDicstione ecdeiiasticay Id51.r--d. Tables i3f:Qnmfuat, 
1562.— 4. Commentarii remm in £cclesia gestaruni, 1564.-^-^ Arti- 
culi, seu Aphorismi aliquot JohaDnh WideTi &c., 1564.— -6L CMkc^ 
tanla qasedun ex Regmaldi Pecocki Episc. Sec., 1564. — 7* Opiilo- 
graphia ad Oxonieases, 1564^ — 8. Locorom eommQiiieam I<p gfcs r 
Hum tituli & ordioatiopes &c., 1567. — 9. Probationes h ITiisiihiliiiis 
de re & mataria sacramenti Eucbaristici, 1563. — 10. Be CSlakli 
crucifixa, 1571. — It. De Oliva Evaogelica, 1587. — 12. Ceacenisf 
Man's Eldbtiou to Salvation, 1581.^13. Certain Notes of ElecfioBr 
1581. — 14. De Christo gratis justificante, contra Jesnitas, 1683^— 
16. Disputatio contra Jesuitas & eomm argmneatay lA66r- 

great-great-gfandchildreo. She lived a most pious life, and died a Mdrt 
christian death. May 11, 1620, in the ninety-third year of her age. Her 
remains were interred in Markshall church in Essex, where there was a 
BMnomental inscription erected to her memdry.—- jRiifltr^s 9Fiftfl«f» 
part ii. p. 85. 

• Faller*s Abel RedlTiTtts, p. S89# 

•f Clarke's Matnow of Ecel. Hist: p. t9S. 

t Peck'j Desklemtsi Cnrioia» vol. i. I. zt. p. f. ' 

J. WILSON. 39d 

10. BicasmS, sea Meditationes in ApocaL S.~ Johannu, 1587.-— 
17. P|^pi^.Coi|(iitAta9.~r^8. A brief Exhortation, to be read in the 
time of God's Visitation. — He pablished several translations of the 
works of other learned men : but his most celebrated work is his 
** History of the Acts and Monuments of the Martyrs^'' cammonly 
called ** The Book of Martyrs.'' 

JoHH Wilson was bom in the parish of Kildwick in 
-Y<Nrkshire^ and ordained deacon according to the order of 
the church of England ; when he obtained a license frcmi th^ 
Afdibisfaop of York ^o preadh at Skipton,' in the same 
fxnttify* He was a pious, faithfiil, and useful pieacliei) 
but endured much severe usage for nonconfcnmily. Ardh^ 
bishop Sandy 8 receiving complaints against him, sent his 
pursuivant with all haste to apprehend him, and bring him 
oefere the high commission. Upon his appearance before 
their lordships, aoid inquiring what diarses weite all^eii 
against him, he was told that ne must obtam two sureties to 
be bound in two hundred pounds for his future appeafancei 
Accordingly, he ' obtained ifae^ securities demanded^ and, 
January 9, 1587, appeared again before the archbishop 
and other' commissioners at Bishopsthorp, when he under- 
pnent tiie following examination : 

Archbishop. You are brought before us for certain 
disorders, cdntempts, and disobedi^ic^ by jwu committed, 
to which you must answer as they shall be objected against 

Dean. You must answer as truly as if you W^re swoni. 

A*. He must be swom^ and answer upon his oathc Hold 
liinK abook, and let him l^e theoath. 

Wilson. If the law require me to be sworn, I am <)(m- 
tenled. But I think it doth not compel a man to accuse 
Idrasdf; and I hope I shall not be urged to do more than the 
law requireth. 

' A. If you lefiise to be sworn, answer as you will ; but be 
HTOfii^ if I prove any thing agauiist you which you deny, you 
shall smart for it. 

> W. Let me have the law, and spare not. But because I 
mean to deny no truth objected against me, whether I be 
«Worn or nof^ I am, therefcnfe, contented to answer upon my 
oath. (He then took tb^ oath.) 

A. Read the first article against him. 

Fathergill. You have taken upon you to execute the 
oflSce of a minister for the space of thiee yearS| without anj 
warrant so to do. 


. W. I know not what law maketh known the miiiisterli 
dnty. I must, therefore, be informed of this, befi^re I ciii 

A. Tell him. 

Hudson. It is to say service, to preach the word, ta 
minister the sacraments, to marry, and to bury the dead. 

W. I have not done ail these things without the law. 

A. What warrant of law have you ? 

W. I havetheordersfortheojBiceofadeacoDyaeeoidiiiy 
4o law. 

' A. Shew unto us your orders. (Here Mr. Wilson mo* 
duced his orders, which was read by the dean, but mmng 
was observed.) 

: W. Write, Mr. Proctc»r, that I am deacon, Meofdiag to 

A« What say you of your preaching I At what ehwchcs 
have ypu preached ? 

W. At all the churches near Kildwick.* ib^ Fkodor, 

A. You must always have that refuge to fly to. 

W. My lord, I am sworn. There may be more, though 
I do not remember them. I dare not upon mine oath set down 
an uncertain thing as certain ; therefore, I say, these are all, 
iofar as I recollecU 
. A. IVhat authority then had you to preach ? 

W. I had your grace's authority in writing* 

A. That was on^ upon condition that the peo^e would 
receive you, and be willing to hear you. 

W. I know not what was the condition. I followed the 
direction under the hand of Mr. Ceck, in which I am smt 
no such thing was expressed. 

Cock. My lord, I wrote that it was your grace's pleaMue 
|hat he should preach at Skipton, until your retitfn firom 
London, if he behaved himself according to law. 
: . A. I ordered you to write no such thing, unless the peopk 
would receive him willingly, as Mr. Palmer said uey 

C. My lord, they, are ill-natured people, and would 
willindjy receive none. 

A. 1 ou have said service without surplice, and not 
according to the Book of Common Prayer. 

W. That is not true. 
? Ai. You have not uised the surplice in reading the senrfce. 

• Here Mr. Wilson, by ^qiiest of the airchbiiliop, aaned; «i flir as hs 
eoold recollect, aU tlie charcbes in wbicb be bad pmcbed. 

3. WILSON. • 341 

W. I have no pasterai charge. I said service only in the 
absence of the pastor, which was very seldom ; and, oo 
those occasions, I thought I was not bound to use it. 

A. You say not the service according to the book. 

W. Ido. 

II. You use a prayer of your x)wn at the beginning. 

W. That is not true, Mr. Proctor. 

A. Let me know the order you have observed. 

W. I first read one of the portions ofscriptwce appointed, 
and -then exhorted the people to the confession of their sin9* 
lluit1)eing done, I read some of the Psalms, after that twa 
chapters, and then the sermon. 

A. Then you say not according to the book. 

W. Yes, my lord, that which I read is according to the 

A. But vou omit many things. '^ 

W. And so I may according to law, especially when there 
is preaching, or any more profitable exercise. 

A* More profitable exercise ! that is, your talking. * 

W. I am sure that preaching is more profitaDle tfaaa 
readiiLB^. And I am sure your Iprdship will not deny, that 
my taking, being put of the word of God, is more profitable 
than saying service. 

A. Nay, you have your tongue at your will. What is 
Ae next article? 

F. When you should say the epistle and gospd, accord*^ 
iiig to ihe book, you wilt not call them the epistle and 
gospe\, but the portion of scripture. 

A. Have you neveriidministercd the sacraments ? 

W. No. 

H. pid you never christen ? 

W. Some few times, though very seldom. 

A. Did you use the Sign (H the cross? 

W. No, my lord, I said the words, but did not use the cross. 

A. Did you say, << I sign tliee with the sign of the cross ?"* 

W. No. 

A. Tell me then i^hat words you used. 

W. "We receive this child into the congregation of 
Cbrisf 8 flock, that hereafter he shall not be ashamed to 
amSem the faith of Christ crucified upon the cross." 

H. Did you never minister the cpnununion ? 
. W-No. 

neither the bread, nor the cup ? 
^ive ministered the cup by the appointment 
^ warranted in this by law* 


A. Did you ever receive the communion ? 
W. Yes, my lord. 
A. Where? 
W. AtKildwick. 
A. At whose hands ? 
W. At the hands of the pastor. 
A. When? 

W. At the last communion, if I remember right 
A. You must ever take this adyanta^ 
W. My lord, seeing I answer upon mme oath, you sbduld 
not think the worse of me, because I am so caref id nol to 
speak wrong, or that which is not true. 
H. You do not bury the dead according to the book. 
W. Ido. 

H. You do not meet the corpse at the church«stile, and 
walk before it into the church. 

W. Though I have sometimes done this, the book doth 
not bind me to do any such thing. 

H. You do not read the prayers and pla<?es of scripture 
W. I do. 

H. You omit the prayers. 
W. Sometimes I do, and sometimes I do not. 
A. What is the next article ? 

F. You have gone from your own ordinary, without his 
consent, and have received orders from another bishop. !' 

W. My own ordinary giveth i^o orders ; but if his con* 
sent be his dimissary, I had. his consent. 
A. If you have h^ dimissary, shew it us. 
W. See, it is here, my lord, 
A. What is the next article ? 

F. You have taken upqn you to say service without, any 
authority by license or toleration from your <^in^ury. 

W. I have all the' authority which the orders of a deacon 
can give ; and I hope that is sufficient to say tbe^ service. 

F. You confess yourself that you were bcHm in Kildwick 
W. Yes. 

F. Do you acknpwledge yourself to belong to this diocese, 
and submit yourself to me authority of your diocesan i 
W. I acknowledge all. this. 
A. You have a haughty and a proud spirit. 
W. I confess, jay lord, I am not freenom any dne.^ ; 
but I hope that rin hath not so great a.power over me a» 
you represent. 



J. WILSON. did 

* Km Nay^ yoa cajpe lurt far niiqe authority/ 
W. My Icwrd, I reverence y6ur authority. 
Swinbore. That is not Iikdy, Mr« Wilson, seeing yoa 
haye so much disobeyed. 

W. And that disobedience is no likely argument to dis- 
proY^ my reverence of his authority, if your argument 
were good,.. few subjects would be found who reverence 
even we queen V authority.. 

A. YfHi can speak tor yourself I warrant you. But 
lyhat say yoa of your callUg? The scripture mentions 
coily the offices of apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, 
aoadoctcHTs. WbicE of these then have youf 
" -W. The dice of a doctor or teacher. 
A« Where do you exercise it ? 
W. At KiWwick. 
A. WhocaHedyou? 

W. The ministi^ and th^. people of that pla^ie earnestly 
cntipited me to teach and instouct them, 
. A* Tush I that \& nothing. 
W. Bat it hath been something in time past 
A* Lo ! this fellow would have ministers to be elected by 
consent of the people ! 

W, My lord, the word of God is plain enough upon that 
point, and this you know well enough yourself. Your grace 
made this sufficiently manife^ in refusing me to be at 
Skipton, unless the people would consent to receive me. 
r A* That idid, because I would not intrude you upon 

^ W. Then- it follows, that you think i/i/rcmoit is not the 
r%ht calliag; and on the contrary, that the right calling ift 
b^ Uie consent or choice of die people. 
. A. There is no end to your talk. 
. W* Yes, my lord, but I bad the license of your own 
WQi^.&r that place. 
'^A. That is true; but it wa3 a donor. 
: Wji /^And when the dcmor came, I stayed. 

A. Yes, but you have preached there since that time. 
( W> \ have, indeed, preached there once ; which, I hope, 
19 not so great a crime,, but that your grace will deal 
ftvourably with me, smd thus cause me the more to revere 
and esteem you.* 

Mr. Wilson's first examination being concluded, the eood 
nian Iraa taken liwajr and sent to prison, where he remained 

• MS. Besister^ p. 7891*784. 


for some time. At length, he was broaght io a second 
examination at BishopRtborp, when the archbishop opened 
the business by affirming, that Mr. Wilson had been gniltj^ 
of the most wilful disobedience, and malicious contempt. 
His lordship used very opprobrious language, as if he- bad 
bec^n arraigned for treason or rebellion, exulting, at the same 
time, in his own favourable dealing with him. Also, he 
declared that before Mr. Wilson should be discharged, he 
should confess both in open court, and publicly in -the 
church, how greatly he had offended ; to which Mr. Wilscm 
made the foUowii^ reply : 

W. My lord, 1 hope you will find it more difficult to 
prove me guilty of those odious crimes which you say I 
am guilty of, than to charge me with them. And as to 
your favour, when I find it, J shall acknowledge it Hitherto 
I have felt nothing but extremity, bringing my ministry 
into open disgrace, and ray person into public reproach. , 

A. You see the stubbornness of this fellow. I purj^Dsed* 
to have discharged him, the second day of his imprison- 
ment, and would have done it, if he had sued for it. 
And though he hath now been a week in prison, the pride 
of his heart would not let him once sue for his liberty. ^ 

W. It was neither my pride, nor my stubbornness, as yon 
uncharitably misrepresent, and slanderously magnify against' 
me ; but my ignorance of the prisoner's duty, that I did 
not su. to your grace for liberty. 

A. We shall never make an end, if we babble with him 
thus. Will you yield to the conditions ?• ' 

W. My lord, I beseech you consider those conditimii 
with impartiality, and, I hope, your grace will not urge' 
me. My imprisonment will greatly injure my ministry, - 
and bring reproach upon my person ; but to do open ^ 

Finance l^fore the people, will be worse than all. Therefor^ 
beseech your lordship not to reward one evil, by inflicting^ 
another which is much greater. 

A. These are only your imaginations. Tell us plainly ; 
Will you subscribe the bond ? 

W. My lord, I must take all the care in my power to 
preserve my ministry from the contempt of the wicked. 
And seeing how much harm it would be likely to do to the 
church of God, I cannot in any wise subscrit)e unto it. 

* The cooditions here referred to, and afterwards often mentiosed,: 
were, that he should confess before the archbishop, and poblicly io the 
charcb where he had preached, the great offence he had coninlttedy aid 
enter Into a bond to fulfil the same. 

J.WILSON. 845 

A. See a^in the stabbonmess of this anrqgafit fool! But 
I tell thee, thou may and shalt subscribe unto it. 

W. And I answer, that, by the help of God, I neither 
may, nor ever will, subscribe linto it. Such unmercifut 
tod cruel dealings are too bad amon^ professing christians. 
The Lord grant me patience, and I'^all be satisfied. 

A. I always thought what a stir we should havie with* 
him. But thou persuadest people to meetings and private 

W. My lord, you now remind me of ^ duty which I 
have hitherto neglected ; but by the grace of God I will 
remember it hereafter, and will exhort the people of God to 
meet together, and to edify and comfort one another with 
what they have learned. And this, by the help of God, I 
mean to do; though I hear that for so doing, one of the' 
Lord's servants is committed a close prisoner. 

A. Will you then defend his doings to be lawful? 

W. I will defend the lawfulness of God's people meeting 
together, to confer upon the points of reliffion or the 
doctrines taught them out of the word of God, to sing 
psalms, and to pray together. I hear of no other things for 
which he was committ^. And I am sure your grace will 
not deny these things to be lawful. ^ 

A. But he gatheted night-assembliesj contrary to law. 
Will you defend them also ? 

W. Certain religious householders requested him and' 
others to meet at night in their houses. Shall we then say 
that he collected nights-assemblies ? I do defend by the wora' 
of Grod, that to meet together for the above purposes, whether 
in the night or the day, is lawful. Yet I would have per- 
sons to satisfy the law of the realm, as much as they can 
with a gobd conscience. 

A. If we follow him thus, we shall never come to an end. 
Win you subscribe the bond ? 

W. I have answered that already. I refuse not to do' 
any thing that is lawful. If you can prove out of the word 
of God, that I may do it with a good conscience, I am 
ready to yield ; otherwise I cannot, and I will not, subscribe. 
I wUl be bound, however, to leave your province in a 

S. You had then better go out of his grace's province 
to make your submission. 

W. That is more than I say,, Mr. Swinborn: but I 
would rather go. out of his province and twenty others; 


f€«^ Mt erf' Um vorUy and this wral out of this body, tha 
would subscribe to that submissicm. 
' A. I hear that in prisoa thou hast great liberty, and that 
Aou loyest it It is that which maketh thee so bold and 
f^bbom, but I will remove thee thence. 

W. I have no cause to complain of my keeper. And as 
to my r liberty, it is confined within the walls of the castle. 
I know not how you would have me handled, unless you 
would have me into the lower prison, where, you would 
•poa have my akin for your fises : But you can do nothing, 
except it be given you from above. 

A. I teU thee plainly, that if thou wilt not yield, I triU 
Dsmove thee to Hull jail, and afterwards to other places. 

W. My lord, the word of God will strengthen and 
ooiafort me^ more than your threatenings can, hurt me or 
make me afraid. I care not for all your prisons. Removt 
me where you please. God will strengthen me against all 
your esrtremities. I will not yield so long as 1 Hve^ 
and so long as the word of God persuades me' to the 
. A. Thou art an ^arrogant puritan* 

W. Grross errors and slanderous abuses have been cast 
upon the ^odly in all ages. Your charges against ms 
are unchantable and unjust. 

A. Thou art a rebel, an enemy to her majesty, and ail 
nnderminer of the state. 

W. These speeches savour not of the spirit of God.^ I 
am ajs true a subject, and as good a friend to her majea^ 
and the state, according to my ability, as you are. 

A. I tell thee, the queen said, that these puritana aiw 
greater enemies to her than the papists. 

W. What just cause she had so to say, all the worid 
koowetb ; and the Lord will one day juoge the numerous 
traitorous conspiracies that have been detected. When did 
any, who are slanderously called puritans, give the kast 
dause of any such suspicion ? Their lives and wiitiii^ 
testify to all the world, how fiur they are from such things; 
Therefore, they who pharge them with these things, have 
the greater sin. 

A. If we suffer thee to prattle, thy tongue will never 

oease« ; Therefore, that we may make an ^id of it^ I 

counsel thee to admit the conditions proposed. 

. W. If your grace. will sheir me the least wanant iBrem 

thewDid of Gm, I am ready to submit. Though you 

J.WILSON. 847 

taB m J ansiiefs by what name you please^ they dre not 
deserving of your reproach. - 

A. Will you yidd to the conditions ? 
' W. My mind is so well settled alTeady,^hat I can see nd 
reason to alter it. Therefore^ I cannot yield to the con* 

A. Perhap^ you think it is very hard dealing to be tied 
to rearf it. Wfll you then yield, if we give you liberty to 

e your own woids ? 

W. I strive not about the manner j but the matter; and 
I . utterly refuse to do any such thing, either in my own 
words or any others. 

A. What ! surely you can say two words, even that you 
have preached without license. In so doing, you shall 
have my favour more than you think of. 

W. Sfy lord, let me have your favour only according to 
toy bdiavioiir in a good and just cause; but the word of 
God will persuade more than either your threatenings or 
promises. So while I see the word of God favouring me 
la the present case, I will never yield to speak two words^ 
nor even one word, to any such purpose. 

A. Choose then for yourself, whether you will be excom- 
municated out of my diocese, or return to prison, or yield 
to the conditions required. 

W. ;My lord, I hope Uiat christian charity and brotherly 
dealing will not bring me into any of those extremities. 
. A. No ! but you snail observe one of them.» 

Mr. Wilson's second examination being thus concluded, 
lie was immediately sent back to prison. After confine- 
nent for some time, by the appointment of the archbishop, 
be appeared before the commissioners at the dean's house in 
thie diy of York, his grace being absent. Upon t^e com* 
Hfeencement of. his third examination, a new bond was pro* 
diiced, in which he was required, not to exercise any put of 
his ministry within the archbishop's province, without 
farther license { nor, during his silence, allowed to come 
within KHdwick church, the place of his ordinary labours. 
This being read, he was addressed as follows : ' 

D. \Mr. Wilson, what say you of this ? 

W» I say it is marvellously strange dealing, that one 
extremity must drive out another. Excommunication 
from Kildwick church must drive out the public confession 
before required. Will you neither suffer, me to preach 

« MS; Hegivter, p. 784— 78A 


tbere, nor (o hear others ? This is very hard dealing. God 
willinff, I will never yield unto it. 

D. Do as you please. Do as you please. 

W. I was bom and brought up in that parish, and I am 
bound to attend there by the laws of the realm. Do yoa 
then sit here to execute the law, and will you bind nie to 
act contrary to the law ? 

Palmer. Erase it, erase it, for shame ! It is a thing never 
before heard of, that a man should be bound from attending 
at his own parish church. 

Proctor. I will put this in its place, ^' that he shall never 
come there to preach." 

W. Will you put in that, Mr. Proctor ? Will you first 
exclude me from his whole province, and then exclude me 
from that particular place ? 

D. What else have you for him to do ? 

P. He must confess that before us, which he would iiof 
acknowledge publicly in the church. 

D. Then read it unto him. * 

W. I will confess these things neither publicly, nor pri- 
vately. But if you allow me, I will separate those thmgs 
wbi.db are true, from those which are false^ 

D. Give him the paper. 

He then took the paper, and told them what was tm^ 
^nd what was false. This being done, and the good man 
having bound himself to preach no more in the archbishop** 
province, he was releasea, ascribing honour and praise to 
Qod for his merciful deliverance.* 

MXf Wilson having obtained his liberty, though excluded 
from all usefulness in the province of Yotkj went to Ixm^ 
don, and, during the same year, frequently preached at 
Alhallows in Thames-street. Also, by the allowance of Uuf 
minister of St Michael's, Comhill, he delivered a sermon^ 
there ; for which Bishop Aylmer silenced him the very next 
day, and summoned him, and the church- wardens of Alhal-^ 
lows, to appear before him the Saturday following. Mr.: 
Wilson not seeing the bishop's officer when he left tiie 
information at his lod^ngs; nor knowing what Tf arrant' 
he had for what he did, refused to appear. But one of the 
ehurch-wardens appeared, when, though th^ bishop was not 
present, Dr. Stanhope pronounced upon them Doth tluf 
sentence of excommunication; upon the one for not ajK 
pearing, and upon the other for suffimng Mr. Wils(»i te 

• MS. Be siiUr, p. 784— 78«. 

S. WILSON. 949 


|)reach without a liceiBe. This excellent minister was thus 

^<fczercised with tribulations in the south, as well as in the ncNrth. 

•At leiLgth, our divine finding that the high commissioneni^ 

' pRith Aylmer and Whitgift at their head, were anxious to 
apprehend him ; that mey had issued several warrants for 
this purpose ; that a printed order was sent to all the churches 
in Ixmdon and its vicinity, that none should preach without 
HL^ license; and that his name, wifli several others, was par« 
ticuliyrly mentioned,* he wisely' concealed himself for a 
-season, and retired into the north. Towards the close of 
the year, he returned to London ; and after his arrival, Mr. 
Glover and Mr. Weblin, two of his cordial friends living 
in the parish of Alhallows, waited upon Archbisbcq) Whit- 
gifl atXiambeth, soliciting his favour in behalf of Mr. Wilson. 
They bad no sooner mentioned his name, than his lordship 

N askeq, :^^ What that factious fellow who intruded himself 
into the church in ConihiU, and there delivered a seditious 
leniKHi^^ ^* Yes," said Mr. Glover, " that is the man ; 
but he hopeth to clear himself of all faction, intrusion, and 
^edition." " Let him then come to me any day after to- 
morrow," said the archbishop, ^' and I will say more about 
him." Therefore, December li^, Mr. Wilson and his friends 

' * The worthy diTlnes whose names accompanied this order, were Mr. 
"Wilson, Mr. Davisoli, Mr. Barber, Mr. Wi^ginton, Mr. Gifford, Mr. Carew, 
and some others. The order itself, dated Aagust 16, 1^7, being descrip- 
tive of the spirit of the times, was the following: — " Whereas sundrj 
*^ ministers, preachers, have lately come into the city of London and 
^ the tobarbs; some of them not being ministers, some having no-saffi- 
** cient warrant for their calling; and others having been detected hn 
** the coantry, have taken upon them to preach publicly in the city, to th^ 
** great infamy of their calling : and some of them in their preaching, 
** have stirred op the people %o innovation, rather than sought the peace of 
^' the exarch. These are, therefore, in her majesty's name, by virtue of 
** her high commission for causes ecclesiastical to us and others directed, 
t* strictly to enjoin, command, and charge', all parsons, vicars, curates, and 
^ cliarch-wardens, of all churches in the city of London and the suburbs 
V thereof, as well in places exempt as not exempt, that neither they nor 
** any of them, do suffer any to preach in their churches, or to read any 
** leetares, thisy not being in their own cares; hot only such whose licenses 
** they shall first have seen and read, and whom they shall find to be 
*' licensed thereto, either by the qaeen*s majesty, or by one of the unlver- 
** sities, or by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Bishop- of 
**■ London, for the time being. And that this may be published, and take 
** the better effect, we will that a true copy thereof shall be taken and 
** delivered to every curate and church-warden of aU the churches afore- 
'/said. SigDed^ 

** John CANTisaBURT, Ed. Stavmofb^ 

** John London, Ric. Cosxns." 

*• Vau Daub, 

M8. B^ghUrt pt 8S6. 


waited npoA his grace at Lambetb ; and apoB tbeir appesii^ ' 
ance, after arichig Mr. Wilson his name, wliere he WaH bbm^ 
and where educated, the archbishop Ihiifl addressed him: 

Archbishop. Did not you intnideyourself into a chiirdi 
in Comhill, and theiie preach a sediti^as isermdn ? 

Wilson. That I preached there is certainly tmei bat 
there was nothing seditious. And as to intrusion; I- wiH 
prove upon the o^ of honest men^ that I had the ministisr^ 
consent, both before and after I came into the church. 

A. Didyounotthcfnintrnde-yourself ? 

W. I will prove, I sav; upon the oath of honest men^ 
that it is an fanpud^t falsehood. . 

A. Say you so. I did not know this befbre. 

W. It is malice that hath propagated these things. 

A. But why did you not remain in your own country ? 

W. Because I cannot and may not place myself wheie 
I please, much less in mine own country; for I must go 
where 1 am called, and be placed where the Lord diali 

A. If you will then be placed here, you inust subscribe 
to certain articles. 

W. I will subscribe to any thing that is tawAil; ■ 

A. Do you mean any thing according to law ? 

W. Surely, I dare very well say so. But I meant th# 
law of God, which is the only rule of conscience. 

A. You must subscribe to those attides. 

W. I must first see them, and then I can answer yoo* 

A. There is ^ood reason why you should see them-; and 
Aerefore I refer you to my lord of London. If he wiU 
allow you, I will not disallow you. But you Lond(mer8, 
(speakiiig to Mr. Glover and Mr. Weblin) are so much 
given to novelty, that if there be one man more new than 
others, hind you will have. 

Glover. Surely, my lord, we cannot be justly accused 
of novelty. For we have had neither new nor old at^our 
church since I Jmew the place, having now only a drunken 
leader, who can do us no good. 

A. W